Midterm 2 Study Guide
Midterm 2 Study Guide HIST 102 011
Popular in European Civilization from the Mid-17th Century
HIST 102 011
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Strickland on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 102 011 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Daniel Snyder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see European Civilization from the Mid-17th Century in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Midterm 2 Study Guide Chapter 12 The French Revolution First effective challenge to monarchial absolutism Americans didn t overturn system just separated themselves from it Louis XVI reign bad harvests no money and unfavorable with people mostly due to Queen MarieAntoinette Estates General leads to Third Estate taking Tennis Court Oath and creating the National Assembly Bastille forced king to go to Paris initially Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Women s march brings all political heads king queen son and assembly to Paris permanently Reforms Church and the Civil Constitution of French Clergy creates national church no nobles tolerate other relation abolish slavery first in France and later in Haiti after their revolt World turned upside down Sansculottes and poor Aristocrats more radical Terror with Danton and Robespierre J acobins and war on Austria Calls for women s rights Olympe de Gouges are largely ignored CounterRevolution of Terror guillotines with deChristianization and Committee of Public Safety Executed all opposition with trial most notably Louis XVI MarieAntoinette and de Gouges Directory takes over from Robespierre s Terror and kills all his followers himself included Still instable government overturned by coup d e39tat of 18th Fructidor that introduces Napoleon Abb Sieyes works with Napoleon to overthrow Directory and ends French Revolution Period Analysis freaked European monarchies out did not want people to follow suit but still found some support German states began to desire unification Historian Marxist inevitability of such uprisings economic version v Atlantic Revolution Trend US France and Latin America Chapter 13 Napoleon and Europe Born on Island of Corsica island that changed hands often went into military and became a Jacobin during French Revolution fought for France and helped overthrow Directory First Consul of Consulate Government Concordant of 1801 bringing back church then Consul for life then Emperor Nothing is Impossible both his reason for his ambitious drive and consequent downfall Wars of Conquest everywhere but Britain and Russia he was a military genius but too self reliant Napoleonic Code included property rights freedom of religion antiwomen and equal inheritance Issues with Nationalism in Spain and increased it in Prussia as well Absolutely fails when he attempts to invade Russia which becomes the beginning of the end Coalition formed against Napoleon he abdicated throne and gets exiled Bourbons return Napoleon comes back like a bad case of the u raises an army gets defeated at Waterloo for the last time and is exiled permanently to St Helena Big Deals Napoleonic Code reforms tried to liberate Europe but honestly just conquered them Chapter 14 The Industrial Revolution Rural industry is replaced by mechanized factories and urbanization Conditions that led to it rise in population 187 million to 266 million in just 50 years increase in agriculture production invention of new transportation ie steamboats and trains Why England Transformed agriculture prior to rest of Europe economic benefits of colonies Parliament s assistance and the colonial cotton production causes Britain s textile monopoly France has second largest economy despite Napoleonic wars with German Confederation lagging behind multiple states different policies in each and guild monopolies and rest of Europe barely industrializing Creates the Middle Class Bourgeois that included a large range of economic situations jobs and education large disparity between rich merchants and poor shopkeepers Entrepreneurial Acts Middle Class creation with boom of jobs like lawyers doctors and business owners Middle Class culture marry up women stay home with kids Cult of Domesticity separate public and private spheres comfortable and extravagant lifestyles secondary education and moral uprightness of religion Problems poor houses landless peasants Captain Swing urbanization and immigration increase Women and child labor and conditions of poor lead to strikes by skilled and unskilled workers for more rights and the creation of utopian practical and scientific Marx socialism Chapter 15 Liberal Challenges to Restoration Europe PostNapoleonic Era Treaty of Paris Louis XVII and France keeps post1792 lands and Congress of Vienna Goals balance of power through shuf ing of territories and Concert of Europe Britain Prussia Austria Russia and France to meet annually Restored monarch nobles and clergy to postRevolution France and is the birth of conservatism Liberalism product of Middle Class with equality of all individuals within limits and laissez faire economies Romantic era of art literature and music birthed from conservatism Even with Congress of Vienna liberal revolutions still take place throughout Europe Spain Portugal Italy and Germany with Greek Revolt shattering Concert system Other notable revolts Decemberist Revolution in Russia and Revolution of 1830 in France Belgium and Switzerland become independent Nationalism Polish uprising against Russia failed unification attempts in Italy and Germany Political Reform in Britain in order to prevent revolutions Chapter 17 The Era of National Uni cation Italian Uni cation 0 Victor Emmanuel II and Count Camillo di Cavour expand PiedmontSardinia to unify Italy 0 Helped by Mazzini Young Italy creator along with strategic alliances and con icts with Austria France and Britain over the years 1854 to 1860 0 Follower of Mazzini Garibaldi and his red shirts liberate Southern Italy 0 Unified under a king premier and parliament with some limits of unification being crime organizations illiteracy and lack of understanding of Italy by the masses German Unification o Prussia s William I and Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck lead uni cation movement 0 Similar to Italy Bismarck uses alliances and wars notably AustroPrussian and Franco Prussian o Governed by Emperor William I and the Reichstag led by Prime Minister Bismarck 0 after AntiCatholic campaigns during William II s reign Bismarck resigns Nationalism also existed in Hapsburg empire due to it being a multinational state However this nationalism was suppressed by putting one group over all others Eventually a dual monarchy of AustriaHungary is created but ethnic tensions remain and ultimately lead to WI Franz Ferdinand assassinated by Serbian Black Hand Chapter 20 Political and Cultural Responses to a Rapidly Changing World Chapte O Chapte Social reform occurs in lieu of socialists revealing disparity between rich and poor birth of trade unions First International of Socialists led by Marx with Second and Third Internationals dividing socialists reformists from communists revolutionaries Anarchists wanted destruction of government completely clearly failed Syndicalists believed trade unions could take over industries through strikes Women s rights movement booms and uses dramatic techniques pouring acid on golf greens and leaping onto racehorse tracks which leads to right to vote in 1864 for women of Britain Art world gets realism and impressionism movements while industrialization effects cause alcoholism and general depression Thinker Nietzsche and Psychologist Freud proceed Avant Garde movement irrational abnormal and abstract of writing amboyant Oscar Wilde music and art Munch s The Scream and Pablo Picasso r 21 The Age of European Imperialism Transition from colonization to imperialism with Scramble for Africa and conquering Asia Since colonies were costly Britain turned to colonialism and created largest empire ever France rivals Britain especially in Africa with Germany and Italy following behind the main powers Conference of Berlin British con icts nearly with French in Sudan Khartoum in revenge for Gen Gordon and Boer War Asia Opium War with China over free trade and British control of India China is controlled through spheres of in uence Boxer Rebellion in response while Japan remains independent US partakes through taking the Philippines and calling for Open Door Policy with China Social Darwinism different races stigma excuses Europeans from brutally conquering and oppressing other people by making it a civilizing mission Imperialism was made possible through tech advancements industrial economies using local puppet governments for indirect rule economic boom leads to low production prices and increased nationalism throughout Europe r 22 The Great War Entangled Alliances Triple Alliance Germany AustriaHungary and Ottoman Empire vs Triple Entente Britain France and Russia Unofficial ties complicate alliances for example Russia and the Serbian people in Austria Hungary Warning Signs Moroccan Crises First and Second instable Balkans weak Turkey Bosnian Crisis and Balkan wars Final StrawSpark Assassination of Franz Ferdinand by Serbian Black Hand member Princip Austria mobilizes against Serbs who call on Russia for assistance who in turn mobilizes while AustriaHungary calls on alliance with Germany which leads to them mobilizing and Russia then brings up secret alliance with France which also obligates Britain to get involved Schlieffen Plan Germany s quick invasion plan that leads to the trenches of the Western Front Mobilization of armies for a short war that turns out to be bloodiest in history up until that point Changing Warfare new weapons trench warfare over land sea and air Home Front efforts propaganda and concept of Total War Eastern Front Russia v Germany and Western Front BritainFrance v Germany US enters the war in 1917 due to Germany s use of UBoats and the Zimmerman telegram Armistice Day November 11th 1918 because everyone got too tired of fighting Impact of the War millions dead shell shocked veterans ruined economies and countries Chapter 23 Revolutionary Russia and the Soviet Union Russian masses upset with war hated Alexandra Tsar s wife and her aid Rasputin and starving from food shortages February Revolution of 1917 workers rise up and take city of Petrograd Soviets councils created during revolution of 1905 come to power Tsar Nicholas II abdicates throne Soviets and Kerensky serve as provisional government and order army to keep fighting despite deserting soldiers while the revolution spreads by masses rising up throughout the country Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin returns bringing a new dynamic to revolution The October Revolution leads to Lenin s Bolsheviks taking over and Mensheviks and Socialists leaving the Soviets Peace of BrestLitovsk allows Russia to withdraw from war and fight a civil war of Red vs White Reds win the civil war allowing Lenin to create the Soviet Union and lead through democratic centralism aka how he justifies being a socialist and still controlling the people New Economic Plan NEP reverts back to capitalist ways to revive economy before returning to equal opportunities for all Joseph Stalin takes over after Lenin s death despite rival Trotsky and Lenin not wishing this so Chapter 24 The Elusive Search for Stability in the 1920s Uprisings in Germany and Hungary lead to end of the war and the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 Big Four Britain France US and Italy lead debate in Versailles Germany forced to accept full responsibility and pay reparations territory moved around and League of Nations created New boundaries divide national groups leading to national and ethnic challenges Division of AustriaHungary does not end ethnic issues and Balkans become more instable Leads to nationalist movements in colonies from India to Palestine and all in between Roaring 20s mask disillusionment and failing economies that are revealed during 1930s Political instability is seen throughout Europe with Germany s Weimar Republic being the most obvious example Even established democracies like France and Britain face economic challenges Lost Generation of writers Fitzgerald and Eliot and Dadaists modernism movement as artists tried to depict the inexplicable and incomprehensible damage that the war has wrought Chapter 25 The Europe of Economic Depression and Dictatorship Great Depression began with economic decrease in ation and rising unemployment rates throughout 20s and the bottom fell out in 1929 with the crash of the US stock market German reparation payments had them already disadvantaged until the Dawes Plan Economically most nations cut back spending during the Depression common policy back then even while economist John Maynard Keynes proposed recovery via increase in government spending therefore increasing consumer spending Rise of Fascism middle class wanted a strong government to fix what the Great war had wrought Mussolini the Duce began the farright Fascist trend in Italy in 1922 with his rise to power being mirrored by Hitler the Fuhrer and the Nazi s rise to power in Germany in 1933 Rightwing focused movements arose throughout Eastern Europe in wake of devastating Great War leading to dictatorships everywhere but Czechoslovakia with Fascism specifically in Austria Fascism appeared in all countries including France Britain and the Netherlands but they remained democratic The rise of the Third Reich begins with the Weimar Republic s fall and Hitler being named Chancellor and creating a Nazi state within 3 months Nazi culture Aryan supremacy AntiSemitism woman as mothers and housewives rearmament remilitarization and Lebensraum Soviet Union 5 Year Plan concentration camps gulags extremely paranoid kills rival Trotsky when Trotsky is exiled and goes to Mexico 0 Spanish Civil War Nationalists under Franco Right V Loyalists under La Pasionaria Left satellite war for Fascist Germany and Italy extremely brutal ex Guernica and Franco Wins
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