Study Guide for Midterm!
“Disegno” the Italian word for design, is the imitation of the most beautiful things of nature in all
figures, whether painted or chiseled, and this requires a hand and genius to transfer everything which the eye sees, exactly and correctly, whether it be in drawings, on paper panel, or other surface, both in relief and sculpture. Style is improved by frequently copying the most beautiful things, and by combining the finest members, whether hands, heads, bodies or legs, to produce a perfect figure, which, being introduced in every work and in every figure, form which is known as a fine style.
*Design is a process of creation, invention and definition separated from the means of production, involving an eventual synthesis of contributory and often conflicting factors into a concept of three dimensional form and its material reality, capable of multiple reproduction by mechanical means. It is thus specifically linked to the development of industrialization and mechanization that began with the Industrial Revolution around 1770
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*The foundation of modern industrial design is the separation of design & manufacture. This occurs over a long process of evolution.
Design and the Industrial Revolution 1770-1850
*ROYAL SPONSORSHIP OF DESIGN & PRODUCTION OF LUXURY COMMODITIES WERE ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT IN THE 16-17 CENTURIES.
*The rise of luxury trade was often supported by monarchies. Unicorn tapestries produced by the Gobelins factory, France, established 1602 by French King Henry IV.
*Pattern Book of Balthasar Sylvius, Flanders, 1500s.
Furniture makers, ribbon makers, and other types of makers like these found pattern books very useful.
*process of separation occurred in the early middle Ages, which was the beginning of capitalism and an organized system of trade. *specialization begins to develop in the 6th century
*17th century- strengthening of nation states and the rise of empires *production of luxury goods supported by monarchy to maintain the quality of design If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between hate speech and fight words?
*unicorn tapestries produced by the Gobelins factory France established in 1692 by King Henry IV
*Royal sponsorship of design and production of luxury commodities was especially important in the 16th and 17th centuries. *Charles le Brun, court painter to Louis XI, assumes direction of Gobelins
*Louis XIV had a photographic mind and played a huge role in the French fashion industry.
*The Gobelins factory is an early example of modern production under constant research and renovation.
* Gobelins is an early example of modern production under constant research & renovation
*The most advanced technology was also used in royal porcelain factories.
*The 1st of these established by Grand Duke of Saxony at Meissen outside Dresden, 1709
*The foundation of modern industrial design is the separation *Gobelins is an early example of modern production under constant research and renovation If you want to learn more check out How does race affect stratification?
*The most advanced technology was also used in royal porcelain factories
* The first of these established by grand Duke of Saxony at Meissen outside Dresden, 1709.
* Examples of Meissen porcelain (German) appear very appealing and elegant and expensive
*Next stage of modern production development occurs in England, 1st site if industrial revolution.
*English court exerts less control compared to Germany and France *Free enterprises flourish, small entrepreneurs respond to growing consumer demand for luxury goods.
* Metal industry is among the first areas of reform-Matthew Boultan is a leader of this reform. Development of machinery. This reform brings out change, gain market share; growing class of entrepreneurs, rise in the enterprises in England.
Boulton takes over father’s business manufacturing metal buttons and buckles.
Increases metal production through innovations.
•Design by individuals who learn on the job increased production while
•New machines & processes
•1761 links new factory to water If you want to learn more check out What is cardiac output?
•600 employees by 1766
•1770s partners with James Watt in
development of steam engine, then
uses steam engine powering his
*Boultan tea urns- classical view of English drinking tea *An example of traditional early Strafford shire ceramic prior to the modernization of production.
*Josiah Wedgwood is the leader of the shift from craft to industrial production of ceramics in England.
*Wedgwood, First pay’s vase 1769 created to commemorate new 1769 factory named “Ethruria” for recent Italian excavation site with remarkable find of classical pottery. Don't forget about the age old question of Who proved the existence of radio waves and electromagnetic waves?
*Wedgwood also associated with scientists and industrialists in English Midlands the heart of the industrial revolution.
*The simplicity of Wedgwood’s neoclassical design anticipates stripped functionalism of later modernist design (core design thinking) *John Flaxman- very close study of antiques independent sculptural design
*Foundation of art- classics
Typography and Printed materials
*The accelerated production of consumer goods (metal goods/Boulton, ceramics/Wedgewood) using industrial means is paralleled by the production of
Information in the form of printed materials
*Typography was traditional in the 1770s.
* The layout of the print was small but modern like
* Typography- the accelerated experience, design, layout and appearance to the viewer
* The development of modern typography design was crucial to the industrial revolution.
* The European printing industry evolved from the development of woodcut illustration and printing in 15th century. This mechanically reproducible image replaced the hand painted manuscript (see Douce Apocalypse, 1265, as example of the hand painted manuscript). *Woodcut is a type of relief printing; negative areas are cut away from the initial
drawing, and remaining raised areas inked. Any color was added by hand.
* Woodcut printing – the invention of engraving a very sophisticated process We also discuss several other topics like When is robbery most likely to occur?
* King’s roman typeface- created by committee commissioned French king Louis XIV in 1692
* Development of engraving- the sharpness and height, detail that created effects in engraving
* Newspapers exploding in the 1900s
*Typography becomes a fashionable language and an important part of consumer culture.
* All iron printing presses developed in England
*Invention of lithography in 1796
* Lithography- limestone was a popular use because of the drawing qualities and it allowed for more detailed sensitive more personal medium; closes the gap between printing and drawing
Beginning of Design Reform 1- 19th Century
*The importance of image
* Baron Gros. Rest house at Jaffa, 1804-napolean is the center figure propagandistic painting marketing the view of exotic cultures (exotic furniture of the 19th century)
* The design of new ideas for furniture responds and changing according to the changing political scene. New processes develop to create more functional designs not stimulating early designs. Ex. The garden furniture design by Karl Friedrich-designed with skillful, economical materials
* German- Austrian Designer Michael Thonet’s design of steamed bentwood furniture- another example of responding to the unprecedented cultural climate.
* Bidermeier, the most simplified functional furniture style emerged in Austria 1820-1850, this was linked to the emergence of German middle class and simple neoclassical forms, and there was also an emphasis on the use of simple materials and comfort.
*Was famous for botanical drawings, a reformist, contributed to Owen Jones
* Focused on the patterns and details of nature influenced by Asian art * Academy of Fine arts, Philadelphia- first art academy in the US architect, Frank Furness