Geog5 Midterm Review!
Geog5 Midterm Review! Geog 5
Popular in People and Earth's Ecosystems
Popular in Geography
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Geography 5 Review for Midterm Class Lectures Did the Greeks know the earth was round How three ways Yes Clouds the curvature of the Earth causes clouds to look like they re right on top of the water when they re far away Eclipse of the moon The North Star it s in the same place in the sky but curvature makes it look like it rises as you move North Biome Like characteristics in plants and animals ie ecosystems Where is it Why is it there Plant adaptations Do we have it in California Conservation Status Tundra or Alpine Arctic Alpine ie Tundra 0 Where I High latitudes and tops of mountains 0 Why I For 7 months the ground is frozen 9 Permafrost prevents trees from getting their roots down I Precipitation between 10250m It s very dry 0 Plant adaptations I Prostrate very short and under snow I Perennial live for more than a year I Almost everything there is edible 0 CA I Yes Mount Whitney highest parts of the Sierras 0 People use I Oil 0 Global conservation status I Good Boreal Forest Where 0 Northern hemisphere North America northern Europe and Russia 0 0 Ground is not frozen for 7 months which allows trees to put down roots and survive o Precipitation 500m380cm Plant adaptations o Conifers conebearing tree that has needles Really super old school Soft woods easy to cut non owering plants owering are hard Fir pines sequoias OOO CA 0 Yes Redwoods San Gabriel mountains Yosemite Fire Yes 0 Natural occurrences ground res would happen across the forest oor Smokey the bear causes needle litter buildup 9 needles get layered on top of each other so high that it causes crown res 9 this burns down the whole forest People use 0 Paper wood Global conservation status 0 Good It s renewable 0 Old growth forests are becoming rare Temperate Deciduous Forests Where 0 East part of America Western Europe Japan South China New Zealand 0 Where there s warm water symmetrical on southern hemisphere mostly o Winters are super cold Almost Arctic o Summers are hot and wet Almost tropical Plant adaptations 0 Trees lose leaves 9 owering plants 0 New school the native trees are pretty recent 0 Hard woods9 oak magnolia 0 During summer tropical leaf 0 Branches are lateral because sun comes in at angle CA Nope People use 0 We love hard woods durable stuff 0 People love this type of ecosystem Global conservation status 0 Good Temperate Grassland Where 0 Prairies in the US South Africa the Veldt the Pampas of Argentina Bread Basket of Europe Steppes of Russia 0 Hot summers 0 Cold winters 0 FIRE Plant adaptations o Perennial o 20 grass and 80 underground biomass resilient CA 0 Yes The Central Valley Fire Yes It maintains these grasslands o If you suppress re shrubs grow in the place ex Chicago used to be one but re was suppressed for so long People use 0 Agriculture the bread baskets of the world Global conservation status o Ugly Mediterranean Scrub WHERE ARE THEY 5 places Where 0 CA Mediterranean Central Chile South Africa SW Australia Why 0 Summer hot and dry winter cool and wet 0 Cold ocean currents stable weather Plant adaptations o Shrubs different from tree because has multiple stems Super adapted to heat Small leaves Evergreen Light colored whiteish hue to re ect light Point up 0 Smell good ie Rosemary CA Yep Fire yes all are adapted to re 0 Some have seeds that won t open unless there s a re 0 Trees have Crown resprouting and ribbonlike bark 0 Produce turpentine People use 0 Live there 0 Wine 0 Agriculture Global conservation status 0 Bad basically endangered OOOOO Tropical Rain Forest Where 0 Amazon Congo Basin SE Asia Madagascar Coast of Brazil 0 o ITCZ I Intertropical conversion zone rain maker I Hot air I Low pressure that permits the formation of clouds and thus rain I Fluctuates along the equator going up to the tropic of cancer during our summer Cuba Florida and down to the tropic of Capricorn during our winter 0 Orographic Precipitation I A cloud is warm air surrounded by cold air I Cold ocean breeze comes and hits the mountain bounces off and creates rain I There s a rain side and a rain shadow the other side of the mountain which is dry 0 Ex Hawaii or Death Valley rain shadow side of Sierra mtn 0 Plant adaptations I High canopy I Shallow roots 3 4 meters I Diversity Ex in a 100m X 100m forest you can have 300 tree species which is more than occurs in all of North America I Epiphytes on top Orchids I Lianas vines o CA nope 0 People use I Timber 0 Global conservation status I Good on continents bad on islands Tropical Dry Forest Where 0 Miami Cancun Madagascar SE Asia India Australia 0 Mexico Central America Madagascar India 0 Along tropic of cancer and Capricorn 0 When ITCZ uctuates the other side gets a dry season 0 It s on the rain shadow side of mountains Plant adaptations 0 Short canopy o Deciduous leaves diefall off 0 Few epiphytes CA nope People use 0 Grazing 0 Rich soil agriculture Global conservation status ugly Tropical Savanna Where 0 Brazil India Australia Venezuela Africa Why 0 Very little SOIOOcm rainfall Plant adaptations o Grasses annual lives for 1 year 0 Wet season dry season re season CA no Fire yes People use 0 Grazing Global conservation status 0 Good Desert Hot and Cold Where 0 Hot Sahara Mexico Australia CA 0 Cold Gobi desert Iran Northern Nevada 0 0 750 cm rain Plant adaptations 0 Hot I Succulents store water I Thorns for defense I Annuals wild owers slightly seasonal I NOT succulent I Shrubs Long ones I Joshua Tree 0 Sonora desert People use oil Global conservation status good Orographic Precipitation Rain shadow Part of tropical rainforest A cloud is warm air surrounded by cold air Cold ocean breeze comes and hits the mountain bounces off and creates rain There s a rain side and a rain shadow the other side of the mountain which is dry 0 Ex Hawaii or Death Valley rain shadow side of Sierra mtn ITCZ Inter Tropical Convergence Zone Intertropical conversion zone rain maker Hot air Low pressure that permits the formation of clouds and thus rain Fluctuates along the equator going up to the tropic of cancer during our summer Cuba Florida and down to the tropic of Capricorn during our winter Epiphytes Plants that grow on top of other organisms Can t survive on their own Ex orchids Lianas Vines A plant adaptation for tropical rainforests How are plants adapted to the Mediterranean climate Plant adaptations o Shrubs different from tree because has multiple stems Super adapted to heat Small leaves Evergreen Light colored whiteish hue to re ect light Point up Smell good ie Rosemary 000000 How are Mediterranean plants adapted to re All are adapted to re 0 Some have seeds that won t open unless there s a re 0 Trees have Crown resprouting and ribbonlike bark 0 Produce turpentine Origin of People and YOU Know the order of your ancestors 500mya sea squirts give us a backbone 400mya sh give us eyes 300mya reptiles give us nger nails amp lungs 225mya shrews give us hair glands appendix 36mya Primates 2mya Homo genus 200000 years ago Homo sapiens Discovered by Watson amp Grick 1958 o Stole the idea for the double helix from a woman Rosalund Franklin 0 ATCGTAGC we can have millions on millions of these combinations 0 Not only that we can look at both of our DNA to see if we have common ancestors o Humans have 995 the same DNA 0 99 similar to apes o 50 similar with worms Adeninethymine and cytosineguanine AT and CG short 0 TA CGCGATGC Eve age mitochondrial DNA Adam age Y Chromosome Eve was our common mother 100000200000 years ago Adam was our common father 200000300000 years ago Megafauna Big animal 15000 years ago I Ex Wooly mammoths Competition is good I Isolation is bad 0 Gigantism getting big I EX Moa giant chicken 0 Dwarflsm getting small I Ex pigmy mammoth hippos deer o No fear of things that might kill them I Dodo bird 0 No mobility Only one continent that still has mega fauna Africa 0 This is because they evolved with humans so they still have their defenses Paul Martin s Overkill or Munch Hypothesis Paul Martin Overkill hypothesis 0 Also called Munch hypothesis 0 People munched their way colonizing the Americas based on eating animals that were big and didn t run away What are 5 Megafauna that used to be in LA Mammoth Giant sloth Rhino Camel Grizzly bear Pigmy mammoth Megafauna in OZ Learn 5 big extinct species I Massive wombats Marsupial lions Wolves Kangaroos 2X the size of humans New Zealand 1000 years ago Moa and Mauri o Populated 1600 years ago by the Mauri people 0 There were these huge birds 8ft tall called Moas that were unfortunately ightless Island Gigantism and Dwarfism Examples Gigantism getting big 0 Ex Moa giant chicken New Zealand Dwarflsm getting small 0 Ex Pigmy mammoth hippos deer Timeline of World Population 1650 12 billion 1820 1 billion 1930 2 billion Grandparents 1975 4 billion 2000 6 billion 2011 7 billion Thomas Malthus Theory 1798 There is a critical point where the exponential growth of population will make it so that agriculture production cannot keep up with people Prediction in England by about 1850 you will have mass starvation o This didn t happen because people left England I They went out and colonized the world 0 Technology improved I Agricultural yield improved so that they could keep up with population How have family planning programs changed to Now local women access based Incentive based to access based 1950s and 60 s centralized by the gov t and focused on males Now all female reproductive health aimed at local control and adapt to global culture What happen to Cuba Agriculture after the Soviet Union dissolved US SR provided machines broke ran out of gas etc 0 Pretty much no advanced technology anymore Return to bikes oxen natural pesticides intercropping and natural fertilizer Current Status of Population by Region Awesome Places Bad Places Bad Places 0 India 12 billion people I It has so much culture Like way more than anywhere else South India is super developed 99 literacy North India is where the population boom is happening not developed less literacy I Every month it adds 15 million people 9 12 growth Issue because its population is so large already 0 Pakistan 176 million people I Doubles every 40 years 0 Nigeria 162 million people I Doubles every 30 years o If every family has 1 less child they would have replacement size families and it would work out Bangladesh 150 million people Egypt 82 million people Mexico 114 million people 0 Iran too Good Places 0 When professor was born avg family size was 56 Good family size is sustainable Thailand Malaysia Burma China I Growth rate 16 I Due to 1 child policy enacted in 70s 000 00000 Measles amp Tuberculosis Cattle Flu Pigs and ducks HIVAID Monkey PHVNenereal warts Statistical Fact 30 to 50 in US Urban area 80 Herpes 20 and Syphilis less then 1 HIVAIDS l in 300 people US Agriculture Where from How grown Ecological Impact Spices Cloves Where 0 Sulawesi 0 Worth their weight in gold 0 Magellan sailed around the world he brought back 26 tons of cloves I That paid for 3 boats going around the world for 4 years 0 Goa in India Portuguese then British History 0 Brought over from SE Asia to Europe How Grown o Cloves are owers pick them off the tree 0 Cinnamon is bark Impact 0 Good Very sustainable Potato Solanum tuberosum Where 0 Andes 0 Regions where it s too cold to grow corn 0 Sweet potatoes from Central America History 0 Columbus first person to discover it o Brought to Europe and they grew like crazy 0 18461851 Great Potato Famine in Ireland I Caused a whole bunch of Irish people to move to US 0 4th largest crop in the world 0 Vodka How Grown 0 Take a potato stick it underground and it sprouts Impact 0 Potatoes in the Andes are a whole different diversity of colors sizes and shapes 0 Good in temperate areas super low impact 0 Bad in the Andes I Indigenous groups used potatoes but in the 50s the US came in and said that they needed to make potatoes that could be shipped back for French fries I Native varieties started to go extinct because they only planted one type Sugar Saccharum of cinarum Where 0 Papua New Guinea History 0 Alexander the Great was the rst person to bring it to Europe after invading India 0 Has no vitamins or minerals whatsoever 0 Biggest cash crops in places like Hawaii Florida I We subsidize it in Florida not in Hawaii I This is because the sugar lobby is so powerful How Grown 0 Grass 0 Grows up to about 2 meters blooms then loses all of its sucrose 0 Perennial but we treat it like an annual I Because if you let it bloom it loses its taste 0 Vegetative Reproduction I Cut off a stalk and stick it in the ground and it will grow naturally 0 Sugar pick f1re replant add nitrogen I All those chemicals have to go somewhere the Florida everglades I Then it goes out into the water creates algae which then kills the coral reefs Impact 0 UGLY I World s biggest restoration project in the Everglades attempt to buy out the Cubans to make it a preservation Cacao T heobroma cacao The food of the Gods Aztec name Where 0 New World History 0 Scienti c name actually means food of the gods 0 Aztecs were some of the rst to develop it 0 Original use in Europe coco 0 Most of it today is produced in Africa Nigeria Ivory Coast and Cameroon Two types of chocolate I Shade chocolate I Sun chocolate 0 Real chocolate is an antioxidant just like a pomegranate How Grown 0 Small tree that has pods coming off the sides 0 Inside the pod are 4 white seeds 0 Take the seeds and let it ferment turning the white seeds black 0 There you have chocolate 0 Within each tree you ll have 4050 pods Impact 0 Shade Cacao good I It maintains the forest 0 Sun Cacao bad I Recent phenomenon last 30 years I Genetically modi ed tree so it can occur as a shrub 0 Tea Camellia sinensis Where 0 China Sino China 0 12 of all tea comes from China History 0 Most widely consumed drink around the world 0 Around since 2000 BC 0 Brought to England by the Dutch I 16641 8 l 8 I Since 1818 it s been Britain s biggest drink 0 Produced in Bangladesh and Java today How Grown o Shrub multiple stocks 0 You go through and pick the tea leaves 0 Tea has Theins 5 I This is what gives tea the buzz it s not caffeine Impact BAD o Monoculture I When you plant one plant I Java huge tea plantations done by the British 0 We grow tea in monoculture because it s so easy to use Coffee Coffea arabica Organic bird friendly coffee no pesticides Shade Coffee tree canopy blocks direct sunlight with coffee trees below Where 0 Highlands of the Ethiopia 0 Mocha Yemen is where it is most produced today History 0 2nd most widely consumed drink 0 Domesticated SOOAD 0 Legend has it that a shepherd in the Highlands and the sheep went up and started eating the bush so he started chewing it 0 First coffee house in Oxford 1664 How Grown o Shade coffee I Tree canopy that blocks out direct sunlight has coffee trees hiding underneath it I Grows in vertical branches I This one is ecologically better for the tree I Gourmet coffees 0 Sun coffee I Brazil I No canopy coffee tree gets direct sunlight I Monoculture Impact 0 Bad when monoculture 0 Good when it s shade coffee 0 Fair trade coffee is based on livable wage Rubber Tree Hevea brasiliensis Where 0 Brazil History 0 Up until 1850 all rubber came from Brazil 0 In the New World you cannot do monoculture with Rubber trees I Ford s monoculture rubber tree farm got obliterated by the fungus 0 Up until 1850 anyone who smuggled out a rubber seed would get beheaded in Manaos in the Amazon I But a British guy did it Smuggled it to India 0 Here you can grow monoculture Now common throughout SE Asia 0 WWII the US realized importance of rubber I All planes needed 100 rubber tires 0 In a natural sense rubber is the most durable substance on Earth I Even today you need a certain percent of real rubber in SUV tires How Grown Very tall tree Slash it with a machete and the sap drips out Malleable ball of rubber Fungus that attacks the trees but since there are so many other trees around it it can t travel to other rubber trees Impact 0 Good you pay Native Americans in Brazil to go collect rubber o Bad monoculture in southeast Asia 0000 Bananas Musa spp Where 0 New Guinea History 0 Introduced to India around 6OOBC How Grown 0 Herb that grows about 10m tall 0 In lOOXlOOm plot you can grow I 98 pounds of potatoes I 33 pounds of wheat I 4400 pounds of bananas Impact 0 Monoculture bad 0 When they re getting ready to harvest they put a blue trash bag over them to prevent them from getting eaten by bugs I When it rains those trash bags fall off and get washed into the ocean and disturb marine ecosystems Pineapple Ananas cosmsus Where 0 Paraguay South America How Grown o Grows on the ground 0 Year 1 sends up a rosette spiky leaves 0 Year 2 ower Impact 0 Bad needs space to grow and tons of water Favorites from class Oranges Citrus Sp 0 Where Himalayas Apples 0 Where Kazakhstan Kiwi 0 Where China Watermelon 0 Where Africa it s elephant dispersed Cereals Maize Zea mays Where Mexico History 5000 BC 0 Half of all corn is produced in the US How grown annual Impact bad when monoculture good when intercropping Wheat T riticum Where Iran History 7500 BC 0 Exceeds production of all other crops in the world 0 Used to feed humans and cattle How Grown Impact bad when monoculture good when intercropping Rice 0ryza sativa Where tropics Himalayas History 0 Feeds 23 of humanity 0 Outside of Japan US exports more rice than any other country How grown 0 Wet rice at area water stick each grain into the ground add algae harvest 0 Dry Rice plant manually huge weeding process Impact bad when monoculture good when intercropping Opium Poppy Papaver somniferum Where 0 South of France Switzerland History 0 5500 BC 0 Painkiller but people started getting addicted to it led to allEuropean outlaw of it in 1718 o Opium Wars 1839 England bombed China to force them to buy their opium in India 0 Morphine How Grown o Toss the seeds into a eld and they grow like a weed Impact 0 Very good Very little environmental impact 0 On humans bad Number one exporter today is Afghanistan Coco Erthroxylum coca Coca is rst in calories protein carbohydrates ber Rich in calcium phosphorous iron vitamin A and E Where 0 Andes o Foothills of mountain areas History 0 3000 BC 0 Incas used it to get jazzed up 0 Gave to workers in elds to get them to work more 0 Thomas Edison actually drank it a lot 0 Coca Cola actually originally made with the coca leaves and cola nut I Replaced it in 1903 with caffeine 0 Coca leaves were highest in South American crops in calories protein carbs and ber 0 Richest plant in the world in calcium phosphorus Iron Vitamin Aamp E Impact leaves are good processed is bad How do you make a zombie Wade Davis Harvard University Went to Haiti got in touch with the Shayman who used a powder to create zombies 0 He gave this powder to people who then died but after they were buried sometimes they d resurface as zombies Brought it back to Harvard for analysis 0 Cashews frogs spider webs etc but also puffer sh 0 The effects of pu er sh are similar to zombies I Your heart can slow down so slow you don t know you re breathing I Less blood to heart brain damage Puffer sh is used in open heart surgery Number 1 cash Crop in California Hemp Cannibus sativa Marijuana 0 History I 8500 BC in China I Primarily for shing net clothes and then for weed I Got to Europe when Genghis Khan invaded I Grown in Jamestown legal until 1934 Marijuana Tax Act made it illegal o How Grown I It s a weed I Dioecious there s a male and female plant The female plant produces THC 0 Impact I On the developing brain before 18 or 19 it is very bad I It s actually the number one cash crop in CA I Environmentally it s astoundingly good Exports from California Big Five Crops in Cali Top 10 biggest crop exports Marijuana Grapes Almonds Hay Cotton Oranges Walnuts Rice Apples Lettuce OOOOOOOOOO Genetically Modi ed Food Franken Food Good things about it Larger yields More nutrition Disease and pestresistant Increase environmental tolerance Add vaccines 0 Ex you can add something to tomatoes that prevents dysentery What is Ethnobotany Human study of plants human knowledge of plants Cavemen were the first users of plants Experts on plants societally o Shayman South America 0 Druids Ireland 0 Herbalists China What did the California Indians use it for Determining what plants are edible or poisonous Vision quests California Coastal Sage Lab Matching Section OLks Quercus sp USE Acorns were the primary food source for a number of California Indians Acorns were collected leached with water in stream and basket to remove tannins Wine then heated with rocks for mush Elderberry Sambucus sp USE One of the richest sources of vitamin C Stems used for arrow shaft and m Raw berry can cause nausea but dried or cooked are OK Laurel Sumac Rhus sp USE Indians would use the leave as mosquito repellent Lemonade Berry Rhus intergrifolia has berries that are soaked and hairs removed to make pink lemonade Yucca Our Lords Candle Yucca sp USE The leaves are very strong and used for waterproof baskets The leaves were used as a needle and thread to make clothes and homes The root is used for M Cactus Opuntia sp USE The red fruits are edible but watch for very small spines The green leaf can be cooked and eaten and is still commonly done in LA Willow Salix sp USE The leave of willow is what they make Aspirin from and the Indians would chew them for toothaches California Buckeye USE The seeds were ground to a ne dust and put in the stream to catch sh California Coastal Sage Artemesia califomica USE Burned for ceremonial reasons Vision quest Temperate Forest Policy in the US 1891 Forest Reserve Act Created all federal lands west in the United State Watershed protection 0 1 cause of infant mortality was drinking water 0 If you cut down the forests the water isn t sanitary Yellowstone and Yosemite o By John Muir 1960 Multiple Use and Sustained Use Act Five things Covered all forests that were in national forests There are 5 important things to use federal land for 0 Outdoor recreation I 20 I Skiing hunting etc Range land cattle Timber Watershed protection Wildlife amp Fish habitat 0000 1964 Wilderness Act Protect Wilderness in national forests 91 million acres protected 0 Today I 155 national forests What is Clear cutting 4 things ID a forest Build a road to the forest Clear cut cut down every tree 0 Trees lying down on the forest oor Cable logging 0 Put a cable on each tree and pull them up to where the road is then drive off 0 Leaving the area basically keeping the area deforested o This is super cheap Primary way to do logging in the 70s Problems with clear cutting 4 things Realization in the 80s Soil erosion Not sustainable no forest in future Water runoff o Contamination Herbicides plantkilling Monoculture 0 Same age 0 Going from diversity to monoculture Decline in species 0 Salmon died out in these areas 0 Spotted owls can only live in shady places so they got lost United States Department of Agriculture National Forest Service Department of the Interior National Park Service BLM US Fish and Wildlife Land ownership Private Nonprof1t 55 Native America 3 State and Local 7 Federal 35 13 Billion dollar lost a year in the 80 s How do these groups protect forest Nature Conservancy Sierra Club Earth First ELF The Nature Conservancy 0 Buy land and conserve it Sierra Club 0 John Muir o Lobby Activists 0 Earth First Earth Liberation Front ELF o Protest work outside the realm of law Redwood Tallest Tree Today 96 cut 4 left 2 private 2 federal or state Sequoias Largest Tree Ancient Bristle Cone Pine Oldest Tree 4800 years How have forests changed in the West over the last 100 years Roadless Areas highways in US logging roads in US 44000 miles of highways in the US 380000 miles of logging forest roads Current issues 0 Should we maintain these roads to nowhere 0 California We have a choice of whether or not we want to build Logging roads 0 Done by private companies 0 Cut trees then leave 0 James Watt Dept Interior during Reagan administration 0 Half of all redwoods that were cut were sent unprocessed to Japan I Japanese did something called ponding in which they d put the trees underwater where they can last for 300 years I Watt targeted old growth A lot of trees of different sizes amp ages Snags dead trees 0 Certain insects that only live in dead trees Woodpeckers eat them 200500 years old I Redwoods in CA and Oregon 96 of old growth is already cut 0 4 redwood old growth in CA 0 2 is on private land likely to be cut 0 2 public land I Sequoias Sierra Nevada 94 groves Reagan cut 36 of them 0 Clinton only 2 of logging of trees was done on Federal land 0 GW Bush I Wanted to sell national forests to bring down the debt 0 Canada is like the South in the sense that it s super good for logging but right now it s logging at an unsustainable rate Fire Policy Problems Choices The biggest problem is the idea that Fire is Bad 0 Smokey the Bear 0 Litter buildup 0 Open forests change to become closed forests I Little trees grow and block light from ood 0 Crown f1re instead of ground f1re I Because the litter is so high it can spark up to the canopy and burn the whole forest 0 Bugs and diseases I Fires usually only leave the healthy trees I When you suppress re it causes trees to become more susceptible to bugs and they can hop from tree to tree Down in Mexico they don t have the same re policy as US does 0 They don t put out the res as desperately as we do so they have a lot of really small res 0 Whereas we have massive and very dangerous forest res Controlled Burns in Sequoias 0 Experiment in the 70s 0 Caused trees to reproduce but sides of trees looked burned and ugly 0 They found out by looking at cores that res naturally occurred every 50 years Three choices 0 Controlled burning I Out of control I Rarely done unless in emergency situations like sequoias o Thinning I South Florida and starting in CA I Send people out to collect leaf litter chop down some trees to make it less dense I Bring the stuff to a factory to turn it into energy 0 Nothing I If this continues then the forest res will even increase in size Why are urban trees good and bad Arbor day 0 Kansas doesn t have any of its own pines 0 So it plants trees and tries to look like Europe 0 LA we turned a Grassland into a forest I 21 tree covers Why are trees good 0 Temperature shade o Aesthetics they re pretty I This is 80 of the value of trees 0 Water runoff I Trees capture the water send it to their roots and put it back in the groundwater 0 Improve air quality Why are trees BAD 0 Maintenance I Incredibly expensive 0 Huge hazards during El Ni o I Natural trees would be short with long roots and spread far apart but we bring tall trees with shallow roots and put them between houses I The wind can tip these trees over Million Trees LA What is it LA 2006 Mayor Villarosa o Decided to plant 1 million trees in LA for aesthetics and temperature value Ended up planting 400000 trees throughout the district Three things that de ne old growth forest Various sizes and ages Snags dead trees 200500 years old What is going on with Forests in Canada Oregon California and Sumatra Based on Landsat Canada 0 Minimal loss except for 2 large areas Oregon 0 Signi cantly more loss than Canada especially in 2013 0 Loss focused more on the Western half of the state California 0 Minimal loss except for several scattered and very small sections Sumatra 0 Significant loss 0 Most of Sumatra s forests are lost most of which occurred between 2000 2014 Tropical Vegetation Types 39 Mangroves o Stilted plants that live on the coast in salt water I They can process salt water I Really important to ecosystems I Protect juvenile fish before they can go to coral reefs Swamp 0 Places like Florida 0 Big trees freshwater Tropical rainforest 0 High canopy 60m 0 All vegetation at top 0 Woody vines liana Cloud forest 0 Low elevations high canopy 0 As you get higher up and the wind picks up the canopy gets lower and lower 0 Every inch of every plant has an epiphyte on it 0 Dry forest 0 Rain shadow on the other side of the mountain 0 Half the size of tropical rainforest 0 Have a dry season Woodlands 0 Trees that are widely spread Why Tropical Forest lost over the last 50 years Subsistence Agriculture People practicing agriculture just to feed themselves The 2 million people who live on less than 3 a day Standard thing to do throughout the tropics Slash amp Burn 0 Tropical rainforests have their high canopy but all of the biomass is locked in the plant itself I The soil isn t very nutrientdense I When a leaf falls it decomposes I The roots are close to the surface so it goes back into the tree easily 0 Cut down the tree and burn it I All nutrients go into the first 34 layers of soil which now has enough nutrients to grow things 0 Plant the crops you want I Corn rice beans etc 0 You can only practice this in one spot for about 57 years I After that all the nutrients in the soil will have disappeared I They just move on to a different spot after 0 This is sustainable The seeds will fall there and eventually trees will grow back Agricultural Frontier 0 Any country in the tropics that has transmigration program I Ex Brazil transmigrated people from the coast to a different spot inland into the Amazon I Ex Indonesia Java people got send East toward New Guinea 0 The issue is that people settle here causing the forest to never grow back Commercial Agriculture Agriculture is grown and sold on the international market Plantations created 0 African oil palm I One of the biggest things causing deforestation in Africa I We use it in almost everything eaten in the US I Cutting down the forest and growing these plantations 0 Coffee I Brazil is the biggest producer of coffee I Huge plantations in different parts of the country 0 Bananas I Central America 0 Cattle Ranching 0 Soy beans I One of the biggest problems for Brazil I Same climate requirements as tropical dry forest I Causing them to mow down the forests for these plantations Forest Fires in the Tropics In all tropical ecosystems except woodlands fire is not a natural part of the biome o A lot of forest res along the agricultural frontier Tropical dry forest it has a dry season making f1res easier Follow roads Follow El Ni o o The last one occurred in 1998 CA gets lots of rain 0 But tropics get dry 0 201516 El Nino will cause more forest fires in the tropics than have ever been recorded Forest f1res reduce diversity Fuel Wood Prevalent throughout the tropics because there s no electricity in a lot of places You must burn wood to boil water Buy it or collect it 0 Most people on agricultural frontiers collect it Leads to deforestation of the tropics Good news living fences Living fences You can go up to almost any tree cut it stick it in the ground and it ll grow They want people to develop living fences 0 Along roads they plant trees that are useful I Firewood I Fruit I Timber o Delineates property of landowner They are pushing for everyone to create living fences so everyone can survive Timber Economic value gained from a tree Tropical hardwoods owering are very colorful 0 Since there s no seasons always sunny there are no rings in the trees 0 Colorful people like making cabinetry jewelry boxes etc out of pretty things Insectproof Mahogany 0 Central and South America 0 Extremely valuable o No plantations of it This is because there s a bug that will attack the tree if they re monoculture the bug will destroy the Whole tree 0 Issue they ll cut down the Whole forest area to pick out the Mahogany o ITTO International tropical timber organization 0 Try to certify every tropical tree that s cut down and exported to the US or Asia Mahogany in South America Central and South America Extremely valuable No plantations of it This is because there s a bug that will attack the tree if they re monoculture the bug will destroy the Whole tree Issue they ll cut down the Whole forest area to pick out the Mahogany Forest Fragmentation Selective Extinction Things go extinct in a predictable manner Size 0 Big goes first 0 Pig horses harpy eagles etc Solid Forest 0 Spotted owl US 0 Tropical rainforest the understory has very little light so species eyes evolved to low light 0 Rare 0 If there s only 1 individual on an island that s the first thing to go Species area relationship Super predictable This is because of the species area relationship If you increase an area 10 fold you double the number of species Nonnative invasions Nonnative species turn into invasive species On the mainland there are a bunch of different niches competition is a lot more fierce On an island everything has to disperse survive and grow a lot of niches that aren t filled 0 NO competition 0 This leads to other things invading and outcompeting them 0 Ex Guava was brought to Hawaii in 1850s and pigs would disperse it throughout the forest I Now there are forests that are almost 100 guava Most of the stuff on islands will be nonnative Biodiversity Hotspots What Where Why Interesting Key traits 0 Area with high diversity 0 High endemism restricted to one place and occurs nowhere else in the world I CA Sequoia CA Condor 0 High threat due to humans CA is a biodiversity hotspot 0 Central Chile SW Australia Ex Indonesia 0 Sundoland Malaysia Somatra Java Bali I Tons of diversity of mammals from Asia 0 Wallacea I No tigers instead have Komodo dragons Watch World s Most Endangered Forest on You Tube and answer the below What is the world most endangered forest Tropical Dry Forest of Hawaii Why is New Caledonia interesting in a botanical sense It broke off from Australia 85 million years ago and saved ancient plants that have gone extinct elsewhere Ex Araucarias were widespread during the time of the dinosaurs now 70 of the world s araucaria occur on New Caledonia Ex ancient ecosystem Maquis Scrub that exists nowhere else in the world exists on serpentine rock which is normally very poisonous to plants Contains hundreds of primitive plants found nowhere else in the world ex protaceae Tropical dry forests are most endangered on New Caledonia Ouen Toro is the only reserve on the island What is the crested iguana of Fiji and why is it important Type of iguana restricted only to the tropical dry forests of Fiji Discovered 30 years ago Got stuck on a log in South America and oated all the way across the ocean to Fiji Critically endangered species restricted to only 3 islands in the world What is interesting about Native Fijian and IndoFijians IndoFijians were imported to Fiji from Southern India to work in sugar fields Now refers to IndianFijians who have been there for 3 generations or more How do you reconstruct vegetation from Hawaii Gentry transects What can be done to reforest the world s most endangered forest Identify which plants historically occurred on the dry side of Hawaii Replant the rare species Protect these remaining fragments by removing nonnatives building fences and preventing forest fires of trees on Endangered Species list from worlds most endangered forest 0 45 MAP Section Things to remember on your map Latitude Equator and Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn Long Points lines up Make Sure to Include Nice Outline of Continents South East America Baja and Florida Cuba N America and South America lined up properly SE America Hudson Bay Greenland Europe and Africa Lined UP Madagascar Three Peninsulas Saudi India Malaysia Two Gulfs Red Sea and Persian Gulf SE ASIA Three Bumps SEASIA China Korea Islands Sumatra Java Borneo New Guinea OZ New Zealand Japan Philippines Hawaii Book Questions Name three highly developed moderately developed and less developed countries High US Canada Japan Moderate Mexico Turkey S Africa Less Bangladesh Ethiopia Laos How many earth s would we need if everyone consumed the same level as the United States 5 4 additional planets The current restoration project in the Florida Everglades is using which of the following strategies Control of agricultural of agricultural runoff Conversion of some agricultural land to marshes Reengineering the area s system of canals Levels and pumps to restore the natural ow of water to the Everglades What is interesting about the city Curitiba Brazil Population of 25 million people good example of compact development Built fast clean and reliable bus system that leaves area open for other uses Sustainable community What are minerals and economic geology Minerals elements that occur naturally in the Earth s crust Economic geology uses Earth s minerals and resources a combination of elements to make economic pro t The 18th century British economist Thomas Malthus said that population grows exponentially while agricultural output grows in a linear fashion He predicted this would cause mass starvation An age structure diagram that represents rapid growth for a population looks like a pyramid What is a Wildlife corridor Protected zone that connects isolated unlogged or underdeveloped areas Purpose provide animals with escape routes and allow interbreeding Connecting 2 wildlife habitat areas to each other to prevent low genetic diversity Forest covers what percent of the Earth land area Less than 33 Sustainable Development considers tree important factors because Environmentally sound decisions 0 To not harm the environment or deplete natural resources Economically viable decisions 0 Consider all costs including longterm Socially equitable decisions 0 Re ect the needs of society to ensure costsbenefits are shared by all groups Define sustainable agriculture and some good examples of it Definition This occurs when modern agricultural techniques combine with traditional farming methods 0 Leaves enough for future generations and doesn t strain the environment 0 People plantharvest only enough for family 0 Relies on beneficial biological processes and environmentally friendly chemicals that disintegrate quickly Uses resources efficiently Eradicates hunger and poverty prevents and reduce waste and protects natural ecosystems Examples 0 Breeding disease resistant crops for animal health 0 Biological diversity to minimize pest problems 0 Water and energy conservation 0 Adding animal manure to soil 0 Crop rotation The IPAT equation refers to I P X A X T o 1 environmental impact o P number of people 0 A af uence per person a measure of the consumption of resources used per person o T environmental effects I Resources needed and wastes produced of technologies used to obtain consume resources Estimates human impact on environment 0 Mathematical impacts and forces involved An activity that is sustainable by de nition should Be able to meet humanity s current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs 0 Stabilize human population Prevent pollution where possible Restore degraded environments Protect natural ecosystems Use resources eff1ciently Educate children and adults Eradicate hunger o Prevent and reduce waste The role organisms in soil is 000000 Organisms roots plants termites worms moles snakes groundhogs and bacteria They provide essential ecosystem services ie maintaining soil fertility preventing erosion breaking down toxic materials cleansing water What percent of the world39s soil is suitable for agriculture 35 The main world food problems are Population Poverty Environmental problems The Green Revolution is 20th century movement in which modern cultivation methods were used to produce more food per acre Purpose keep up with population growth The scienti c community has conclusive evidence to agree that Genetically Modi ed Foods are As safe for human consumption as crops grown by conventional agriculture One of the worst problems with pesticides is that They affect more species than just pests Some bad insects are building a resistance to them Nomadic herding is Form of subsistence agriculture where livestock is supported by land to arid for successful crop growth Nomadic herders must continually move the cattle to nd food What is voluntary simplicity When people of a highly developed country recognize that happiness quality of life aren t measured by the accumulation of goods This causes a change in lifestyle known as voluntary simplicity What does worldview mean A personal perspective based on a collection of our basic values that help us make sense of the world understand our place and purpose in it and determine right and wrong behaviors What is the difference between National Forests National Parks and National Wildlife Refuges National forests 0 Established for timber harvesting mining hunting shing and other recreation 0 Water resources and habitat for sh amp wildlife National parks 0 Cultural and historic sites whose purpose is to teach people about the natural environment management of natural resources and history of the site 0 Biological habitat and facilitate human recreation National Wildlife Refuges 0 Most extensive network of lands and waters committed to wildlife and habitat in the world 0 Preserve lands and waters for conservation of shes wildlife and plants in the US What are the percentages of forest ownership in the USA Private Nonpro t 55 Native America 3 State and Local 7 Federal 35 What is going on in the Tongass today Tongass forest in Alaska one of the world s few temperate rain forests Clinton administration 2001 blocked the roadless area conservation rule to protect roadless national forests from road building forest harvest Con ict between the logging industry local economy and environmental interest groups who want to prevent clear cutting Who is Julia Butter y and why is she cool She was a tree sitter for 738 days to prevent the Pacific Lumber Compnay from cutting down a redwood in CA What is Species Richness The number of species represented in a particular ecological region sample area or group What is bird friendly coffee Organic coffee pesticides are not used
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