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Study Guide - Exam #1

by: Taylor Twadelle

Study Guide - Exam #1 HSTCMP 269 A

Taylor Twadelle
GPA 3.75
The Holocaust: History and Memory
Christopher Browning

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A study guide of the lectures' terms and some general themes for the first exam.
The Holocaust: History and Memory
Christopher Browning
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor Twadelle on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HSTCMP 269 A at University of Washington taught by Christopher Browning in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see The Holocaust: History and Memory in History at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
HSTCMP 269 A Study Guide Exam 1 Terms War crimes violations of international law about what one can do in war Crimes aoainst humanitv Ethnic cleansino invented in 1990s by Milosevic Balkan wars 0 Population expulsion getting territory wo the inhabitants Raphael Lemkin 0 Polish jurist invented the term 39genocide39 killing of a particular group Genocide UN de nition intent of destruction in whole or in part of an ethnic religious or national group 0 Partial no threshold established 0 Cultural forced cutura assimilation 0 Total kill all physically not just erase identity Holocaustholocaust o olocaust experience between 19331945 that culminated in Hitler s attempt to destroy all Jews 0 olocaust generic term for total genocide quotChristkiller accusationquot 50 years or so AD goes as far as to implicate Jews in cruci xion ofJesus quothequot Pontius Pilate handed quothimquot Jesus over to quotthemquot Jews for cruci xion 0 False accusation Cruci xion was a penalty for political crime ony administrated by Romans Teaching of Contempt Christians and Jews are demonizing each other competing as two small monotheistic sects in Roman empire Theoloov of Supersession Christians put forward that Jesus39 resurrection supersedes Jews39 covenant with God as chosen people 4th century Constantine egaizes Christianity and his successors move to make Christianity of cial religion of Roman empire 0 Now an unequal battle between small monotheistic religion and state religion of Roman empire 0 But Judaism is not outlawed unlike other religions polytheism abused mistreated discriminated against but not outlawed antiSemitism 0 Gavin Langmuir medieval scholar argues antiSemitism was invented in Middle Ages 0 Emergence of broad negative antiJewish stereotype embedded in European culture 0 Langmuir antiSemitism is a form of prejudice Realistic prejudice prediction of what other is going to do based on what you39re doing behavioractions of other is same as yours Xenoohobic preiudice quototheringquot of group taking observable events of some people in group and attributing as characteristic of entire group paints a uniform false negative generalization 0 Key to understanding the anxieties of group making accusation more descriptive of accusers than accused group Chimeric preiudice when people make totally madeup manufactured accusations against outgroup based on no observable behavior Grows from deeplyrooted xenophobic prejudice Way of diagnosing what social ills of society people are worried about Usury moneylending at extremely high interest rates Selfful lling prophecy did not bear arms because they were not allowed to usurers bc they were allowed to collect tax antisocial bc they were sequestered to separate living areas 0 Majority steered behavior of minority in path that reinforced negative stereotypes First Crusade 1096 0 Christian crusaders attacked Jewish communities on way to Palestine First mass killing ofjews in Europe Accusations of ritual murderblood libel product of chimeric prejudice o Church39s validation increases credibility o Monarchs begin to resort to expulsion Black Death Martin Luther Enliohtenment Secularization Relioious Toleration Cultural Assimilation Social Darwinism special path why did Germany follow a different path than other Western countries Militarism role of military in society 0 From origins Germany was far more militarized society 0 obedience to authority Reactionarv modernism jeffrey Herf Germany became center of anti Napoleonic position in opposition to everything French Failed Revolution Bielefeld School failed revolution of 1848 0 Every successful liberal democracy requires a revolution that chops off head of authoritarian monarch o 1848 quotturning point in German history that did not turnquot revolution thatfaHed Eliminationist AntiSemitism Daniel Goldhagen Germany had a more extreme lethal form of AntiSemitism o Inevitable that genocide would take place Crisis of Classical Modernitv Detlev Peukert Germany experiences compressed extreme form of modernization Not citizenship in a state German by virtue of language traditions customs Kulturnation vs staatsnation German quotvokquot ethnicity race culture German people King of Prussia appoints Otto von Bismarck as chancellor to block pressures for reform o Bismarck Prussian aristocrat amp quotenlightened conservativequot things are going to change cannot maintain old order forever 18805 rise of German AntiSemitism coined by Wilhelm Marr o Germanness is being eroded byJewishness Materialism urbanization o Marr opposed notJewish religion but cultural rami cations ofJews in German society argument that he is not antiJewish but antiSemitic 0 Social question is the quotJewish questionquot 0 Cultural pessimism culture is in a process of irreversible decline bc ofJewish in uence Otto Glaoau antiSemitic writer accused Jews of being cause of all faulty nancial transactions 1877ish his book inaugurated popular antiSemitic movement Reichstag elected political parties that do not have control over foreign affairs military cannot elect chancellor who is appointed by emperor Adolf Stocker led Christian Social political party aimed at working class lower middle class artisans shopkeepers Tivoli Prooram conservative party adopts antiSemitism as party platform in 1892 0 Vienna in 18905 Karl Lueger begins Christian political movement based on same ideals quotCultural codequot Shulamit Volkov o Argues in the 18905 that antiSemitism in Germany and Austria is a cultural code buzzword symbolizing a position in the political spectrum that symbolizes much more package deal PanGermanism sought to unify all the Germanspeaking populations of Europe in a single nationstate known as Greater Germany community of the people principle of strong leader Fascism the last stage of capitalism after capitalist crisis 0 Engendered totalitarianism Hitler and Stalin two sides of the totalitarian coin fascist and socialist o Fascism is the quotmiddle extremequot right extreme is authoritarianism left extreme is communism Corporatism Mussolini Economic solution to end division between management and workers 0 in Hitler39s words national socialism o Create corporate sectors for transportation industry etc that brings together management and workers jointly working for national interest Dual Revolution doubleedged sword Economically bene ciary but creates new opportunities for antiSemitism o Liberalnational democratic revolution amp nationalism 0 Industrial Revolution lewish Emancipation o Liberaldemocratic revolution brought about equality before the law without legal hindrances end of legal discrimination o Vast new economic opportunities Gobineau articulated a racial theory of history 0 Traced Europe39s success superiority to fact that Roman Empire had been conquered by small group of NordicGermanic invaders 0 European race had been based upon noble blood notion of pure races superior to mixed races Eugenics intentional improvement of society through genetics heredity Pogrom originated in Russia Jews attacked by mobs Protocols of the Elders of Zion Russian propaganda antiSemitic hoax describing Jewish plan for world domination Drevfus Affair France 18905 0 French military intelligence discover someone is selling secrets to Germany 0 One Jew on general staff Dreyfus patriotic assimilated French Jew Military intelligence assume he is culprit only someone who is 39not a part of France39 would betray it Zionism demand for a Jewish nation Eberhard lackel German historian Hitler quotStab in the backquot PostWWI collapse of civilian morale 0 Jewish pro teers who had made money off the war but not served at fronts Jewish internationalists Jewish communists who supported Bolshevik revolution ludeoBolshevism o Versailles Treaty was punishment forced to disarm give up territories pay reparations Gemlich letter asking what the nature of the Jewish question was turned over to Hitler to answer 0 Hitler39s rst quotpolitical documentquot Not a religious but racial question space for living expanding limits in which Germans had to live within similar to manifest destiny Psvchohistorv attempt to understand a psychological explanation for Hitler s acUons 0 Based upon speculation rather than evidence democratic Weimar Republic instituted but has trouble gaining control over country quotincomplete revolutionquot postWWI paramilitary formations allied to every political party for protection at rallies gatherings street brawls etc o Nazi freikorps are brown shirts Beer Hall Putsch attempt at a violent seizure of power in Munich to be followed by a march on Berlin 0 Army and police do not give way Hitler put on trial for treason o Hitler turns trial into political event to promote Nazism quottactics of leoalitvquot use democratic system to destroy democratic system o Nazi party must transform from street ghting party into one that wins electoral votes from populace Proportional representation in Weimar Republic each district has a number of delegates where 55 of votes gets 55 of delegates Article 48 emergency powers of the President under Weimar Constitution including suspending certain constitutional rights and in cases where there is no majority to make a presidential appointment of a German Chancellor 0 German Chancellor is not elected and has power to issue laws by decree unless there is a coherent majority to veto his propositions In 1929 US and Germany had negotiated Young Plan to manage Versailles Treaty reparations payments being scaled up 0 All of Germany has a referendum on the Young Plan Hitler nanced as campaigner against Young Plan and gains popularity Heinrich Briining Nominated by Hindenburg to be chancellor Weimar Republic 193032 faced w economic crisis from Great Depression issues austerity budget as decree o Austerity plan vetoed by a coalition negative majority quotHunger Chancellorquot Kurt von Schleicher Hindenburg39s chief political advisor o Attempted to negotiate w political parties in order to pass amendment to extend Hindenburg39s term wo election 0 Became chancellor at some point Nazis agree to temporarily support Franz von Papen if he agrees to dissolve Reichstag Gregor Strasser Nazi party member encourages Hitler to accept vice chancellor position to von Papen before people lose faith in Nazi party 0 Hitler won t accept compromise goes for broke quotsteering in the same directionquot ie the Nazi direction Karl Dietrich Bracher German political historian of Gleichschaltung o quotleoal revolutionquot Hitler had come to power via quottactics of legalityquot amp can construct dictatorship legally dismantle Weimar Constitution Opposition becomes illegal 0 quotnational revolutionquot rhetoric in 1933 is of a quotnational salvationquot to oppose is to be unpatriotic Reichstao Fire February 1933 Reichstag subject to arson o Wo any evidence Hitler declares it a communist plot tells Hindenburg to issue more emergency decrees Fire Decrees o power of German police to arrest anyone deemed as needed to be in quotprotective custodyquot wo charges warrant trial defense etc end of due process 0 Also allowed dismantling and reformation of state governments Enabling Act amendment to the constitution allows Hitler to issue decrees wo passing laws through Reichstag essentially setting aside constitution Law for the Restoration of the Civil Service 0 Passed via the Enabling Act 0 Anyone whose past behavior was questionablepolitically unreliable according to Nazi interests could be dismissed Civil service then asked to be admitted to Nazi party as job protection 0 Allows dismissal of all civil servants ofjewish background First major piece of antijewish legislation Ernst Rohm leader of SA advocate that revolution has ended too soon that Hitler owes supporters such as SA a bigger share of spoils o Himmler and Gorino align w army provide evidence that Rohm is plotting an uprising of his own Blood Purge june 30th 1934 Hitler decides to get rid of Rohm SS arrests Rohm many of SA leadership many are summarily executed Dual state Nazi Germany was both a judicial state and Nazi state union of both legal and arbitrary governing Four Pillars Franz Neumann made up by army Nazi party civil service captains of industry 0 Not a monolithic dictatorship but rather a power conglomerate governed as a collective oligarchy of four pillars serving their own interests Neofeudal model Robert Koehl power brokers in Nazi Germany were Hitler s quotvassalsquot who built up minikingdoms as blocks of power 0 Power depended upon chain of personal relationships between king vassals knights etc where efs were granted in exchange for loyalty 0 Successful quotvassalsquot in Nazi Germany collected power from various sectorspillars not just one quotNeoative Selectionquot Martin Broszat selection of certain issues pertaining to minority groups wo any leverage in the political system 0 Left other issues that would have been at expense of large constituencies left aside quotCumulative Radicalizationquot Hans Mommsen in Hitler39s feudal kingdom all are vying for Hitler39s favor anticipating his strategiesneeds without his micromanagement of every aspect of each policy 0 All competition was in direction of quotwhat further can we do to harm jews in Germanyquot quotWorkino toward the Fiihrerquot lan Kershaw acting without waiting to be told what to do 0 Hitler rewards initiative those who gure out what Hitler wants and do it wo orders are rewarded lntentionalism amp Functionalismstructuralism Tim Mason British historian o lntentionalists things happened as they did bc Hitler intended it o Functionalists how things happened were not towards the ful llment of a grand design quotTwisted Road to Auschwitzquot Karl Schleunes relies on functionalist explanation for how regime arrived at death camps boycott ofjewish businesses organized by lulius Streicher publisher of anti Semitic propaganda late March 1933 Aryan paragraph enacts more legal restrictions againstjews 0 Reserves membership property rights etc for those exclusively of quotAryanquot descent racial de lementshame Hitler s minister of nance 0 Summer of 1935 tells Hitler to keep Jewish policy out of the economy in pursuit of economic recovery lowering unemployment Niirnberg Nuremberg Laws 0 prohibition of marriages between Germans and Jews 0 sexual relations outside of marriage between Germans and Jews prohibited policed by local informants o Aryan women under 45 cannot be hired as domestics in Jewish households one Jewish grandparent not involved in the Jewish community not married to a Jew quotlessquot Jewish two Jewish grandparents involved in the Jewish community or married to a Jew quotmorequot Jewish 0 Those of quotstrikingly Jewish appearancequot can be categorized arbitrarily Heinrich Himmler head of SS and Hermann Goring founder of the Gestapo Minister of the Interior of Prussia head of the Four Year Plan 0 Himmler of cial founder of concentration camp system taken over German police Asks quotWhere is this all going What does it mean to solve the Jewish questionquot Within group begin drafting solutions to quotJewish questionquot ultimate goal is that Germany should be free ofJews 0 To achieve this accelerate immigration Replace voluntary immigration w coerced immigration Four Year Plan needed to scale back strain on the economy Goring coordinates all aspects of German government amp is in charge of economy 0 Aryanization transfers Jewish property businesses to German ownership Haavara Aoreement undercut boycott by cutting a deal w Zionists in Palestine 0 German Jews could deposit their property in a locked account in Germany leave for Palestine and once they reached Palestine they could reclaim a fraction of their property in the locked account As long as the rest of the property in the account was used by Zionist agency to buy and export German goods German annexation of Austria in 1938 Adolf Eichmann SS of cer appointed in charge ofJewish emigration by Reinhard Heydrich other SS of cer amp major organizer of Holocaust o achieved greater rate ofJewish emigration in Austria than in Germany Evian Conference meeting in Switzerland to alleviate Jewish refugee crisis 0 No countries offerJews refuge Herschel Grvn52pan undocumented refugee snuck over the border to Paris 0 Put on trial in Germany for shooting Nazi of cer trial cancelled over accusation of of cer as homosexual loseph Goebbels gives speech at celebration of Beer Hall Putsch advocating nationwide pogrom as a result of above trial 0 Burning of synagogues sacking of stores KristallnachtNovember Pogrom SchachtRublee talks between German nance minister and a representative of Evian conference 0 Schacht travelled to London to propose to George Rublee of the Intergovernmental Committee for Political Refugees an extortionate scheme German Jews could emigrate if they put up cash assets that would be transferred to the Reich upon emigration This Schacht Rublee plan was abandoned in January 1939 Sets stage for lanuarv 30 1939 Reichstad Speech 6th anniversary of Nazi seizure of power 0 On Jewish question disparages Western powers for criticizing Nazi treatment ofJews but not taking them in as refugees mocking of Western powers 0 Issues threat another world war would not mean the destruction of Germany but the destruction of the Jewish race in Europe Followers now must interpret what next steps should be 0 Hitler now thinking in European framework rather than just German 0 Essay Section major themes Kaplan persecution was gendered Gotz antiSemitism driven by jealousy AntiSemitism progressed slowly many Jews weren39t able to see it coming or due to waves or persecutioncalm amp long history of suffering believed they could endure until it passed over 0 Until 3839 Kristallnacht o 1933 is the civic death of German Jews but 1935 is the social death of German Jews Tactics of legality allowed legal dictatorship legalization of antiSemitic laws 0 Relieved German public of moral implications 0 Nazi party enjoyed widespread support were not just for one interest party but for entire German society 0 AntiSemitic laws were gradual systematic ega Article 48 suspending constitution appointing chancellor w decree power in absence of majority Enabling Act allowed Hitler to pass decrees wo going through Reichstag o Backed by quotsciencequot Eugenics theory of racial history Gobineau Looking back intentionalism vs functionalism Tim Mason Things didn39t happen in a purposeful directionbecause Hitler had a speci c endgame Nazi regime reacted to situations as they rose quotworked towards the fiihrerquot Ian Kershaw 0 Policy was quotcumulatively radicalizedquot Hans Mommsen Looking back lack of unity of German identity caused overcompensation of nationalism kulturnation vs staatsnation need to solidify quotusquot by nding a quotthemquot Also Treaty of Versailles extreme punitive measures reinforced necessity of German identity and scapegoating


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