Sociology study guide+quiz
Sociology study guide+quiz SOCI 1311 - 004
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sanat Upasani on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOCI 1311 - 004 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dorothy Kalanzi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 135 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY in Sociology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Intergenerational social mobility Up or downward social mobility of children in relation to their parents Mobility varies by gender and ethnicity Social mobility varies by income level Earnings have stalled Multiple jobholding The Change from manufacturing jobs to service work Jobs changed from manufacturing to service work creates upward mobility but just for educated people Who are the poor Age 219 percent of children under 18 years Poverty in the United States EXAM Feminization of Poverty is the trend by which women represent an increasing proportion of the poor 60 percent of the poor are women Due to a rise in household by women as head of family Global poverty and poorest nations Social strati cation is very pronounced Gender inequalities dramatic The severity of poverty EXAM Relative poverty Exists in all societiesm rich vs poor But it is more common in developed nations Absolute poverty 13 of the poeple in poor nations experience poverty at this level 40000 persons a day 15 million persons a year starve to death Let us give a few examples about what causes famine Global strati cation theories EXAM 1 Dependency theory 2 Modernization theory Dependency Poor countries are poor because they are dependent on the rich nations Immanuel Wallerstein39s Capitalist world economy dependency theory Low income nations margins of world economy High income nations core of world economy According to the dependency theory Colonialism back stage for poverty Almost all poor nations share a history of being colonized by the West ie Europeans annexed land from colonies worldwide with a saying that quotThe sun never sets on the british empirequot Berlin conference 18841885 According to the dependency theory Most of the colonies were annexed through bood shed cooborate or consequences of war According to the dependency theory Colonialism economic exploitation Based on the dependency theory Colonies set up colonies as producers of raw materials These materials were to be sold to the rich countries at low costs Colonialists were to manufacture the raw materials into nished products then sell them back to the colonies at higher prices Colonists had no intention of building insustries in the low income countries Resut chronic dependence of excoonies on the high income countries Because the payments for imports were higher than the income from exports Excolonies accumulated a lot of debt to the rich nations and could not pay back This trend continues today Due to a lack of industries poor countries continue to sell raw materials to rich nations and to buy nished products from them at higher prices So the debt continues to grow Estimated to be 1 trillion dollars including hundreds of billions owed to the US So the gap between high and low income countries continues to grow Correlates of global poverty About 50 years after the colonialists pulled out of these countries neo colonialism continues to hamper development in the poor nations Neocolonialism A quotnewquot form of global power relationships lnvolves no direct political control but economic exploitation by multinational corporations Modernization theory According to this theory tradition is the greatest barrier to economic developement Rostow39s stages of modernization Stages of developement 1 Traditional stage 2 Take off stage 3 Drive to technology maturity 4 High mass consumption Traditional stage People are comfortable with tradition and don39t care about material things Take off stage Beginning of talent use imagination ie wheel Sparks off economic growth Drive to technological maturity People begin to accept technology High mass consumption Industrial consumption increases Reasons for global poverty 1 Poor technology 14 of the people in lowincome countries use human or animal power to farm the land 2 Population growth That people resist innovations and accept slavery as a way of life 4 Social strati cation Distribute wealth very unequally SOCIAL STRATIFICATION How society ranks people Elite MidUpper MidLower Lowest class Caste systems Based on ascription Birth Caste system Social mmobility is impossible Caste systems shape people39s lives in 4 ways 1 Endogamy no out group marriage 2 No out group contact Typical of agrarian societies Coz routines of agriculture depend on a rigid sense of duty and discipline Class system society EXAM Strati cation based on 1 Birth 2 Achievement Class systems move towards meritocracy EXAM Strati cation is based on personal merit Terminology EXAM Status consistency ls consistency across dimensions of social inequality In class systems status consistency is lower than in caste systems United kingdom Feudal era The 3estate system EXAM Nobility lst Estate Ascribed Professionals clergy warriors 2nd Estate Achieved Commoners Peasants 3rd estate ascribed UK today is a class society But it has elements of a caste system Japanese caste system History EXAM Nobility Ascribed Warriors samurai Achieved Commoners Ascribed Burakumin Ascribed Japanese system today Today Japan has a class system Free movement across classes Upward mobility Moving up the social system Downward mobility Moving down the social system Marx talked about a classless society Is it possible to have a classless sociey with no strati cation Former soviet union Classless Occupation strati cation The second russian revolution EXAM Today Social mobility is common Especially structural social mobility ie Shift of large numbers of people Social theories on social strati cation Structural functionalists Social con ict theorists Structuralfunctional theorists Davis and Moore39s thesis Gives incentive to hard work to achieve a desired positions Egalitarian societies offer little incentives Wages are based on the importance of position You have to invest to achieve them Which of the following jobs is the most functional for society Sports Medical doctor House wife Talk show host Sergeant US President Bill Gates39 expertise The Google boys College professor Can39t specify importance of positions some are over or under rewarded Ignore how social strati cation may hinder the developement of individual talents Social con ict theorists and strati cation Karl Marx Class and con ict Con ict between groups Karl Marx Terminologies Capitalists bourgeoisie Factory and business owners The proletarians Se labor for wages Applying Marx39s theory today The laws still protect the private property of the rich Marx39s critics Marx predicted that revolutions were inevitable in capitalist societies Why do you think over 100 years since Marx the proletariats did not over turned some capitalist systems Why no revolution yet Workers are better organized Unions ght for reform Capitalist nations have elements of Marx39s theory or communism Why western capitalism hasn39t experienced a revolution as per Marx39s prediction The capitalist class has grown more stake in the system Decent standard of living Extended legal protections to workers Max Weber39s 3 dimensions of strati cation Class Status and power NOT only class but also status and power are strati ed Strati cation ideology Cultural beliefs that justify strati cation Plato Every culture considers some type of inequality quotfairquot Cultural beliefs that justify strati cation Spencer Used the term quotsurvival of the ttestquot to justify the wealth of the few Cultural beliefs that justify strati cation Karl Marx Capitalists keep wealth and power for a few encouraging strati cation And then they want everyone to believe the poor are lazy False consciousness What are the similarities and differenes between Marx and Weber39s social con ict views of strati cation EXAM SAMPLE QUIZ 1 QnO39Q QnO39QJN 3 Social Strati cation refers to Job specialization Ranking categories of people in a hierarchy The fact that some people work harder than others Inequality of personal talent and individual effort Caste system refers to Status of an individual Social strati cation based on both birth and individual achievement Social strati cation based on ascription or birth A change in position within the social hierarchy Looking back in history and round the world today we see that social strati cation may involve differences in a b c d 4 a ha b How unequal people are What resources are unequally distributed Why a society claims people should be inequal All of the above are correct Although the caste system is formally outlawed in India It is still observed in rural areas where agriculture demands a lifetime of rd work and discipline In traditional villages caste determines the work people perform and whom they may marry an 000 Qpcmxi Powerful cultural beliefs make observing caste rules a moral duty All of the above are correct Class systems are based on Birth Status consistency Meritocra cy Birth and meritocracy In Middle Age Japan the caste system Was a rigid way of life in which an imperial family ruled over commoners d nobles Was a mixture of caste and meritocracy Had a leading clergy and a hereditary nobility Had a majority of commoners In Middle Age Britain the caste system Was a highly strati ed society Had a leading clergy and a hereditary nobility Had a great importance on family None of these 8 The economic reforms in China a Greatly increased economic inequality although social differences remained b Greatly decreased economic inequality although social difference eliminated c Greatly increased economic inequality but maintained the social differences d Causes the emergence of new class of business owners 9 According to Gerhard Lenski a Advancing technology initially increases social strati cation b Capitalism places economic production under the ownership of capitalists c There are three distinct dimensions of social strati cation d Social strati cation is universal because of its functional consequences 10 According to DavisMoore thesis a Advancing technology initially increases social strati cation b Capitalism places economic production under the ownership of capitalists c There are three distinct dimensions of social strati cation d Social strati cation is universal because of its functional consequences 11 According to Max Weber a Advancing technology initially increases social strati cation b Capitalism places economic production under the ownership of capitalists c There are three distinct dimensions of social strati cation d Social strati cation is universal because of its functional consequences 12 According to Karl Marx a Advancing technology initially increases social strati cation b Capitalism places economic production under the ownership of capitalists c There are three distinct dimensions of social strati cation d Social strati cation is universal because of its functional consequences 13 What is one of the dimensions of social strati cation aSchooHng b Ancestry c Politics d Health 14 How much percent of population forms the upper class a 1 percent b 2 percent c 4 percent d 5 percent 15 How much population does the government classify as poor a 46 million b 47 million c 4625 million d 465 million 16 According to Oscar Lewis poverty is a result of a Actions of poor people b Unequal distribution of the wealth c Lack ofjobs d Feminization 17 According to William Julius Wilson poverty is a result of a Unequal distribution of wealth b Race and Ethnicity c Actions of poor people d None of these 18 In terms of health people living in highincome families a Live in safer and less stressful environments b Are more likely to describe their own health as excellent c Live londer lives d All of the above are correct 19 Which of the following is true about highincome countries a They contain 23 percent of the worlds eeeulatien
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