ARH 358 Study Guide For midterm
ARH 358 Study Guide For midterm ARH 358
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Skylar Evans on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ARH 358 at University of Oregon taught by Lord C in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see History of Design >1 in Art History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
ARH 358 Study Guide for Midterm quotDisegno the Italian word for design is the imitation of the most beautiful things of nature in all gures whether painted or chiseled and this requires a hand and genius to transfer everything which the eye sees exactly and correctly whether it be in drawings on paper panel or other surface both in relief and sculpture Style is improved by frequently copying the most beautiful things and by combining the nest members whether hands heads bodies or legs to produce a perfect gure which being introduced in every work and in every gure form which is known as a ne style Na turalism Design is a process of creation invention and de nition separated from the means of production involving an eventual synthesis of contributory and often con icting factors into a concept of three dimensional form and its material reality capable of multiple reproduction by mechanical means It is thus speci cally linked to the development of industrialization and mechanization that began with the Industrial Revolution around 1770 J Heskett Industrial Design 19802010 The foundation of modern industrial design is the separation of design amp manufacture This occurs over a long process of evolution Design and the Industrial Revolution 17701850 ROYAL SPONSORSHIP OF DESIGN amp PRODUCTION OF LUXURY COMMODITIES WERE ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT IN THE 1617 CENTURIES The rise of luxury trade was often supported by monarchies Unicorn tapestries produced by the Gobelins factory France established 1602 by French King Henry IV Pattern Book of Balthasar Sylvius Flanders 15005 Furniture makers ribbon makers and other types of makers like these found pattern books very useful process of separation occurred in the early middle Ages which was the beginning of capitalism and an organized system of trade specialization begins to develop in the 6th century 17th century strengthening of nation states and the rise of empires production of luxury goods supported by monarchy to maintain the quality of design unicorn tapestries produced by the Gobelins factory France established in 1692 by King Henry IV Royal sponsorship of design and production of luxury commodities was especially important in the 16th and 17th centuries Charles le Brun court painter to Louis Xl assumes direction of GobeHns Louis XIV had a photographic mind and played a huge role in the French fashion industry The Gobelins factory is an early example of modern production under constant research and renovation Gobelins is an early example of modern production under constant research amp renovation The most advanced technology was also used in royal porcelain factories The 1st of these established by Grand Duke of Saxony at Meissen outside Dresden 1709 The foundation of modern industrial design is the separation Gobelins is an early example of modern production under constant research and renovation The most advanced technology was also used in royal porcelain factories The rst of these established by grand Duke of Saxony at Meissen outside Dresden 1709 Examples of Meissen porcelain German appear very appealing and elegant and expensive Next stage of modern production development occurs in England 1st site if industrial revolution English court exerts less control compared to Germany and France Free enterprises ourish small entrepreneurs respond to growing consumer demand for luxury goods Metal industry is among the rst areas of reformMatthew Boultan is a leader of this reform Development of machinery This reform brings out change gain market share growing class of entrepreneurs rise in the enterprises in England 1759 Boulton takes over father s business manufacturing metal buttons and buckles Increases metal production through innovations Design by individuals who learn on the job increased production while selling more cheaply New machines amp processes 01761 links new factory to water power 0600 employees by 1766 017705 partners with James Watt in development of steam engine then uses steam engine powering his manufacturing Boultan tea urns classical view of English drinking tea An example of traditional early Strafford shire ceramic prior to the modernization of production Josiah Wedgwood is the leader of the shift from craft to industrial production of ceramics in England Wedgwood First pay s vase 1769 created to commemorate new 1769 factory named quotEthruriaquot for recent ltalian excavation site with remarkable nd of classical pottery Wedgwood also associated with scientists and industrialists in English Midlands the heart of the industrial revolution The simplicity of Wedgwood s neoclassical design anticipates stripped functionalism of later modernist design core design thinking John Flaxman very close study of antiques independent sculptural deggn Foundation of art classics Typography and Printed materials The accelerated production of consumer goods metal goodsBoulton ceramicsWedgewood using industrial means is paralleled by the production of Information in the form of printed materials Typography was traditional in the 17705 The layout of the print was small but modern like Typography the accelerated experience design layout and appearance to the viewer The development of modern typography design was crucial to the industrial revolution The European printing industry evolved from the development of woodcut illustration and printing in 15th century This mechanically reproducible image replaced the hand painted manuscript see Douce Apocalypse 1265 as example of the hand painted manuscript Woodcut is a type of relief printing negative areas are cut away from the initial drawing and remaining raised areas inked Any color was added by hand Woodcut printing the invention of engraving a very sophisticated process King s roman typeface created by committee commissioned French king Louis XIV in 1692 Development of engraving the sharpness and height detail that created effects in engraving Newspapers exploding in the 19005 Typography becomes a fashionable language and an important part of consumer culture All iron printing presses developed in England lnvention of lithography in 1796 Lithography limestone was a popular use because of the drawing qualities and it allowed for more detailed sensitive more personal medium closes the gap between printing and drawing Beginning of Design Reform 1 19 quot Century The importance of image Baron Gros Rest house at Jaffa 1804napolean is the center gure propagandistic painting marketing the view of exotic cultures exotic furniture of the 19th century The design of new ideas for furniture responds and changing according to the changing political scene New processes develop to create more functional designs not stimulating early designs Ex The garden furniture design by Karl Friedrichdesigned with skillful economical materials German Austrian Designer Michael Thonet s design of steamed bentwood furniture another example of responding to the unprecedented cultural climate Bidermeier the most simpli ed functional furniture style emerged in Austria 18201850 this was linked to the emergence of German middle class and simple neoclassical forms and there was also an emphasis on the use of simple materials and comfort Christopher Dresser Was famous for botanical drawings a reformist contributed to Owen Jones Focused on the patterns and details of nature in uenced by Asian art Academy of Fine arts Philadelphia rst art academy in the US architect Frank Furness
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