Study Guide Exam 2 Population and Community Ecology
Study Guide Exam 2 Population and Community Ecology BIOL 2040
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Study Guide Exam 2 Population and Community Ecology Book Notes Ch 45 Population and Community Ecology 454 Population Dynamics and Regulation carrying capacity changes often caused by Interspecific Competition between species in same area Densityindependent Factors same mortality no matter population density and Densitydependent Factors usually biotic usually abiotic population density affect growth and mortality Density dependent and independent factors sometimes interact ex Sparse population can t recover as well from natural disasters sometimes Kselected species live close to carrying capacity few offspring that re large longer gestation more parental care rselected a lot of small offspring not much parental care mature relatively close to birth 456 Community Ecology many populations inhabiting same area at same time make up a community Predation hunting of prey by predator Herbivory insects and other animals consuming plants chemica1 behavioral physical and mechanical defenses against these interactions Mimicrv Batesion Mimicrv harmless species imitates dangerous one Mullerian Mimicry different species with same defenses have similar coloring EmsleyanMertensian Mimicry deadly mimics less deadly Competitive Exclusion Principle same niche can t be held by multiple different species paramecium experiment Where one made other extinct When in same environment Ecological Niche Which resources species needs and how they interact Within the community With other populations can minimize competition by occupying different niches feeding at different times etc Symbiosis close interactions between species affecting their distribution Commensalism 0 one benefits and other feels no effect Mutualism two species benefit Parasitism host is harmed and parasite benefits Foundation species have greatest impact on community usually primary producer Species Richness number of species in community Relative species abundance number of individuals of a species Within a community Keystone Species species helping to maintain biodiversity Within community upholds community structure Week Six 28 Sept2 Oct 2015 BIOL 2040 Population Ecology Cont Lab segment of DNA coding for specific protein M Specific form of a gene Genotyp genetic composition PhenotypeWhat s seen Homozygous gene pair has same 2 alleles Heterozygousunlike alleles Dominanceexpressed allele Incomplete dominanceblending of phenotypes Codominanceboth alleles expressed equally without blending Punnett Squares get ratios of genotypesphenotypes quickly Polygenic inheritanceheight is example multiple genes control same trait Multiple alleles blood type is example Xlinked males haploid for xalleles meaning they get recessive on Xchromosome automatically example colorblindness Class Carrying Capacity Kexponential growth can t be sustained because of limited resources maximum population size that can be supported by the environment the population s in can vary determined by abundance of various resources more realistic population modellogistic growth model Logistic Growth Model dNdtrmaxNKNK produces sigmoid sshaped curve there are organisms that exhibit this type of growth fungi bacteria etc when grown in constant environment some organisms overshoot K females have extra energy in fat stores which can cause overshoot if food becomes limiting for population then its growth eventually declines some populations greatly uctuate the LGM fits few populations but is important in conservation Life History Traits help produce Natural Selection favors 2 traits 1 survivorship 2 reproductive success There are tradeoffs between survival and reproductive traitsreproductive frequency number of offspring litterclutch size investment in parental care Organism s Life Historyorganism s development physiology behavior Evolution accounts for large diversity Life History Traits 1 When reproduction begins age at 1St reproduction maturity eX Loggerhead Turtle 1 30 years old 4 clutches in 1 year300 eggs reproduces every few years and lays eggs for next 30 years 2 How often does organism reproduce 3 How many offspring produced reproductive diversity Semelparityreproduce once a lot of offspring no parental care and a lot of mortality ex Coho Salmon Iteroparityadults survive for long time reproduce multiple times fewer offspring each time more resources for them better provisioning 2 Factors for Evolution of Semelparitv vs Iteroparitv 1 Offspring s survival rate lowhighly variableunpredictable environments semelparity less adults survive also iteroparitymore dependable environments more survivorship 2 Likelihood adults survive and reproduce again many organism have intermediate life histories ex Oak trees and sea urchins Week Seven 59 Oct 2015 Population and Community Ecology TradeOffs and Life Histories organisms have nite resources therefore they won t have exponential population growth what energy organisms spend on reproduction they can t spend on other things example tradeoffs between parental care and survival European Kestrel males have lower survivorship because they expend energy taking care of young especially with large brood sizes many plants make many small seeds because of low survivorship ex Dandelion some plants produce moderate numbers of large seeds more energy for competitive environment ex Brazil Nuts KSelection densitydependent factorsselects for life history traits that are density sensitive usually biotic disease waste competition etc live around carrying capacity Logistic Growth Model iteroparity selected for traits geared towards slow population growth and longevitylater maturity like Monitor Lizards elephants large mammals large trees humans RSelection densityindependent selectionselect for traits that maximize reproductive output of the species usually abiotic natural disasters weather pollution etc semelparity short lifespan early maturity more offspring like insects many invertebrates and plants jellyfish dandelion Two General Questions about Population Growth 1 What are the environmental factors keeping populations from growing indefinitely 2 Why do some populations exhibit stability and are never still Population Size Changes 1 Densityindependent factors 2 Densitydependent factors Intrinsic factors like physiology K r Maturity Late Early Longevity Greater Lower Parental Care More Less Competition More Less Offspring Less More Offspring Size Bigger Smaller Community Ecologyspecies interactions ex Carrier crabs sea urchinsjelly fish carries camou agedefense on back receives benefits carrier crab protection from predators harmed possibly sea urchinjellyfish because they are an unwitting shield 0no benefitharm Biological Communitygroup of different species populations who interact because they live close enough together ecologists define boundaries so they can study it ex Not Whole Great Barrier Reef but one section of it Community ecologists might study community in rotting log benthic community of a lake community of trees in Sequoia National Park Interspecific Interactions between two different species maymay not affect survivalreproduction of each species competition predation symbiosis mutualism commensalism parasitism facilitation predation is a interaction predator bene ts and prey s ghting for life ex Wheel bug feeding on beetle Coevolutioncheetah became fast but gazelles learned to dart around also Classification of Community Interactions focused on predation competition etc historically however there are mutualism that re widespread Competition interaction occurs when species competing for limiting central resource something they need to survive on environment most resources are limited closely related species have similar resource needs Competitive Exclusion 2 species competing for limiting resource and one pushes the other out separatelv grown LGM Same Culture one caused extinction of the other Conclusion any 2 species competing for same resources drive others to extinction in absence of disturbance one species uses resources more efficiently will lead to extinction or drive the other species out CompetitionEcological Niches and Natural Selection Ecological niche sum of species use of biotic and abiotic resources if organism s address is its habitat then its profession is its niche from Odum Niche of the Tropical Tree Lizard activity periods diurnal vs nocturnal sizespecies of insects eaten diet these factors de ne the lizard s niche Using Niches to Define Competitive Exclusionif a pair of species have identical niches then they can t coexist long term However ecologically similar species can coexist in a community because natural selection will cause their niches to differentiate enough so they re different using different resources or times to use resources Resource Partitioning differentiation of niches by natural selection Fundamental Niche range of conditions can live in Realized Niche What organisms exists in Character DisplacementSympatric Athopatric Week Eight 1216 Oct 2015 Community Ecology Predationinvolves coevolution adaptations of predators and prey interaction Predator Prey most predators have acute senses for finding prey rattlesnakespit viperspits on head that are heat sensors sense prey at night ambushsit and wait predators owls acute vision nocturnal many rods in retinagtlow light turn head 270 degrees layer of re ective material tapetum lucidum for extra light stealth ying feathers many predators have adaptations to subdue prey as well claws fangs venompoison fast and agile pursuing pursuit cats vs sit and wait vipers Wheel bug often camou aged tigers are fast but also have camo prey also have adaptations to avoid being captured and eaten common behavioral defenses hiding getting away eeing herdsschools ocks buffaloherds active behavioral selfdefense involving fighting is less common animals also display other adaptations to avoid predators morphological form or function of animalsmechanical defenses or physiological chemical defenses adaptations toxins can be synthesized by animal or accumulated through feeding ex Monarch Butter y gets toxins from Milkweed Aposematic coloration warning no effort to hide but have bright colors and bold patterns coloration is adaptive ex Poison dartarrow frogs have bright colors skin has poison secreting glands Crvptic colorationcamou age some prey species are protected by looking like other animals mimicry Batesian Mimicrvmodel is toxic mimic is nontoxic ex Eastern Coral Snake venomous and Scarlet Kingsnake non venomous Mullerion Mimicrytoxic species look alike ex Yellow jacket and cuckoo bee the more unpalatable prey is the quicker predators learn ex Of convergent evolution predators also use mimicry ex Snapping turtle with worm tongue eX Mimic octopus can mimic more than a dozen animals intelligent uses mimicry to approach prey frighten predators like when attacked by damselfish Herbivory herbivore terrestrialaquatic plant or multicellular alga most herbivores are invertebrates and many are in oceans like sea urchins or manatees plants can t run Instead physical defenses like thorns or chemical defenses secondary compounds that give defense against herbivorespathogensallelopathy molecularlevel defenses tannins terpenoids alkaloids other chemicals precocenes cause insects to develop into adults too soon juvenile hormone mimics make insects stay as juveniles tannins oaks etc are phenolics unpleasant taste inhibit protein breakdown often have enhanced induced synthesis ex Red Oak defoliated by herbivores early because of low tannin concentration The Opium Poppy Papaver Somniferum heroin morphine codeine accumulate in laticifers cells where drugs accumulate could be physical defense as well stickiness hinders insects nontoxic but distasteful defenses many are liked by humans like cinnamon dried inner bark of many trees of genus cinnamomum Physical defensesTrichomeson leaves and stems inhibit chewing insects can also trap insects ex Trap insects to attract predators who also eat larva of other insects spines and thorns modified leaves and stems respectively Symbiosiscloseintimate interspecific interactions Parasitism parasitehost endoinside ectooutside Mutualismboth benefit Commensalism neither benefit or are harmed Week Nine 1923 Oct 2015 Population and Community Ecology Symbiosis Parasitism and Mutualism What Plants Talk About 1 What happens when wild tobacco plants are attacked by insect herbivores They secrete nicotine 2 Why does the wild tobacco plant change its ower chemistry morphology and blooming time To change to pollinators that don t also have offspring that eat the plant Parasitism Endo beef and pork tapewormgt humans final hosts intermediate and final with pork tapeworms M ticks can have major impacts on their hosts affect survival reproduction and density of their hosts directly damage can cause death indirectly weaken so host is more susceptible to other ailments ex ticks as ectoparasites on moose can cause greater mortality in moose who are in weakened condition as a result of blood loss M trauma causes plants to secrete chemicals that attract insects to eat herbivorous insects etc can t move so they need ways to perceive and adapt to the environment tobacco secretes nicotine when damage is done to it caterpillar that s not affected by nicotine plants call in with chemicals insects to eat the caterpillars knows the caterpillar is there because of its unique saliva trichomescaterpillar gets body odor that makes it more obvious to predators switches pollinators open owers at dawn instead of dusk for hawk moth and had different chemistryshape so the hummingbird comes in instead Mutualism ex Nitrogen fixation by bacteria in legumes root nodules bacteria turn N2 into form of Nitrogen plants can use ammonia N2 9 2NH3 Bacteria nitrogenase tATP EX termites and ruminant mammals with microorganisms in their digestive systems termites have agellates that break down cellulose in wood infect each other with feces of workers mammals agellates in gut eX unicellular algae dino agellates inside of coral which gives carbon dioxide and shelter to dino agellates and algae gives photosynthetic products to coral Mutualism can be obligate at least one species involved can t survive on its own facultative both species can live on own BUT tend to do better when in a mutualism ex Acacia Trees and ants ants eat nectar made in nectaries and Belsian Bodies proteinrich in leaves and hollow thorns are shelter ants prune other plants near the tree and protect the tree by attacking animals and removing fungal spores and detritus debris Lab HardyWeinberg Equations pq1 and p2q22pq1 pfrequency of dominant allele q frequency of recessive allele p2 frequency of homozygous dominant q2 frequency of homozygous recessive populations share the same gene pool same species in same area and have opportunity to interbreed they are What evolve Class Commensalism 0 one benefits and other feels no effect difficult to document in nature ex hitchhiking species algae on turtle shells barnacles on turtlesWhales can have negative effect on host make it hard to find foodescape predators can be helpful camou age etc commensal associations basking turtles expose algae to sun so it dies one can inadvertently expose food to other cowbirds and cattle egrets large mammalian herbivores stir up bugs for birds to eat potential benefits for mammals don t care most of time but birds can eat ectoparasites and sense predators for herbivores Facilitation species can have or 0 Without symbiosis intimate contactslongterm associations especially common With plants ex after volcanic eruptions glacier mosses and lichens help facilitate further plant growth ex black rush xunlus gerardii in salt marshes shades soil to prevent water evaporation improves soil oxygen levels transports oxygen into soil through its tissues and its diffusion helps other plants in study plots Without black rush reduced plant species number by half Species Diversity Community stability trophic structure important factors for community structure species diversity and feeding relationships a few species can exert strong control on community structure huge in uences on community Species Diversity of Community variety of species making up community coral reefsgt much diversitygt require dino agellates mutualism With coral 2 components species richness number of individual species and relative abundance distribution of species Indexes of Diversity used to compare area s diversity Shannon Diversity Index bigger index means bigger diversity determining number and relative abundance of species few that are common but many aren t species hard to census mobilehiddennoctumalless visible organisms microorganism s small size ex Northern ying squirrel nocturnal and camou aged ex soil bacteria Diversity and Community stability manipulation of diversity ex Cedar Creek National Park communities With higher diversity more biomass more photosynthetic production better able to Withstand and recover Trophic Structure important With communities in ecosystems producers With consumer trophic levels above feeding relationships Within the community food chains traces the transfer of energy and nutrients decomposers are critical because our energy s constant Sun but nutrients are finite so there s an upper limit of trophic levels 10 Rule 10 of a trophic level s energy is transferred to next level 1920s Charles Elton food chains aren t practical interact With each other Food Webs consist of food chains M gray wolf reintroduction to Yellowstone National Park Keystone Species top consumer structuring a community illegal trade in endangered species Yellowstone fell back into role even after being gone for 70 years trophic cascade one trophic level changes whole ecosystem provides food to other consumers by their kills and helped plant population increasegt habitat for birds and food for beaversgt increase watery habitats creates a lot of an opportunity for life Cambodia rangers patrol forest get a lot of snares and bush meat on patrols
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