Midterm Study Guide HIST 1011, World History 1500-Present
Midterm Study Guide HIST 1011, World History 1500-Present HIST 1011
Popular in World History, 1500-Present
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lizzy Dawahare on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1011 at George Washington University taught by Professor Dane Kennedy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 779 views. For similar materials see World History, 1500-Present in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Terms Ibn Battuta 13041369 Muslim scholar from Morocco known for his travels made a series of extensive journeys throughout his lifetime visited most of the Islamic world and Africa in a 30year period worked as a judge for some time in India Mali Muslim empire that arises in 1240 indicative of the power that Dar AlIslam had throughout the region principal source of gold for the Europeans and other Middle Easterners established the capitol Timbuktu as a center for learning Zheng He 13711435 Admiral Muslim eunuch proved that he couldn t have any legitimate children so he could not have an heir and betray the ruler led a series of naval expeditions between 1405 and 1433 to establish diplomatic relations with other states indicated to all of its neighbors throughout the region that China was the most powerful state Huge scale of voyages first expedition had a fleet of 300 ships 27000 sailors some vessels were 10x greater than the largest European ships of that day After 1433 new emperor dismantled entire fleet and ceased voyages historians say there were too many internal conflicts at the time amp required China to focus on their own issues instead of directing their attention toward other states others argue China was too centralized amp emperor saw voyages as a threat to his authority also the case that China had no universal religion that would give them an incentive to go out and convert others may also be as simple as the possibility that the emperor believed the outside world didn t have much to offer China had means but not motive to engage in this kind of expansion dar alIslam The World of Islam Stretches from southern Spain to the Middle East and across most of Asia no emperor not politically unified source of social cohesion for these regions Islam is a universalist religion not based to lineage open to anyone intended for all of humankind similar to Christianity and Buddhism holy sacred book important not only because of its content but because it gives an incentive for literacy and learning In theory everyone should have the opportunity to have access to the direct word of God in Islam it is available to anyone who can read Arabic source of cohesion linguistic third source of cohesion is that all Muslims who have the ability to do so are obligated to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetimes Not everyone who lived in Dar AlIslam was Muslim The majority was non Muslim Ferdinand Madellan 15191522 3year circumnavigation of the world incredibly miserable of the 280 men who embarked on the journey only 18 returned Peace of Westphalia Peace treaty that brought an end to the Thirty Years War in 1648 one of the first international agreements beginning of declining power for monarchs in Europe Industrious Revolution Revolution in industriousness result of the end of the Feudal System and serfdom former serfs congregate in towns and cities and engage in manufacturing textiles metal tools ships etc rise in banks modern bookkeeping mechanisms private shareholding companies all of the things that we associate with capitalism begin to show in Europe during this period gothic Cathedrals Virgin Soil Epidemi Native Americans had no immunity to European diseases Estimate 90 of Native Americans died from European illnesses within 100 years 1519 1810 approximately 50 epidemics through the central highlands of Mexico the population was slashed from 25 million to 860000 in 100 years Encomienda System in which forced labor must pay and work for land often used with Spanish creates demand for cheap labor eventually starts slave trade operated in haciendas natives have to pay taxes and work for landlord in order to stay in region forced labor not slavery cannot be sold on marketplace subject to will of landlords Mestizo children of mixed race rights of Mestizo compared to English Americas one drop rule presumption one drop of certain racial blood how race is identified NOT in Spanish America Certain degradations 12 Spanish 14 Mexican so on elaborate social distinctions upper ranks mixed race heritage not a disadvantage for social advancement so few European whites embrace mixed races more Creoles hybrid culture Mexican European some African traditions Voodoo Joint Stock Companv Efficient form of commercial organization enabled investors to realized profits while limiting the risk to their investments English East India Company founded in 1600 and its Dutch counterpart the United East India Company VOC Vereenigde Oostlndische Compagnie Conguistador Aristocratic adventurers driven by desire to achieve glory through conquest and to achieve wealth through taking riches from other people in the course of conquest Motive to explore the New World most have no intention of staying just want to take riches back with them amp become great in Spain Ritualized process of claiming land through a speech called The Requirement Speech meant to be given to Native Americans saying that if they did not submit to Spanish rule I will take your wives and children and I will make your slaves and I will take your riches and l solemnly declare that the death and damages received from such will be your fault Speech was given in Spanish so the Native American people had no clue what these people were doing m compulsory labor system adopted from Inca empire healthy men in empire spend portion of year working on state projects Spanish adopt extract labor to work in mines Potosi labor mining dangerous work Spanish use in more ruthless fashion that lnca had done large numbers of NA flee when knew they were being recruited for mining Systems like this in Europe France corve Demand labor on public works projects system of forced labor Bartholome de las Casas exposed Spanish treatment of Native Americans to protestant community 1542 persuaded the Spanish government to outlaw enslavement of Native Americans slavery still happened but was no longer sanctioned by the government Roval Chartered Companv Company created by a formal document of a monarch used in Western Europe in 16th and 17th centuries like British East India Company gave companies a monopoly in the market and ensured the profits went to a few people Treatv of Tordesillas Ensures that there isn t competition in Americas because Portuguese can exploit Africa Pope draws line and says everything to the West is Spanish and everything to the East is Portuguese nobody knows that Brazil extends past the line and they consequently believe the Americas will be owned entirely by the Spanish Spanish don t have direct access to Africa Spanish are left out of the African slave trade while Portuguese and other European countries make a profit off of it Limited to Spanish and the Portuguese European countries try to leech off of Spanish imperial system before establishing their own physical presence in the New World Mercantilism Economic system in which countries attempt to acquire as much raw materials and wealth as possible originates in Europe in the 18th century starts a massive period of economic growth in Europe that does not stop until modern times Pluralism A condition or system in which two or more states groups principles sources of authority coexist was common in Muslim states like Ottoman Empire in 16th century basis for separation bw church and state Mansa Musa Leader of Mali makes pilgrimage to Mecca with all his gold depresses economy by injecting so much gold establishes Timbuktu as learning center to study with great minds Olaudah Eduiano Freed African slave in London purchased freedom in 1776 called to end the slave trade King Afonso l King Nzinga Mbemba of Kongo King of Kongo 15061542 devout Roman Catholic who sought to convert his subjects to Christianity attended religious services every day and read the Bible so often that the sometimes forgot to eat Dutch East India Companv VOC Extremely profitable royal chartered company for England leads to growth of competition and capitalism Kinodom of Kondo African society discovered by the Portuguese in the 18th century did not take participate in slave trade eventually slavers fragmented the society until it coHapsed Mudhal Empire Muslim state but majority not Muslim founded in 1526 by nomads from central Asia ruled over large multiethnic population most prosperous of Muslim states due to location trade and production Ottoman Empire Founded by same people in Central Asia who were called Mongols Within 50 years of its creation it had expanded so much that it overthrew a different empire Ottomans gained control over Constantinople lstanbulkey source of power used to expand their influence continued to push into Hungary Cairo North Africa and Mecca Manila Port City in the Philippines silk hub for Spanish commerce in the surrounding region in Asia Spanish policy regarding trade and Christianity strong presence of Chinese merchants 14 of the residents supplied silk Spanish and Filipinos massacred Chinese at this location many times due to jealousy and suspicion regarding their commercial success Millet System that decentralized authority and put it in the hands of religious and cultural groups gave autonomy that helped mitigate any fear that Ottomans would impose their religionculture Safavid Empire Successor empire to the early Persian empires begins around 1500 multiethnic empire strong military identity one of the first empires not to impose religion on everyone sees beginnings of separation of church and state Dona Marina Cortes principal translator Mayan woman bore his child Native Americans tried to understand the Spanish in supernatural terms No intermediaries to help them understand who the Spanish were so Spanish had interpreters Terra Nullius No man39s land when Europeans settled New World in 17th century natives didn39t fence off land Europeans claimed it marks beginning of relations with natives shows future exploitation of natives Navidation Acts Started 1651 a series of laws that restricted foreign ships in trade between Britain and its colonies imposed burden on colonies Qing Dynasty Powerful and large Chinese empire takes over in 1644 ensures China has control over trade in their region limits influence of Europeans and develops strong trade relationship to get gold Straits of Malacca Choke points controlling trade throughout the region and regions on the other side Singapore and Persian gulf points most active waterway for trade in the Eastern Hemisphere all goods produced in China for America go through someone can control trade Manchus nomadic peoples don t believe in universal religious faith no clear connection between dynasty in power and state religion unless you count Confucianism add to Chinese society and start invasions that massively expand China Serfdom System of labor that ties workers to the land begins in Middle Ages and through early modern period once serfdom ends it pushes Europeans to begin African slave trade Tokuqawa Shoqunate Modern day Japan 1600 Tokugawa clan consolidates power and takes over military governor in name of emperor experiences economic boom isolates Japan from world after they ban Europeans Emperor Akbar Greatest of all emperors in Mughal empire in later half of 16th century tries to promote a new religion and quest to maintain peace and open mind in his empire Matteo Ricci Catholic Italian priest China missions 1602 map of the world introduces findings of European exploration to East Asia Botany Bay 1760 s Southeast coast of Australia where James Cook landed south of Sydney in late 18th century signals new attitude in the region British just claim the land Janissaries Military institutions that protect Ottoman Empire by 19th century become too powerful and rich that there is idea to get rid of them show military power of Ottomans Maori Warlike people indigenous of New Zealand encounter British in late 18th century British were unable to defeat them were in a stalemate eventually died out because of disease and overwhelming flow of settlers NeoConfucianism Zhi Xi Combination of morals ethics and politics in Confucianism with rigor and speculative power of Buddhism values selfdiscipline filial piety obedience to established rulers educational programs Hanlin Academy Japan Tokugawa filial piety and loyalty to superiors ideological underpinning for bakufu Emperor Kanqxi 16611722 Manchu Confucian scholar enlightened ruler reader and poet applied Confucian teachings through his policies flood control and irrigation for the sake of protecting his subjects patronized Confucian schools conqueror construction of a Qing empire Essays 1 According to one historian violence has been one of the main levers of accumulating wealth in the global economy Do you agree Provide at least three historical case studies to support your position Globalization of new world rise of new empires and slave trade Globalization of new world conquistadors Spanish destruction of Native American society through diseases Rise of new empires lnterEuropean wars mercantilist policies growth of trade Slave trade Chaos and fragmentation within Africa 2 Compare and contrast how Spain and the Ottoman Empire governed the peoples they conquered in the period 15001700 What roles did religion and economics play in their policies Spain forced people to convert to Spanish religion and culture the holy war kicking out the Muslims Ottomans had religious toleration and more multiethnic cultures they didn39t force people to change 3 What were the biological consequences of European exploration and expansion for the Americas Europe and the Pacific in the period 15001800 Consequences to Americas Receive diseases smallpox yellow fever crops rice wheat onions lemons limes oranges domesticated animals cattle horses m Receives diseases syphilis crops tobacco corn potatoes animals turkeys M Receives merino sheep high demand for wool in Europe 4 What were the economic consequences of European exploration and expansion in the period 15001800 How did it affect patterns of trade and consumption Economic Consequence Growth in trade discovery of new raw materials more land for production Trade and consumption severely increased 5 How did Europeans deal with the scarcity of labor in their Caribbean Andean PeruBolivia and Australian colonies What accounted for the different labor systems that developed in these places Slave trade lndentured servitude Different because of distance indigenous people differences account for which labor system rises in each respective society 6 Compare the strategies that the Spanish and the Portuguese employed to further their economic and political interests overseas How were they different Why Portuguese had no land strategy only maritime power 7 How did religion influence politics in the Mughal Empire Western Europe and Qing China What do these cases tell us about the relationship between church and state Muqhal Empire had a policy of religious tolerance it influenced politics bc they would tax nonMuslims but they had a mutliethnic and multireligious society Western Eurobe was consolidated by a universal religion the growth of trade spread new religious views to people and it influenced politics by influencing a religious reformation Qing Dynasty claimed mandate heaven and didn39t impose religion on others believed more in Confucianism and religion didn39t really influence politics The relationship bw church and state effects the success of the society West had separation of church and state unlike the east and they were very successful 8 Compare the systems of transoceanic trade that arose in the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean after 1500 How were they similar Different Indian Ocean trade was different than Atlantic ocean trade bc it was not controlled by any of the great Eastern empires they don39t make an effort to take political control over transoceanic trade significant bc all of these empires rely of large settled agricultural societies to support gov39t operations and recruit military Indian ocean trade acts independently from any large state power and create separate kind of seaborne power and bc of geographical reasons such as easier wind patterns to navigate 9 What were the driving forces for the transatlantic slave trade What consequences did it have for each of the three points in the triangle Africa Europe and the Americas Mercantilism Globalization Growth of trade Consequences for Africa was that it lost so many people who could have been productive and also caused major chaos and instability Consequences for Europe were large economic benefits growth of capitalism and eventually industrial revolution Consequences on Americas was a growth in population and a working culture based on the raw materials in the new world 10 Discuss the various ways cultural pluralism manifested itself in the Indian Ocean Spanish America and English America What accounts for the differences in practices and outcomes Sbanish America cultural pluralism was not allowed when Columbus came to New World it was either you convert or become forced labordie Endlish America saw a presence of cultural pluralism simply bc many people in were escaping England for religious freedom Differences in practices and outcomes are accounted to differences in each of their cultural structures
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