Intro to Western Religions
Intro to Western Religions RELS 2101
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Date Created: 10/25/15
5 WP F Equot l l WOOQ D ID I WM H H H u as Equot 3994 w gt0 O Study Guide for Section 2 Stories of FaIquot Fall 2002 Why do scholars argue that Plato s dialogues are ritual not transmission communication When did Socrates die State two reasons why scholars argue that you cannot just assume that the words and actions of Socrates in one of Plato s dialogues are the actual words and actions of the historical Socrates Explain what scholars mean they argue that Socratic conversations were a genre of writing in ancient Greece How does the Phaedo clue the reader that it is not an actual record of Socrates death The Phaedo starts with a paradox Socrates says that the philosopher lives the best life 7 and yet the philosopher is not afraid to die and indeed looks forward to dying Why does Socrates think that the true philosopher meets death with good cheer De ne reincarnation De ne the Theory of the Forms Explain the relationship of the Theory of Forms to the theory of recollection Analyze what Plato is ritually communicating by his presentation of Socrates Socrates was executed by the Athenians because they thought that philosophical examination threatened the religious order and the political order TF Socrates believed that all wisdom is learned in life TF The Platonic belief in an absolute distinction between soul and body is shared by Christianity Judaism and Islam TF Plato believed that truth was absolute timeless and universaliso that all souls understood justice itself in the same way TF Only Christians read Genesis 23 as teaching the idea of original sin TF Explain why suffering is a problem for our three religions given their belief in the three equations For a C Explain Augustine s understanding of degrees of goodness For a B Explain how this understanding of goodness relates to sin For an A Analyze Augustine s understanding of degrees of goodness as a technology of ordering chaos Explain how the Christian practice of confession as exempli ed by Augustine is a technology for creating order out of chaos Compare and contrast confession as a technology for order with EITHER salat OR orthodox Jewish prayer Compare amp contrast the Christian notion of gratitude for God s grace with the Muslim notion of gratitude Do you think the view of the created world in Genesis 1 is the same or different from that of a Augustine b Plato Pick oneiand then argue for your answer Argue for Plato s Theory of Forms as a way to create order from chaos Argue that Plato s Theory of Forms creates disorder and chaos not order What ideas motivations and moods are communicated by the Quran s reading of Genesis 23 What ideas motivations and moods are communicated by Augustine s reading of the Genesis 23 What ideas motivations and moods are communicated by Plato s Fall narrative Note this is one big comparecontrast Analyze the Phaedo as an act of ritual communication that tries to inspire its readerslisteners not to give up living their life according to Socrates motto the unexamined life is not worth living Use at least two texts to analyze Socrates view of the body Study Guide 3 The Chaos of Suffering Job From what social location did wisdom literature arise 2 Who were the wise in ancient Israel List 3 things they did Explain the traditional idea of wisdom in the Hebrew Bible Be sure to explain how this traditional idea of wisdom related to the creation order Cite 2 quotes from Proverbs 8 to prove your answer in the question above Cite two quotes from the book of Job to prove how this biblical book questions the traditional understanding of wisdom in the ANE Relate this questioning to the historical situation of ancient Israel What does it mean to say that wisdom literature is a genre Why does Beal say that suffering is chaotic He gives two reasons According to Levinas the horror of Job is that the divine Panopticon which so delights the author of the Psalms becomes for Job a prison and place of no rest Explain why the Pslamist sees the Panopticon as delightful Then explain why Job sees the Panopticon as unbearable What arguments does Beal use to prove that Job identi es with chaos What arguments does Beal give to prove that God in the divine speeches identi es with the chaos monster 12 What does Beal mean when he reads that the Leviathan as an example of categoryjamming 13 Why do scholars argue that hasatan is not the same as Satan Give me one textual reason and one historical reason 14 Explain what ideas Beal nds in the theories of Otto that help him read Job 15 Why does Beal following Otto read the divine speeches as the negation of purposiveness By why I mean both what Beal means by this term and where he gets this idea in the text itself 16 Scholars have argued that the Job of the prose differs somewhat from the Job of the poetry One way that scholars explain that difference is by suggesting that the text was written at different times Explain their theory 17 Describe the 3 elements required for building a reading PM E 509080 o Th ere will also be a quote section where I cite kg passages from the texts we read and ask you to identi g either WHO said them or WHAT is so important about them Study Guide for Apocalypticism from Section 3 l 2 3 4 09 89 b D D i Nt IO39 In the text ofJob God and chaos are a separated b unrelated In Revelation God and chaos are a separated b unrelated Explain the difference between the gure translated as Satan in the book of Job and the Apocalypticism is de ned as religious protest literature What is it protesting What is the historical event to which Revelation is responding Explain how apocalypticism reworks the trio of equations Revelation is a text that belongs to a the Torah b the New Testament c the Old Testament d the Apocrypha e the Quran Explain how apocalyptic literature draws on the theme of combat from creation myths to provide an answer to suffering Evaluate the pros and cons of using the theme of supernatural combat to devise an answer for suffering Explain the difference between those Israelites who were waiting for a Son of God to come as Messiah and those Israelites who were waiting for a Son of Man The text of Revelation is trying to get the early Christians to rebel against Rome in order to put the right king on the throne TF Apocalypticism begins with Christianity TF What belief leads Christianity Judaism and Islam to pose suffering as a problem c intertwined c intertwined figure of Satan in the book of Revelation Study Guide for Modernity Section 4 Ni E 4 9 89 0 Define and locate on the time line the Reformations modernity and Latour Both modernity and the creation narratives of the Ancient Near East shared the same agenda to create order out of chaos T or F Both modernity and the 3 Western religions we have studied try to secure the natural order and the social order by appealing to the religious order T or F Both modernity and the 3 Western religions we have studied think that the natural order and the social order are one and the same follow the same rules and principles T or F In the period immediately preceding Modernity religion became a source of social disorder Explain why While indulgences and church corruption were Luther s catalyst I argued that the underlying issue was a different understanding of sin confession and justification before God What was Luther s spiritual dilemma How did he solve it Explain the idea of sola scriptura Why did it lead to disorder Name the technological invention on which the Protestant Reformation depended Explain what Hobbes thinks is original to humanity Compare and contrast Hobbes attitude toward the natural or created world with Augustine s attitude Explain how Hobbes uses reason to create socialpolitical order If Leviathan is the biblical name of the chaos monster why does Beal think Hobbes use it as the name for order 11 I said religion must not teach truths that are contrary to reason because religion rests on reason Who am I 12 I said faith is God sensible to the heart not to the reason Who am I 13 I said that the Bible is God s book regarding religious matters and nature is God s book regarding physical matters Who am I 14 While I recognized that there are religious truths that are above reason I argued that even these truths are judged by reason and must be in accordance with it Think I am divinely inspireditherefore give me your credit cards Who am I 15 I was forced to recant my claim that the earth moves around the sun Who am I 16 I said the heart has its reasons that the mind does not know Who am I 17 I compared the mind to a blank page Who am I 18 I think that in discussions of physical problems we ought begin not from authority of scriptural passages but from sense experiences and necessary demonstrations for the holy Bible and the phenomena of nature proceed alike from the divine Word the former as the dictate of the Holy Ghost and the latter as observant executrix of God s commands Who said this What is he saying How did Galileo explain the fact that the Bible spoke many things which appear to differ from the absolute truth so far as the bare meaning of the words is concerned 20 While I used my mind to understand physical matters of the finite world I also argued that scientific arguments rested on first principles or assumptions that were intuited by the heart Why Contrast Locke s view of knowledge with Plato s The early thinkers in the West who developed modern science were all atheists T F Why does Latour take us back in time to the debate between Boyle and Hobbes 24 Why does Hobbes think that Boyle s vision of science is a recipe for chaos Explain how Boyle tries to make science credible by introducing two kinds of witnesses 1 modest witnesses who are human and 2 the testimony of nonhumans Explain why Latour argues that hybrids are modemity s chaos monsters Explain the connection that Latour makes between modern notions of science and the prejudices that we in the West held and still hold about the religions of other cultures 28 Then explain how Latour relates the West s hybrid chaos monsters cloning arti cial insemination xenotransplantation to those Western views of other people s religions Modernity is often defined as humanism Latour disagrees Define humanism Then tell me why Latour disagrees Be sure you explain the three elements of what LATOUR thinks is our modern Constitution Explain what Latour means when he provocatively declares We have never been modern Latour thinks that in the modern world religion is no longer the PRIMARY way we create social bonds Instead of religion Latour thinks that social bonds are created by a witchcraft b primitive superstition c food d objects like cell phones and email O N NNN UI LANt I NN IO N 0 LA 0 LA Thirty Years War priesthood of all believers sola scriptura Copernicus heliocentric geocentric modest witness indulgences The Great Divide Study Guide for Apocalypticism 7 Fall 2007 11 Apocalypticism is de ned as religious protest literature What is it protesting 12 Explain how apocalypticism reworks the trio of equations 13 Revelation is a text that belongs to a the Torah b the New Testament c the Old Testament d the Apocrypha e the Quran 14 Explain how apocalyptic literature draws on the theme of combat from creation myths to provide an answer to suffering 15 Explain the difference between those Israelites who were waiting for a Son of God to come as Messiah and those Israelites who were waiting for a Son of Man 16 To what historical events does the text of Revelation respond 17 The text of Revelation is trying to get the early Christians to rebel against Rome in order to put the right king on the throne TF Apocalypticism begins with Christianity T F 18 What belief leads Christianity Judaism and Islam to pose suffering as a problem 19 In the text of Job God and chaos are a separated b unrelated c intertwined 20 In Revelation God and chaos are a separated b unrelated c intertwined Study Guide 1 Ancient Near East Order out of Chaos There will be a section of your test devoted to the map of the ANE the locatiuons listed in the terms 9959 0 NN o NN LAN NN GNU Christianity Judaism and Islam all revere the Bible TF Christians Jews and Muslims all revere the exact same Bible where exact same Bible means the exact same contents in the exact same order TF Christians Muslims amp Jews understand the Bible s sacredness in the same way TF Name the 2 texts sacred to Jews Name the 2 sacred scriptures that Muslims study Ancient Israelites are the same as modern day Israelis T or F Ancient Israel lacked knowledge of other ancient Near Eastern cultures T or F The religion of ancient Israel revolved around what two institutions What empire conquers the northern kingdom of Israel What empire conquers Judahiand when Explain the pros and cons of ancient Israel s position as a land bridge Where was ancient Israel s Temple located What did the ancient Israelites understand the Temple to be Who destroyed the Second Templeand why Why did Jews experience the events of 70 CE as such a crisis Who stepped in to help them solve the problem What two sorts of religious leaders in ancient Israel gave rise to the rabbis The religion practiced by Israelites is the same as what Jews practice today T F When do scholars think Jesus lived Christianity began as part of Judaism T or F Christianity becomes the majority religion in 70 CE after the Romans kick the Jews out of Jerusalem T or F Who gave Christianity the approval of the Roman state When Why When and where was Muhammad born When did he die When does Muhammad begin receiving messages from Allah Islam believes that Muhammad is the last of many many prophets that God sent to give people guidance T or F Today 60 of all Muslims are Arab or of Arabic descent T or F Explain how Muslims locate themselves within the same family of religions as Judaism and Christianity De ne heimlich and unheimlich and give an example of EACH Otto says that people often have a contradictory response to the divine sublime Identify the contradiction and then give an example I see monsters as an aspect of the self that cannot be acknowledged Who am I I see monsters as by de nition part of the divine because the divine is completely different from our everyday world and thus is both aweful and awful Who am I One common symbolic map by which Ancient Near Eastern cultures understood creation was a the big bang b genes c ritual communication d Jerusalem Temple e the creation of order out of chaos f mysterium tremendum Compare and contrast the Enuma Elish with Genesis 1 In class I argued that in the ANE creation of cosmos creation of the socialreligious order Discuss one text from the ANE that illustrates this claim 27 Develop a reading of Exodus 15 as a creation narrative Name 2 ways in which the Bible is multiple Compare and contrast Psalm 104 and Psalm 74 Be sure to use history to explain the differences between Psalm 104 and Psalm 74 Analyze orthodox Jewish prayer as ritual communication creating order out of chaos You need to know when they pray what they do and so forth What is ritually communicated by the Talmud Explain how Jews understand the law or covenant or teaching that God gave them 33 Analyze salat as ritual communication that creates order out of chaos 34 Analyze the Sabbath as an act of ritual communication which creates speci c 1 ideas 2 motivations for acting in the world and 3 moods 35 Name the 4 major Jewish denominations and explain how each thinks about keeping the covenant 36 When was the Quran gathered into an official collection 37 Name the 5 pillars of Islam 38 Analyze the hajj as an act of ritual communication 39 40 U NM 0 000 LAM ND I De ne tawhid and then explain how tawhid is ritually communicated at the hajj Explain why the aesthetic nature of the Quran is part of its truth for Muslims 41 Compare and contrast Gen 3 with the Muslim account 42 The Quran occupies for believing Muslims a similar status as that which Jesus occupies for Christians T F 43 Islam and Judaism are often studied as religions that stress practices whereas Christianity stresses doctrine TF Explain what Muslims mean by the straight pat Describe the socioeconomic conditions that were in play in Saudi Arabia at the time when Islam began lgtlgt UIlk Christianity Christians churchJudaism Jews synagogueIslam Muslims mosque masj id Old Testament New Testament Torah Hebrew Bible Quran hadith Talmud Theodicy heirophany Freud Heimlich Unheimlich return of the repressed Rudolph Otto the numinous mysterium tremendum Tiamat Marduk Enuma Elish Ancient Near East Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia Babylon Egypt Mecca Saudi Arabia Nile Tigris Euphrates land bridge Israel Palestine Canaan Jerusalem Jordan River the map part Genesis Abraham Sarah Hagar Ishmael Jacob Moses Yahweh David Solomon First and Second Temple Period Babylon Persia Alexander the Great Rome Rabbinic Judaism Mitzvoth Mishnah Talmud Jesus the Christ Constantine Muhammad Allah Yahweh Seal of the prophets Reform Conservative Orthodox Reconstructionism Sabbath tefillin tallit Tawhid shahadah salat hajj ihram Ka ba zakat Essays for Test 1 Ancient Near East Order out of Chaos Choose ONE of the following and write a 35 page essay in response These questions are for critical thinking They do not have a right or a wrong answer You will earn your grade by the quality of the argument you make How to make a quality argument 0 Ask yourself after each point have I explained WHY I think this that why is where you argument begins Refer to what we have learned in class Quote something we read for class and think along with it Consider that yours is not the only right answer how might someone else see this that is re ect on your assumptions and consider counter arguments Talk with each other or someone else about your paper They can help you see that you really do have something to say They can also help you become aware of what your assumptions are They can tell you where you are unclear or making a jump in your thought It is OK to refer to your conversation or even to take an idea of theirsbut if you do be sure to give them credit 1 In class we analyzed the classroom in terms of ritual communication how the classroom ritually communicated to you 1 certain ideas or concepts such as our culture s view of knowledge 2 certain motivations it made you do certain things such as sit in particular places and raise your hands before speaking and 3 certain moods or feelings like pride in getting the right answer or fear of looking stupid if you say the wrong thing Your task in this essay is to use the idea of ritual communication and the three components I elaborated here to analyze another situation Analyze ONE situation only Examples could include but are not limited to a sports game or practice a specific evening news broadcast that you heard on TV or radio a date with a girlboyfriend a religious service You MUST discuss how particular 1 ideas 2 motivations and 3 moods were ritually communicated 2 Pick ONE a horror lm OR b ONE novel or c ONE experience of horror that you know Then ask yourself which of the different ways of interpreting religion that we discussed in class Otto Freud help you analyze your example That is if you were Otto thinking about this example how would you analyze it If you were Freud what would you see After you have some ideas pick one and elaborate on it in writing That is there are two ways to do this You can use one theorist doing a Freudian for example reading Or you can choose 1 or 2 key scenes and use whatever theorists help you understand it 3 In Beal s reading of the various Ancient Near Eastern creation narratives he concludes that these creation stories are mediations and re ections on a fundamental ambivalence in the world on the precariousness of the world as a livable abode for humans on the knifeedge that separates harmony form chaos and life from death 0 Step 1 Why does he think this 0 Step 2 Argue for or against his reading Are you persuaded Why or why not Be sure to engage with the speci cs of his arguments That is saying I agree or disagree because Ibelieve God is is not suf cient I can t grade give you a grade on your beliefs you have to interact with his arguments to develop your own arguments 4 Analyze the pros and cons of naming a realworld enemy as a chaos monster What is the power of making this identi cation and what are the dangers of this identi cation Be sure to argue your points with EXAMPLES 5 In class we analyzed prayer as a practice that creates order from chaos on a daily level ritually communicating 1 ideas God as sole creator 2 creating motivations in people to keep the Torah to put God rst and 3 creating moods or feelings peace submission connection Think of EITHER a a type of prayer OR b religious service OR c some repeated ritual which does not have to be religious but is something that structures your day or week Analyze in SPECIFIC DETAIL HOW that particular practice creates order from chaos Be sure to attend to the 1 ideas 2 motivations and 3 moods it ritually communicates Note if you are Muslim or Jewish or are familiar with these practices you can choose them they are not off limits just because we did them in class There is much we did not say But be sure to do more than merely repeat what we said in class elaborate on and go beyond it 6 In chapter two Beal talks about how the Young American Foundation was threatened by the comparative method that is so central to the academic study of religion In class so far we have learned some of the similarities between the three Western religions and some of their differences Evaluate the pros and cons of this approach That is what is the power of learning this how does it increase your angle of vision on these religions What are the dangers Study Guide for Section 23 Fall 2007 Excluding Apocalypticism Jews Christians and Muslims all share the central notion of Genesis one there is one God who created the world as good by creating order out of chaos TF Jews Christians and Muslims all think that humans are born sinners TF Only Christians acknowledge that humans are capable of both good and bad TF Only Christians believe in the notion of original sin TF N I had no motivation for my wickedness but wickedness itself I loved my fall not the object for which I had fallen but the fall itself Who said this What central religious idea does this quote illustrate E Compare and contrast the Quran s account of the Fall with Augustine s account 4 Compare and contrast Plato with Augustine through the lens of the following a their understanding of the fall b their understanding of the soul V39 There is beauty in lovely physical objects in gold and silver Temporal honor and the power of giving order and being in command have their own kind of dignity Yet sin is committed because of these things when in consequence of an immoderate urge towards those things which are at the bottom of the scale of good we abandon the higher and supreme goods that is you These inferior goods have their delights but not comparable to the God who has made them all It is in him that the just person takes deligh A Who said this B What central idea does this quote illustrate 0 Analyze the Christian practice of confession as exemplified by Augustine as an act of ritual communication be sure to identify an idea a motivation and a mood as well as to argue HOW each is communicated through this practice gt1 Compare amp contrast the Christian notion of gratitude with the Muslim notion of gratitude 9 Plato thinks that we learn through experience TF 0 When did Socrates die Scholars argue that any idea expressed by Socrates in a dialogue is what the historical Socrates thought TF 10 Scholars think it is best to read the Phaedo more in terms of ritual than transmission communication Argue for this claim 11 Contrast the Greek understanding of soul and body with the Hebrew understanding 12 Why does SocratesPlato see the body as a hindrance to knowledge truth Be sure to support your reasons by reference to the text 13 Use the cave analogy from the Republic to explain what SocratesPlato thought about the knowledge that we get from our senses and true knowledge 14 Socrates Plato thinks that the Forms are absoluteithat is that our souls ALL ultimately understand Justice Itself in the same way TF 15 Analyze the Phaedo as an act of ritual communication that seeks to create certain ideas motivations and moods Be sure to tell me HOW it does this for each category 16 Analyze the Theory of Forms as a way of creating order out of disorder Be sure to identify the source of disorder 17 Compare and contrast the excerpt we read from the Phaedrus where SocratesPlato suggests that desirelove can make the soul remember what it forgot when it fell to the earth with Augustine s understanding of the proper Christian relation to the created world 18 Why does Plato have Socrates liken the body to a nail 84D 19 Use the last third of the Phaedo to analyze the speci c mood Plato tries to instill in readers Be sure to refer closely to the text not just citing it but using its words and metaphors and moments to help you understand something about Plato s notion of order and disorder 20 Recall that in class I said that one could read the Phaedo as Socrates swan song Also recall the Deleuze handout entitled On the Refrain which begins with the image of the boy frightened singing a song in the dark Find support in the dialogue for the argument that what Plato is doing with his theory of truththe forms is whistling in the dark a la Deleuze Terms for Section II Mindsoul vs body dualism recollection gradations of goodness original sin grace Terms for Section III the wise wisdom literature Proverbs 8 hasatan theodicy Antiochus Epiphanes Dead Sea Scrolls Messiah Mark 13 Son of Man Son of God Revelation the book Domitian Nero Catharsis Section Three 1 From what social location did wisdom literature arise List 3 things the wise did 2 Explain the traditional idea of wisdom in the Hebrew Bible and its relation to the 3 equations 3 In light of the three equations explain why suffering can be an experience of chaos 4 Today in the modern episteme people also experience suffering as a form of chaos Do we experience suffering as chaos in the same way for the same reasons Make an argument for your answer 5 How does the book of Job question the traditional view of wisdom Relate this questioning to the historical situation of ancient Israel 6 What arguments does Beal use to prove that Job identifies with chaos 7 What arguments does Beal give to prove that God in the divine speeches identifies with the chaos monster 8 What does Beal mean when he reads that the Leviathan as categoryjamming 9 Why do scholars argue that hasatan is not the same as Satan 10 Why does Beal read the divine speeches as the negation of purposiveness From Section I which we ran out of time to do and which Beal uses in his reading of Job Define heimlich and unheimlich and give an example of EACH 2 Otto says that people often have a contradictory response to the divine sublime Identify the contradiction I see monsters as an aspect of the self that cannot be acknowledged Who am I I see monsters as by definition part of the divine because the divine is completely different from our everyday world and thus is both aweful and awful Who am I 5 Reading Guide to Latour pages 1320 Making an honest attempt at each question gives you 10 points on your test Iput words in italics when I am giving you a de nition 21 The Modern Constitution Humanism 7 a way of lifethought that sees the world not through reference to the divine be it a personal Creator God of Judaism Christianity and Islam or the impersonal Forms of Plato but through reference to the human being On page 13 why does Latour object to de ning modernity or the Enlightenment as humanism He argues instead that the separation between the natural world and the social world is the key division that produced our modern world He uses the analogy of the US Constitution to explain what he means can you explain how this analogy works 3 Do we use this Constitution to analyze other cultures Why or why not In order to analyze this Constitution he turns to the con ict between Boyle and Hobbes that we talked about in the previous class N 22 Boyle and His Objects 1 On page 16 the key point is In this passage they do not show how the social context of Eng might justify the development of Boyle s physics and the failure of Hobbes mathematical theories Far from situating Boyle s scientific works in their social context or showing how politics external presses in on science they examine how B and H fought to invent a science a context and the demarcation btw the two They are not prepared to explain the content by the context since neither existed in this new way BEFORE Boyle and Hobbes reached their respective goals and settled their differences Restate this point in your own words What role did witnesses play for Boyle as thus for the empirical style that science uses even today N 23 Hobbes and His Subjects 1 Why does Hobbes think that Boyle s experimental way was dangerous to the social order 2 Why does Hobbes think that inert and mechanical matter is essential to civil peace 3 Hobbes thought that if you have one source of authority for truthknowledge and another source of authority for society you will keep having wars like England was having Why
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