Final Exams Study Guide
Popular in Foundations Literary Study I
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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
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ENGZlO Final Revision Tiffany Chen Techniques of Close Reading Summary Poetry Notes Reading Reading Drama Notes As you like it Translations Housekeeping Passage Analysis Vocabulary Michigan State University Fall 14 Techniques of Close Reading Chapter 1 Shared meanings that others will agree can be understood from the text should be veri able by others be supportable through the references to the text align with or relate to the specifics of the text the context and the stated aims be defensible after the fact What kinds of meanings do we nd in texts and what are their de nitions explicit meanings which are the direct meanings of the words we read implicit meanings which are indirect implied or less obvious meanings shared meanings which are the meanings that many people are likely to take from the text Critics create and share their interpretations of texts in order to learn and gain insights from others responses to their interpretation employ a broader idea concept or theory to identify and connect or highlight reveal meanings to others that are shared but not universally recognized OR that are plausible and defensible but not obvious look for and recognize connections among the details of the text that lead up to a broader or overarching understanding make meanings explicit that are sensed or felt by others but not fully understood or articulated Metaphors have been found by researchers to function in which of the following ways They help you understand complex ideas or concepts by connecting them to something familiar They help the readers or listeners to move from the domain of the concrete to the domain of the abstract They shape both how we understand a problem and the solutions we arrive at to deal with it They in uence our thoughts responses emotions and perceptions in almost all realms of knowledge Which of the following statements explain why some readers might nd different meanings in a text than many other readers They may accept an interpretation from another reader which is shaped by a particular agenda Their identity or identi cation with a particular group may shape their understanding They may deliberately try to mislead other by offering an deliberately skewed or biased interpretation They may have read casually or carelessly missing important information Misunderstanding the of a key term concept word use or textual context may affect their interpretation Their life experiences may give them a different perspective on the issues addressed than other readers They may have little or no experience with the textual genre or form and so couldn t recognize the conventions of that form Historical circumstances provide a different context for some readers than others They may have deeper understanding of the historical and or textual context and so offer a more nuanced interpretation Their preconceptions based on values of their group or upbringing may shape their interpretation Close reading is important for the following reasons it reveals what a text says explicitly and what it suggests or says implicitly texts embody social values that may not be evident in casual reading but that are revealed by close reading it gives us better information from which to judge the defensibility of a text or image s perspective it may improve our social awareness as well as our interpersonal relationships Close Reading Techniques Chapter 2 A theory applies to more than one text providing a broadly applicable or useful framework to approach texts may be derived from an examination of speci c details and relationships from several texts may be taken as a grounding premise that guides the interpretation of details from a text Shakespeare in the voice of his sonnet speaker breaks new ground in his sonnet sequence in the following ways He expresses the dilemma of being torn between an idealized male beloved and a corrupt female beloved and nally hopes that the latter purges the former from his thoughts leaving him free of both He ponders and describes his own age and deterioration as well as that of his objects of affection transforming the carpe diem theme into one that goes beyond the effort a seduction of a chaste young partner he addresses a women who is unconventional in that she is not pure and chaste but is instead sexual promiscuous he addresses and lust after a woman whose beauty is unconventional in that she is dark in complexion hair and eyes he addresses a fair male youth eventually expressing the same sex desire for him Theories methods and techniques are tools we used to make sense of the world create a framework through which we can discover and explain more nuanced meanings are important elements of the practice of close reading are tools we use to make sense of the text The English or Shakespearean sonnet form includes the following elements a turn or Volta after the 12th line a rhymed couplet that comprises the resolution to the problem posed in the rst 12 lines three quatrains each with a distinct set of rhymes The thematic and material parameters of the Petrarchan sonnet form include the idea that the suffering of the speaker in the sonnets is means to explore the depths of emotional experience the idea that the beloved is ideally beautiful and unavailable the idea that the beloved is blonde and blue eyed considered fair The Petrarchan sonnet form includes the following elements a grouping of eight lines connected through an intertwined rhyme scheme the octave a grouping of six lines connected through an intertwined rhyme scheme the sestet a turn after the 8th line shifting from problem to resolution A method a plan for thinking and action in the process of interpretation guides us toward a particular line of inquiry within a text is exempli ed by the statement quota good way to understand this text s meaning is to identify a patter of relationships within the text and explain those relationships in an interpretationquot Shakespeare39s 20th sonnet is understood by general scholarly consensus to address a fair a fair male youth who is single and disinclined to marry represents a shift in the general theme of the previous sonnets of Shakespeare s sequence in that it expresses the speaker s sexual desire for the person being addressed Techniques are exempli ed by the statement quotI have highlighted all of the verbs within the text and I see that they are all related directly or indirectly to dancingquot are skills strategies and ways of thinking that we create or use to interpret a text often involve a process of creating and applying categories we work within apply methods to the text to discover what the method aims to reveal Close reading is like translation in that it is often reliant on understanding the grammar syntax and vocabulary of a particular text it opens new perspectives on familiar material or understanding it takes what is known from one text or context and applies it to another context it moves between fields of understanding finding connections between them it takes knowledge about one object event text condition etc and produces a new kind of knowledge by connecting what is known to what is unknown Close Reading Techniques Chapter 3 Brummett makes the following points about textual form and content Form is the structure or patter that a text follows or uses Form is the most appealing when it is repeated we recognize and enjoy repeated patterns Different forms have different patterns which vary the way that content can be presented Close Reading Techniques Chapter 4 In quotTranslationsquot Latin and Greek are Identi ed as languages more closely connected to the Irish language than EngHsh Languages studied by choice rather than force Identi ed with tradition rather than modernization Maire39s desire to learn English is motivated by necessity rather than by interest in language represents a desire to accept and participate in modernizing cultural changes represents a pragmatic view of social and cultural change con icts with Manus s view of language s relationship to culture and history In Translations which of the following characters are nally committed to preserving Irish as a language of instruction in school by the end of the play Manus At the end of the play Hugh recognizes the need to embrace the changes to the language and culture instigated by the ordnance survey Owen nally begins to recognize the negative effects of the English surveying and renaming project becoming more connected to the concerns of the community Doalty vows to resist the English threat to Baile Beag and goes off to try to organize the residents against them Manu39s news that he has been offered a job to start a new in a hedge school on lnis Meadhon Act 2 Scene 1 P57 and the other characters response to that news reveals that the hedge schools are still a valued tradition despite the English effort to start National Schools reveals that Manus is willing to compromise with the English eventually speaking in English so that Yolland can understand what he is saying Emphasizes through the various means of payment he s been offered the cultural and communal nature of the hedge schools Reveals that Maire is not very interested in sharing her future with Manus on lnis Meadhon Techniques of Close Reading Chapter 5 Ideology According to Brummet ideology39 is largely created maintained and resisted in everyday argument is the mechanism by and through which individuals live their roles as subjects in a social formation has to do with 39how con ict power and material interests shape and in uence social and symbolic interaction is a systematic network of beliefs commitments values and assumptions that in uence how power is maintained struggled over and resisted Recognising the ideology of a writer or text involves recognizing the kinds of eveidence used and the validity or invalidity of their use in this context understanding the implicit and explicit claims or conclusions of a text understanding the assumptions that allow the audience to connect to and accept the arguments of a text recognizing who gains from the argument or who is left out or excluded understanding the main objectives or aims of the text Enthymemes are incomplete syllogisms put the audience to work by making them a party of the argument building process require audiences or readers to ll in party of the argument with widely accepted perceptions or values omit either the general primary or speci c secondary term in an argument In the poem tommy by Rudyard Kipling the main speaker is a soldier from a lower social class who challenges the moral superiority of those from a higher social class Kipling overall targets and challenges the assumption that those lower in social hierarchy are also lower in moral hierarchy the main speaker is a soldier who is critical of the treatment of soldiers in everyday social contexts The synopsis of Gay Marriage why would it affect mequot can be understood as ideological in the following ways It assumes the de nition of 39proper family that is grounded in a Christian world view it makes appeals to its readers based on their perceived interests and values it offers 39slippery slope arguments it uses ideologically loaded 39evidence that imagines future outcomes as inevitable Among the ideological assumptions functioning among the general population of Fingerbone in Housekeeping are stability and permanence are preferable to transience and instability rituals and habitual actions provide comfort and connection to others order and control of domestic space are necessary to live civilly and properly Christianity requires good deeds but not necessary actual concern In Housekeeping the ideological reasons for the planned removal of Ruth from Sylvie39s care include Sylvie fails to keep clear boundaries between herself and Ruth mentioning that they re quotmore like sistersquot Sylvie s failure to keep house according to the standards accepted by most people Sylvie s induction of Ruth into the life of transience with her freight car trip back to Fingerbone The scene in which the kitchen is icked on at night to reveal the actual condition of the kitchen reveals or connects to the following darkness is an escape from social expectations demands and pressures habits and rituals can lull one into a sense of complacency and unquestioned cooperation chaos is the normal condition toward which all things tend if left untended light metaphorically represents awareness or revelation but also the destruction of connection intimacy and comfort darkness creates a space of intimacy and connection that is isolated from material needs and social judgments The following are instances of human action that work against the tendencies of life to run on its inevitable unchangeable course Lucille completing the 23 ring of water on the caf table Molly hauling up her catch of dead from the lake Ruth and Sylvie walking across the bridge Lucille trying to sew her out t Notes on drama As you like it Shakespeare Structure Divided into acts and scenes that follow a logical trajectory of development The scenes may alternate between different locations or groups of characters They are often related thematically to each other to serve as an add complexity and interpretive potential to the plot Different acts and scenes often offer different perspectives on the same issue or problem The resolutions and reconciliation of the last two Acts of the play restore the proper social order by returning Duke Senior to his thrown with Rosalind as his heir transform the accepted social hierarchy by moving Orlando nearly to the top of that hierarchy transform the accepted social hierarchy by rewarding Orlando s virtues and merit rather than his social status Restore the reproductive order and thereby situate these various couples in cyclic rather than linear time suggest that the future will be better than the past because of the lessons concerning generosity equity and virtue learned in the forest The disruptions and injustices of the rst Acts of the play include Frederick has usurped his brother s Dukedom transgressing against primogeniture and civic law Oliver has refused his brother Orlando the education proper treatment and place of a brother in his household Adam the servant of the de Boys household has ed his proper master to assist Orlando Shakespeare39s 5Act Structure Act 13 introduce the characters major themes and issues develop relations among characters and social groups Act 4 problem or concern reaches its climax Act 5 resolution restoration of social or political condition or promise of restoration usually with correctives Drama the Three Unities Unity of time must take place all at the same time Unity of place action must all take place in the same location Unity of action must have only one coherent and connected plotline These elements are prominent in Greek and Roman plays but playwrights such as Shakespeare disrupt the conventions Unfolding the Action and Character Characterization is created by the combination of stage directions text and dialogue between the characters plays are dialogic based on dialogue Narrator is in every scene except the chorus Two forms of speaking o Mimetic Characters speak as themselves in conversation mimesis depicts what is happening directly to the audience 0 Diegetic characters describe a scene or another character diagesis describes an event that is not present on the scene at that moment Shakespeare s characters are described before entrance upon the stage for the audience diegetic speaking Narrative Arc of Comedy Tends to move toward potential tragedy or failed social relations loss unhappiness discord but overall the arc of action is 39positive with most characters ending up more or less satis ed with their situation Reigning in of chaos leads to resolution usually through compromise Social order restored sometimes with exclusion of problem gures scapegoating etc Marriage frequently the nal unifying act actual or promised Both Comedy and Tragedy recognize that the cycle of life39 will continue Tragedy with a new regime flawed elements destroyed Comedy with mild corrections and survival of the current order revised for better success As you like it Shakespeare Basic Elements Written in the form of a comedy Written in a combination of prose and verse containing both blank verse unrhymed iambic pentameter and rhymed songs as well as normal prose speech Takes place in two locations 0 Court and household in the a Duchy in France marked by violence arbitrary judgments of Duke Ferdinand negligence and violence of Olivier disrupted hierarchy 0 Forest of Arden surrounding countryside Natural order dominates the characters are peaceful and cooperative They mind their own business and unambitious Features two main female characters Rosalind and Celia cousins Two main male characters Duke Senior and Duke Frederich brothers 0 Hierarchy is disrupted because Duke senior s place has been taken by his younger brother illegitimate claim to power Fredierich is depicted to be a bad ruler violent and arbitrary breaking in the Unites There is an identi cation of opposition between two sites to call attention to unnaturalness of the court and other locations built on accepted hierarchies the countryside functions to support those who don t adhere to hierarchy and encourage cooperative rather than competitive or self promotion behaviour Countryside is the site beyond restrictions of society in other ways there are roles and possibilities that can be explored Relationships between characters As you like it Shakespeare Rosalind daughter of Duke Senior Rosalind is beloved of Orlando sudden fall before escape Rosalind disguises herself as Ganymede a young man to escape the violence of Duke Freidrich who fears her in uence on people Celia is the daughter of Duke Frederich Celia joins Rosalind in her escape to the forest choosing cousinfriend over her father disguises herself as Aliena foreigner a lady of limited means Celia comes to be loved by Oliver Orlando is the youngest son of Sir Roland de Boys deceased Orlando is brother of Oliver Oldest of the 3 Jacques is the middle brother Orlando falls in love with Rosalind but ees to the forest to escape brother s violence Orlando develops friendship with Rosalind while disguised as Ganymede taking lessons from her how to woo a maiden Theme of Hierarchy Great chain of being Divinely determined natural and social order Gender male superiority however women of the higher social strata were considered superior to those if lower social strata including men There is an intersection of social and gender hierarchies created complexities women were naturally subordinate to men 0 but they control servants and other social inferiors also control their children Hierarchy was based on primogeniture rst born inherits all The will in this play makes provisions for the education and maintenance of the younger sons 0 Oliver ignores it and refuses to give anything to Orlando 0 Jacques seems to have made it on his own by attaching himself to the court of Duke Senior Technically a servant would serve the household and its master 0 Adam chooses instead to do what is right and honorable this is a frequent depiction in Shakespeare39s plays 0 The servant displays superior ethical and moral virtues compared to his social betters Authorities Touchstone is a character type that was common in the period a fool39 was one who is granted the freedom to speak truth to power39 to a degree There was always danger in the position and the fool was vulnerable to the whims of the ruler Fool in this case doesn t mean stupid person but person who plays the role of not editing his speech according to conventions and respect for power This kind of character is the opposite of a atterer who seeks his own advancement There is altruism in the fool as well as substantial wit Pastoral The term quotPastoralquot refers to a countryside setting featuring almost inevitably sheep and shepherds This mode or sub genre or form developed in classical Greek and Latin culture it was revived by Italian poets in the 14th century and onward In As you like it Shakespeare depicts pastoral as a mode of existence that is idealized as communal linked to nature and aligned with divinely determined values and virtues Pastoral life is depicted as simple and pure The idea of the shepherd s life as one of leisure and love is a common aspect This image is often starkly contrasted with other contexts like the court or simply written in a way that calls attention to the negative aspects of courtly life it is at some level a guise for political discourse quotunder the vaile of homely persons and in rude speeches to insinuate anol glance at great mattersquot 0 By political we mean that it advocates particular values and virtues over others critiquing those associated with the arti ciality of human culture and favoring those associated with natural order and existence It is generally agreed that pastoral is not a genre but a mode of express de ned by certain conventions and elements It can be incorporated into other genres without altering their basic structures Primogenitu re Exile Inheritance by the rst born male typical Women could inherit if male heir existed or designated by a will This is practiced in quotprivatequot sphere households and political sphere courts As you like it Depictions of primogeniture and of it s disruption 0 Oliver inherits the family estate he is bound by the will to take care of his younger brothers but he refuses to do 0 Oliver is the quotrightful heirquot but he exempli es the abuse of his place power and authority 0 Duke Frederick usurps the Dukedom from his older brother Duke Senior he disrupts the quotnatural orderquot of primogeniture to do so 0 Duke Frederick is a quotbad rulerquot due to the fact that he is driven by personal fears and interests fearful of his subjects and abusive to those who pose no threat to him he ends up relinquishing his position 0 Rosalind is the sole heir to the legitimate Duke Duke Senior the resolution of the play places herjointly as ruler with Orlando Contextual elements refers to Queen Elizabeth s reign and rise to the throne people didn t accept a female as the monarch rather than a male Three sets of characters are in exile out of compulsion Duke Senior and his retinue retinue by choice Rosalind anol Celia Celia by choicel and Orlando and Adam Adam by choice Unable to return home due to the social political order they are separated They each take up an alternative life in the forest and countryside Calls attention to what happens when rulers of court or estate exercise their ultimate power they drive subjects out but also lose control of them Cross Dressing All actors were male on the public stage in early modern England The notion of having cross dressing within a play is to demonstrate the capabilities of a woman in a wide range of activities and interactions 0 speci cally witty banter quick minded comments ability to judge situations and take appropriate actions ability to enter challenging situations while acting appropriately resolve con icts or problems and take care of themselves and others Shakespeare challenges the notion of having a female monarch Queen Elizabeth by the negative portrayal of the female image and role women are portrayed as passive emotional linked to natural imagery and subordinate These stereotypical qualities associated with women needing control sexually loose overly talkative prone to emotional excess easily swayed or in uenced unable to judge situations or other people resistant to reason unable to take care of themselves and uneducable Image of an Ideal woman Chaste silent and obedient Love is a central theme of the play conventions of love are mocked by the besotted male lover desperately pursuing a lady Orlando towards Rosalind Love is almost universal by the end of the play they turn to religious devo on Marriage as an outcome of love is also universal 4 pairs wed at the ending Comical ending Marriage and reproduction are part of the accepted cycle of life la compatible union is a bonus that makes that cycle smoother and more appealing Comedy s main outcome is to reassert or assure the continuation of the reproductive order situations humans in quotcyclic timequot as Shakespeare s rst 19 sonnets do Injustice Justice and Forgiveness The play moves from injustice in the rst act to the nal act Forgiveness by Orlando of his brother is the central shift that transforms the conditions of the play Smaller scale forgiveness is enacted between Rosalind and Orlando after he fails to keep his meeting with her as Ganymede Duke Fredrick repents and renounces his claim on the Dukedom and is forgiven rather than punished The transformations from injustice to justice and forgiveness are also part of the expected trajectory of comedy How to Understand Metaphor Metaphor is an indirect comparison between two unlike things that identi es or asserts one or more shared characteristics between them 5 Major Steps 0 Recognize 2 terms or elements being compared 0 Characterize the aspects of the main term or more explicit term that the comparison draws upon 0 Compare which characteristics apply to the second term or are shared by the second term I Alternatively consider how the characteristics of the rst term suggest what the second term might be if it is not named 0 Explain the meaning of the metaphor itself based on the characteristics shared between the two terms this is interpretation of speci c meaning 0 Extrapolate propose a meaning for the larger work this is an interpretation of larger meaning Two Terms of the Metaphor material tangible object or person abstract thought emotion sensation virtue value condition PASSAGES OF HOUSEKEEPING In terms of the overall structure of Housekeeping o is primarily diegetic in form 0 is primarily diegetic in content with some mimetic content elements as well Constructs a rst personal whose social and emotional disconnection are important features of the character 0 is narrated primarily from the rstperson point of view quotOne of the boys swam out forty feet from the bridge and then down to the old lack feeling his way down the wall down the blind breathless stone headfirst and then pushing out to the bottom he could not reach it a second time The water bore him up He said only that smooth surface of all things he touched was not hovered about any cloud of something loose like silt By the time he had swum back to the bridge the water was becoming dull and opaque like cooling wax By evening the lack there had sealed itself overquot 78 0 Feeling his way down the wall down the blind breathless stone the wall bears the qualities of the boy himself as he dives 0 And then down into the old lake the deepest part of the lack that claims lives and histories o the water bore him up the boy cannot resist the force of the water against his effort to uncover the truth 0 hovered about by a cloud of something loose like silt the lake obscures or hides the history it holds 0 by evening the lake there had sealed itself over the lake closes it s history off from human access quotHer bread was tender and herjelly was tart and on rainy days she made cookies and applesauce In the summer she kept roses in a vase on the piano huge pungent roses and when the blooms ripened and the petals fell she put them in a tall Chinese jar which cloves and thyme and sticks of cinnamonquot 1112 0 Her bread was tender and her jelly was tart the material elements of her care for them were always perfect 0 she kept roses in a vase on the piano she brings the contained beauty of nature in the house 0 when the blooms ripened and petals fell natural beauty is eeting deterioration inevitable 0 she put them in a tall Chinese jar with cloves and thyme and sticks of cinnamon she stores mementos of the past preserving them but changing them quotFor some reason the lake was a source of particular pleasure to Fingerbone that year It was frozen solid early and long Several acres of it were swept for people brought brooms to tend and expand it There were barrels on the shore for res to be built in and people brought boxes to sit on around the barrels and frankfurters to roast Usually we would sit on the snow and look back at Fingerbonequot 3334 0 For some reason the lake was a source of particular pleasure to Fingerbone that year It was frozen solid early and long The lake s threatening history and dangerous nature are sealed off by the season 0 Several acres of it were swept for people brought brooms to tend and expand it People assert their control over naturethe lake through their simple technology and caretaking c There were barrels on the shore for res to be built in People create areas of protection against the elements of nature 0 People brought boxes to sit on around the barrels and frankfurters to roast people create domestic conditions for relaxing and cooking 0 We would sit on the snow and look back at Fingerbone the sisters distance themselves from the shared pleasures and comforts and the rest of the inhabitants quotl was simply alarmed lt suggest to me that the earth had opened In fact I dreamed that l was walking across the ice on the lake which was breaking up as it does in the spring softening and shifting and pulling itself apart But in the dream the surface that I walked on proved to be knit up of hands and arms and upturned faces that shifted and quickened as I stepped sinking only for a moment into lower relief under my weight The dream and the obituary together created in my mind the conviction that my grandmother had entered into some other element upon which our lives oated as weightless intangible immiscible and into inseparable as re ections on waterquot 41 o I dreamed that I was walking across the ice on the lake Ruth dreams that she is separated from the past 0 like ice over the lack which was breaking up as it does in spring softening and shifting and pulling itself apart The lake resists separation and destroys the separation between past and present 0 the surface I walked on proved to be knit up of hands and arms and upturned faces the past rises out of the lake 0 asserting its presence forming a new surface that shifted and quickened as I stepped the past makes itself felt but is unstable upon which our lives oated weightless intangible immiscible and inseparable as re ections in water the living remain connected to the dead to the past but have no effect on it quotI saw the three of us posed in all open doors of an endless train of freight cars innumerable rapid identical images that produced a ickering illusion of both movement and stasis as the pictures in a kinescope do The hot and dangerous winds of our passing tattered the Queen Anne s lace and yet for all those noise and clatter and headlong speed we ickered there at the foot of the garden while the train roared on and onquot 50 Queen Anne s lace wild ower that often grows by train tracks 0 I saw the three of us posed in all the open doors of an endless train of freight cars image of three the characters as the only people in the world 0 Or as connected in a life that excludes all others innumerable rapid identical images that produced a ickering illusion of both movement and stasis Despite change and movement they appear unmoving o The hot and dangerous winds of our passing tattered the Queen Anne39s lace human presence represented by technology destroys nature 0 for all the noise and clatter and headlong speed life is chaotic uncontrolled passing rapidly c we ickered there at the foot of the garden while the train roared on and on they remain unchanged unaffected by the passing of time or of life We took our supper upstairs and sat on our bed and looked out over the town It appeared to us that the Simmons s house had indeed been lifted from its foundations The clashes and groans from the lake continued unabated dreadful at night and the sound of night wind in the mountains was like a long indrawn breath Downstairs the ood bumped and fumbled like a blind man in a strange house but outside it hissed and trickled like the pressure of water against your eardrums and like the sounds you hear the moment before you faintquot 6566 0 We took our supper upstairs and sat on our bed and looked out over the town They are separated from the rest of the town isolated not sharing the same experience 0 It appeared to us that the Simmons39s house had indeed been lifted from it39s foundations Human efforts at stability cannot stand against nature s force 0 The clashes and groans from the lake continued unabated dreadful at night The power of nature asserts itself threatening violent and frightening o Downstairs the ood bumped and fumbled like a blind man in a strange house Nature is personi ed present but out of place within a house damaging but not violent but outside it hissed and trickled like the pressure of water against your eardrums from outside nature is a force that makes itself felt pushing against human life and comfort quotI remember Sylvie walking through the house with a scarf tied around her hair carrying a broom Yet this was the time that leaves began to gather in corners They were leaves that had been through winter some of them worn to a net of veins There were scraps of paper among them crisp and strained from their mingling in the cold brown liquors of decay when she swept took care not to molest them Perhaps she sensed a Delphic niceness in the scattering of these leaves and papers here and not elsewhere thus and not other wise She had to be aware of them because every time a door was opened anywhere in the house there was a sound from all corners of lifting and aligning 85 o I remember Sylvie walking through the house with a scarf tied around her hair carrying a broom Sylvie shows visible signs of house keeping 0 Yet this was the time that leaves began to gather in corners Despite visible efforts at keeping house signs of nature s presents can be felt in the house 0 They were leaves that had been through winter some of them worn to a net of veins The condition of the leaves suggests that the accumulation had been going on for a while c There were scraps of paper among them crisp and strained from their mingling in the cold brown liquors of decay and regeneration the leaves and papers are connected to the cycles of time and nature 0 She had to be aware of them because every time a door was opened anywhere in the house there was a sound from all the corners of lifting and aligning the leaves respond to the wind connecting the interior the domestic space to the exterior to nature quotShe Lucille was of the common persuasion Time that had no come yet and anomaly in itself had the ercest reality for her It was a hard wind in her face if she had made the world every tree would be bent every stone weathered every bough stripped by that steady and contrary wind Lucille saw in everything its potential for invidious change She wanted worsted mittens brown oxfords red rubber boots Ruf es wilted sequins fell satin was impossible to be cleanquot 93 0 She was of the common persuasion there is an implicit contrast between Lucille s similarity to others and Sylvie s distinctiveness 0 Time that had not come yet an anomaly in itself had the ercest reality for her Lucille was focused on what the future would inevitably bring o It was a hard wind in her face if she had made the world every tree would be bent every stone weathered every bough stripped by that steady and contrary wind Lucille felt that the future was a force that shaped the world and it39s force should be recognized and acknowledged o Lucille saw in everything it39s potential for invidious change Lucille saw all things as subjects to inevitable deterioration 0 She wanted worsted mittens brown oxfords red rubber boots Ruf es wilted sequins fell statin was impossible to clean Lucille preferred things that were sturdy sensible and practical to things that were merely pretty or fancy quotI knew what the silence meant and so did Lucille It meant that on this evening so calm so iridescently blue so full of the chink and chafe of insectsin such a boundless and luminous evening we would feel our proximity with our ner senses We were staring through the warped and bubbled window at the brighter darkness Then Lucille stood up and pulled the chain of the overhead light The window went black and the cluttered kitchen leaped so it seemed into being as remote from what had gone before as this world from the primal darkness We saw that we ate from plates that had come in detergent boxes and we drank from jelly glasses Lucille had startled us all ooding the room so suddenly was light exposing heaps of pots and dishes the cupboards which had come unhinged and were propped against the boxes of chinaquot 100101 0 This evening so calm so iridescently blue so full of the chink and chafe of insects in such a boundless and luminous evening sitting in the dark they are connected to an immersed in the peaceful undemanding darkness that lls the natural world 0 The silence meant that we would feel our proximity with our ner senses speech is unnecessary because they are bound together by their immersion in and connection to the natural world and unacknowledged reality of their lives The window went black and the cluttered kitchen leapt so it seamed into being The connection to the exterior disappears and the interior instantly becomes the only reality As remote from what had gone before as this world from the primal darkness their existence has been like the primitive world before time or light completely removed from the world as it actually exits Lucille had startled us all ooding the room so suddenly with light exposing heaps of pots and dishes the two cupboard doors which had come unhinged and were propped against the boxes of china All of them are surprised to see what they ve been living in a state of chaos and deterioration Poetry De nitions Petrarchan Sonnet Rhyme scheme abbaabba cdecde English sonnet Rhyme scheme abab cdc efef gg Volta shift in perspective or shift toward resolution within the sonnet form Quatrain a group of four poetic lines related through rhyme pattern Sestet a group of six poetic lines related through rhyme pattern Octave a group of eight poetic lines related through rhyme pattern Couplet a group of two rhymed poetic lines Feminine ending Feminine rhyme in the English sonnet form a line of eleven syllables ending in an unaccented or unstressed syllable Enjambed line a line of a verse that carries on to the next poetic line without punctuation at the end of the line Carpe Diem seize the day a major theme in English poetry which urges the object of affection toward love or sex because beauty and life pass quickly away Stanza A distinct group of verses within a poem Verse a poetic line consider it s structure and scope Endstopped a line that ends with punctuation Caesura a punctuated or incidental break within a line Rhymes 0 End Rhyme occurs at the end of the lines 0 Internal Rhyme occurs within lines between lines Alliteration repetition of constant sounds in stressed syllables Consonance repetition of consonant sounds that are not the main emphasis of a word Repetition repeating of an element or word or an association towards a certain idea Tone Mood Irony Tropes Tone the speaker s attitude or perspective towards his or her subject Mood the emotional climate or sense of the work it s atmosphere created through setting language images and objects 0 careful when analyzing because it may be reinforced by or ironically undercut by tone Irony Contrast between appearance and actuality the simultaneous awareness of two states of existence perception or thought Tropes Figure of speech that convey tone mood and meaning Literary devices de ned Metaphor an implied comparison between two relatively unlike things calling attention to perhaps surprising similarities often using a verb to connect them Metonym a substitution of one word for another in which the two words are associated with the same person place or object but one is not a quotpartquot or quotaspect of the other Simile A direct comparison between two relatively unlike things useually using the word quotlikequot or as linking them Paradox uses contradictory terms or concepts to describe a condition or perspective Synecdoche A substitution of one word for another in which the two words are associated with the same person place or object so that the actual part stands for the whole or a quality for the entire thing Oxymoron places two contradictory terms directly together in a descriptive pair Personi cation gives the qualities of a person to an animal an object or an idea Tone the speaker s attitude or perspective toward his or her subject Irony the contrast between appearance and actuality the simultaneous awareness of two states of existence thought and perception Literary Terms Applied Metaphor love is a rose Personi cation the fox stalked disdainfully away Simile she ate like a bird Synecdoche using quotlend a handquot to mean quot give assistance toquot Metonym using quotthe pentagonquot to mean a group of government decision makersquot Oxymoron jumbo shrimp Elements and Aspects of Form Narrative the formal trajectory of a story or account of an event Genre A recurring kind of text within a context Persona A recurring kind of character or role that s taken up in connection to a text Coherence and Sequence The logical connections between parts of a text or the logical movement from one to another Tension and Resolution The strategies that keep the audience engaged through challenges to the characters and the eventual outcome of those chaHenges Alignment and Opposition Parallels connections and agreements between events or characters and con icts or disagreements between events perspectives and characters Style the rhetorical and strategic choices of the author in composing the text Substance the components of the story or narrative that convey meaning Situation the context or setting of a story or narrative First Persona The identity values and perspective on events created for the narrator or author Second Persona The identity values and perspective on events created for the reader or audience Third Persona The identity values and perspective on events created for quotothers who are considered by the author NOT to be an audience for the text Transformations De nitions Tenor In metaphor this term refers to the subject or object that we are to learn something new about by applying qualities from the other term Vehicle In metaphor this term refers to the subject or object which has qualities we apply to the other term in the metaphor to reveal something about it Metaphor This is a literary device for seeing one thing in terms of another thing that is generally dissimilar but which is surprisingl whown to share one or more qualities or characteristics Metonymy This is a literary device for seeing one thing interms of another thing where the abstract is invoked or made by understandable by connecting it to something physical or concrete and wehre there is some recognized association between the two Synecdoche this is a literary device for seeing one thing in terms of another thing where a part stands for the whole or the container stands in for the contained they are directly connected and usually a part of the same thing Irony this is a literary device that requires and understanding that two contradictory meanings or interpretations of the same statement are possible and even likely it works dialogically or dialectically between the two meanings Extension this term indicates that there are multiple connections between the parts of a metaphor working at multiple levels and locations in a text or that the vehicle of the metaphor connects to several different tenors throughout a text or that the vehicle of the metaphor connects to several different tenors throughout the text literal meaning this is the explicit obvious generally accepted meaning of a word statement or image Trope this term for literary devices that transform the meaning of the word statement or image from what is typical common or obvious to something beyond that generally understood meaning Irony Brummett uses the example of his joke to his 39little brother about race as an example of which trope Metaphor which trope is exempli ed by the statement quotwe hired 12 hands to mow the eldquot Metonymy which trope is exempli ed the statement quotthe White House issued a statement on the problem earlier todayquot Vehicle In the statement quotShe cried a riverquot which term from the list would be identi ed with quotriverquot Tenor In the statement quotlife is a bowl of cherriesquot which term from the list would be identi ed with quotlifequot Forms of speaking dialogue in drama 0 Mimetic Characters speak as themselves in conversation mimesis depicts what is happening directly to the audience 0 Diegetic characters describe a scene or another character diagesis describes an event that is not present on the scene at that moment Techniques of Drama Dramatic Irony When a character gives the audience direct or observed knowledge about events actions values or characters which some or all of the other characters do not have access to Soliloquy A speech by a character in which he or she considers choices actions or conditions Human Condition expresses viewpoints or reveals personal thoughts or feelings to the audience could be associated with the idea of quotthinking aloudquot Aside a comment made by a character in the course of a conversation which those speaking do not hear but which the audience and sometimes one or more other characters do hear reveal actual intentions and attitudes to the audience while concealing them from those on stage Representation of Characters of the Play Translations Maire Colonized people who believe they can bene t from the new social cultural linguistic conditions Wants to leave behind tradition and isolation and embrace the modern world connected to imperial language culture power pragmatic driven by necessity or personal ambition desire rather than cultural moral or ethical questions Yolland Colonizers who romanticize the traditional culture and language of the colonized even as their own culture destroys it see the traditional world as an escape from the contemporary one safer more comfortable more appealing more innocent Lancy Colonizers who are committed to doing their own national project see their own culture as properly having rights and power over others rejecting cultural traditions of others as backward unsophisticated unnecessary impractical willing and be able to destroy others to achieve their national goals have no moral or ethical questions about their actions Hugh Those who believe that language and culture are quotliving thingsquot that constantly change accept change as inevitable and even welcome but are also attached to traditions and languages of the past and present don t see con ict between linguistic and cultural past present and future Owen Those from among the colonized who through education wealth and social opportunity become connected to supporters of colonizer mediate between the colonizer and the colonized assist the colonizer in their suppression or destruction of the colonized culture even though they may generally be sympathetic to colonized individuals may share the colonizers views of the colonized as generally backward and unsophisticated Doalty committed to the rights of the colonized activists against the colonizer in small ways able to recognize the realities of the power relationships and try to thwart them confident that the colonized will reject language and the culture of the colonizer remain connected to the supportive traditional culture Sarah The lost or suppressed political voice of the colonized in the context of colonial or imperial power calls attention to the cultural and political violence of imperialism even when no physical violence is immediately evident Struggles to gain political voice speak for value of culture but is not able to break the bonds of silence in the long run Manus Committed to values language and culture of the colonized as well as to individuals within that culture long standing unshakeable commitments recognizes impact of colonization imperialism and resists it in nonviolent cultivation of tradition Jimmy Devoted to learning for learning s sake unaware of actual conditions between the colonizer and colonized connected to literature in personal mythical way rather than for what it can say about current conditions fails to see larger systems operating The Donnelly twins those few individuals working beyond the immediate context of the play whose commitments to resisting and challenging the colonizer lmperialist see the relationship akin to war actively attempt to destabilize the colonizer through violence may increase tensions between the colonizer and the colonized increase aggression of colonizer as they respond to threatening resistance also serve as a kind of heroic myth that encourages those who resist or resent the colonizer
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