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UO / Art / ART 358 / What is the italian word for design?

What is the italian word for design?

What is the italian word for design?

Description

School: University of Oregon
Department: Art
Course: History of Design
Professor: C
Term: Summer 2015
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Cost: 50
Name: ARH 358 Study Guide For midterm
Description: Here is a detailed overview of the material we have studied in the past 4 weeks!
Uploaded: 10/26/2015
4 Pages 46 Views 3 Unlocks
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ARH 358


What is the italian word for design?



Study Guide for Midterm!

“Disegno” the Italian word for design, is the imitation of the  most beautiful things of nature in all  

figures, whether painted or chiseled, and this requires a hand  and genius to transfer everything which the eye sees, exactly  and correctly, whether it be in drawings, on paper panel, or  other surface, both in relief and sculpture. Style is improved  by frequently copying the most beautiful things, and by  combining the finest members, whether hands, heads, bodies  or legs, to produce a perfect figure, which, being introduced in every work and in every figure, form which is known as a fine  style.

*Naturalism

*Design is a process of creation, invention and definition separated  from the means of production, involving an eventual synthesis of  contributory and often conflicting factors into a concept of three dimensional form and its material reality, capable of multiple  reproduction by mechanical means. It is thus specifically linked to the development of industrialization and mechanization that began  with the Industrial Revolution around 1770


What's an early example of modern production under constant research and renovation?



We also discuss several other topics like In what way does enzymes help animals in digestion?

J. Heskett,

Industrial Design

(1980/2010)

*The foundation of modern industrial design is the separation of design & manufacture. This occurs over a long process of evolution.

Design and the Industrial Revolution 1770-1850 

*ROYAL SPONSORSHIP OF DESIGN & PRODUCTION OF LUXURY COMMODITIES WERE ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT IN THE 16-17 CENTURIES.

*The rise of luxury trade was often supported by monarchies. Unicorn  tapestries produced by the Gobelins factory, France, established 1602  by French King Henry IV.

*Pattern Book of Balthasar Sylvius, Flanders, 1500s.

Furniture makers, ribbon makers, and other types of makers like these  found pattern books very useful.


When did typography begin as a tradition?



*process of separation occurred in the early middle Ages, which was  the beginning of capitalism and an organized system of trade. *specialization begins to develop in the 6th century  

*17th century- strengthening of nation states and the rise of empires  *production of luxury goods supported by monarchy to maintain the  quality of design  If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between hate speech and fight words?

*unicorn tapestries produced by the Gobelins factory France  established in 1692 by King Henry IV

*Royal sponsorship of design and production of luxury commodities  was especially important in the 16th and 17th centuries.  *Charles le Brun, court painter to Louis XI, assumes direction of  Gobelins

*Louis XIV had a photographic mind and played a huge role in the  French fashion industry.  

*The Gobelins factory is an early example of modern production under  constant research and renovation.

* Gobelins is an early example of modern production under constant research & renovation  

*The most advanced technology was also used in royal porcelain  factories.

*The 1st of these established by Grand Duke of Saxony at Meissen  outside Dresden, 1709

*The foundation of modern industrial design is the separation *Gobelins is an early example of modern production under constant  research and renovation If you want to learn more check out How does race affect stratification?

*The most advanced technology was also used in royal porcelain  factories

* The first of these established by grand Duke of Saxony at Meissen  outside Dresden, 1709.

* Examples of Meissen porcelain (German) appear very appealing and  elegant and expensive

*Next stage of modern production development occurs in England, 1st site if industrial revolution.  

*English court exerts less control compared to Germany and France  *Free enterprises flourish, small entrepreneurs respond to growing  consumer demand for luxury goods.

* Metal industry is among the first areas of reform-Matthew Boultan is  a leader of this reform. Development of machinery. This reform brings  out change, gain market share; growing class of entrepreneurs, rise in  the enterprises in England.

* 1759,

Boulton takes over father’s business manufacturing metal buttons and  buckles.  

Increases metal production through innovations.  

•Design by individuals who learn on the job increased production while

selling

more cheaply

•New machines & processes

•1761 links new factory to water If you want to learn more check out What is cardiac output?

power

•600 employees by 1766

•1770s partners with James Watt in

development of steam engine, then

uses steam engine powering his

manufacturing

*Boultan tea urns- classical view of English drinking tea *An example of traditional early Strafford shire ceramic prior to the  modernization of production.

*Josiah Wedgwood is the leader of the shift from craft to industrial  production of ceramics in England.  

*Wedgwood, First pay’s vase 1769 created to commemorate new 1769  factory named “Ethruria” for recent Italian excavation site with  remarkable find of classical pottery.  Don't forget about the age old question of Who proved the existence of radio waves and electromagnetic waves?

*Wedgwood also associated with scientists and industrialists in English  Midlands the heart of the industrial revolution.

*The simplicity of Wedgwood’s neoclassical design anticipates stripped  functionalism of later modernist design (core design thinking) *John Flaxman- very close study of antiques independent sculptural  design  

*Foundation of art- classics  

Typography and Printed materials  

*The accelerated production of consumer goods (metal goods/Boulton,  ceramics/Wedgewood) using industrial means is paralleled by the  production of

Information in the form of printed materials

*Typography was traditional in the 1770s.

* The layout of the print was small but modern like  

* Typography- the accelerated experience, design, layout and  appearance to the viewer

* The development of modern typography design was crucial to the  industrial revolution.  

* The European printing industry evolved from the development  of woodcut illustration and printing in 15th century. This mechanically  reproducible image replaced the hand painted manuscript (see Douce  Apocalypse, 1265, as example of the hand painted manuscript). *Woodcut is a type of relief printing; negative areas are cut away from  the initial

drawing, and remaining raised areas inked. Any color was added by  hand.

* Woodcut printing – the invention of engraving a very sophisticated  process We also discuss several other topics like When is robbery most likely to occur?

* King’s roman typeface- created by committee commissioned French  king Louis XIV in 1692

* Development of engraving- the sharpness and height, detail that  created effects in engraving

* Newspapers exploding in the 1900s  

*Typography becomes a fashionable language and an important part of consumer culture.  

* All iron printing presses developed in England

*Invention of lithography in 1796  

* Lithography- limestone was a popular use because of the drawing  qualities and it allowed for more detailed sensitive more personal  medium; closes the gap between printing and drawing

Beginning of Design Reform 1- 19th Century  

*The importance of image  

* Baron Gros. Rest house at Jaffa, 1804-napolean is the center figure propagandistic painting marketing the view of exotic cultures (exotic  furniture of the 19th century)

* The design of new ideas for furniture responds and changing  according to the changing political scene. New processes develop to  create more functional designs not stimulating early designs. Ex. The  garden furniture design by Karl Friedrich-designed with skillful,  economical materials  

* German- Austrian Designer Michael Thonet’s design of steamed  bentwood furniture- another example of responding to the  unprecedented cultural climate.

* Bidermeier, the most simplified functional furniture style emerged in  Austria 1820-1850, this was linked to the emergence of German middle class and simple neoclassical forms, and there was also an emphasis  on the use of simple materials and comfort.  

Christopher Dresser

*Was famous for botanical drawings, a reformist, contributed to Owen  Jones

* Focused on the patterns and details of nature influenced by Asian art * Academy of Fine arts, Philadelphia- first art academy in the US architect, Frank Furness

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