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The Penny Problem

by: Shanell Coleman

The Penny Problem 18519

Shanell Coleman
GPA 3.7

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Lab Practical Review: The Penny Problem
Biology 1101
Thomas Buxton
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shanell Coleman on Thursday March 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 18519 at Augusta State University taught by Thomas Buxton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Biology 1101 in Science at Augusta State University.


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Date Created: 03/24/16
Lab #1  The Penny Problem: Review The Scientific Method  Scientists use the scientific method to answer questions and provide explanations  about natural phenomena. It is a logical process based on careful observation and  experimentation.  1. Observation: leads to a question and discussion about the observed  phenomena.  2. Hypothesis: based on the observation scientists generate a hypothesis or  tentative explanation for the observed phenomena. Hypothesis are written as  two statements; one called the null hypothesis, and the other called alternate  hypotheses.  - The Null Hypothesis – is written in a way that shows no difference  between the groups under study.  Ex: There is statistically significant relationship between the color of  pennies and their weight. - The Alternate Hypothesis – is written in a way that shows how a  “successful” difference will be found. Ex: There is a statistically significant relationship between the color of  the pennies and their weight.  - A good hypothesis is testable and offers only one explanation. In  addition, predictions are used for the creation of carefully designed  experiments.  3. Experiments – should only test one factor (variable) at a time with all other  conditions being kept constant. 4   Results – Data collected from the experiments are analyzed using statistics,  are evaluated in respect to the original hypothesis statement. It is important  to note that there are two types of data:     Continuous: All possible and available numeric outcomes.  Measurements of weights, with accurate electronic balances it is possible  to measure 1.0, 1.01, and 1.001 grams. Group sample means (averages)  are then determined.      Scalar: “either / or”, “heads or tails”, “male or female”, etc.  - Group sample medians are then determined. From the statistical analysis,  conclusions are drawn.  5.  Conclusion – If the experiments has been designed properly, the data should support or reject the hypotheses. Note: If you can neither support nor reject  the hypothesis statement, then the experiment has been poorly designed.  If the experiments analysis leads to a rejection of the alternate hypothesis (null  hypothesis accepted), then a new or revised hypothesis statement is constructed  and the process starts over.  If the hypothesis is supported (alternate hypothesis accepted), further  experimentation is still warranted because repetition will always strengthen the  evidence for acceptance of the alternate hypothesis.  6.  A Frequency Histogram  - Plots mass in tenths (or one one­hundredth) of a gram on the “X”  (horizontal) axis (this is the independent variable) - “Y” axis is used to record each individual outcome having a particular  mass value (this is the dependent variable)  Samples – groups taken out of a population  What is the difference between a sample and a population?  - Sample: specific group  - Population: includes all groups 


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