PSYCH1010: book notes for exam 2
PSYCH1010: book notes for exam 2 PSY 1010
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelly Parsley on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 1010 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Paul J Watson (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 327 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
PSYCH1010 Introduction to Psychology Book Notes Dr Watson Chapter 6 Learning 61 What is learning Both instincts and re exes are unlearned behaviors Re ex motor or neural reaction to specific stimulus in environment 0 Simpler than instincts O Involve quick physical movement of single part of an individual Instinct innate behavior triggered by broad range of events 0 More complex pattern 0 Involve movement of whole organism or species Learning relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge due to experience Our minds connect things in close sequence naturally Associative Learning when an organism makes connections between stimuli or events that occur together in the environment Classical Conditioning unconscious processes 0 Also called Pavlovian Conditioning 0 Learn to associate events or stimuli that repeatedly happen together 0 Studied by what is seen and measured aka behaviors 0 Example The sound of thunder makes you jump and lightning always comes before it Eventually the lightning will make you jump because you have associated it with the sound of thunder Operant Conditioning conscious processes 0 Learn to associate events or stimuli with a behavior and consequence 0 Use reinforcement and punishment 0 Example You give a dog a treat when he sits Eventually he will sit because he knows it will cause him to receive a treat Observational Learning adds social and cognitive layers to basic associative processes both conscious and unconscious 0 Watching others and imitating behaviors 0 Example Teaching your son how to surf 62 Classical Pavlovian Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Russian scientistphysiologist who did research on dogs to study digestion and salivation O Psychic Secretions the dogs had learned to associate approaching footsteps with food and began to salivate before the food was in sight Types of Responses to Environment 0 Conditioned Reaction learned reactions 0 Unconditioned Reaction re exes unlearned reactions Unconditional Stimulus UCS elicits re exive response Unconditioned Response UCR natural unlearned reaction to stimulus Neutral Stimulus NS stimulus that does not naturally elicit a response Conditioned Stimulus CS elicits response after being paired with UCS NS becomes this Conditioned Response CR behavior caused by CS Acquisition when an organism begins to associate NS with UCS 0 During this NS begins producing CR and NS becomes CS 0 Timing is important 0 Overall it is a strengthening of the CR Taste Aversion associate being ill with a food eaten prior to sickness even though the food did not cause the illness now the food makes you nauseous upon mentioning O Originates from an adaptation to quickly learn to avoid harmful foods Extinction decrease in CR when UCS is no longer present with CS gradual weakening and disappearance of CR Spontaneous Recovery return of previously extinct or dormant CR after a break period Stimulus Discrimination learning to respond differently to various similar stimuli Stimulus Generalization demonstrating CR to stimuli similar to CS Habituation learn not to respond to stimulus presented repeatedly without change Behaviorism 0 John B Watson Founder of Behaviorism 0 All behavior can be studied as a simple stimulusresponse reaction without regard to internal processes 0 Psychology must focus on outward observable behavior Conditioning emotions like fear 0 Phobia persistent excessive fear of an object or situation 0 63 Operant Conditioning 0 Learn to associate behavior with consequences 0 Skinner behavior is motivated by consequences received 0 Law of Effect Edward Thorndike O Behaviors followed by pleasant consequences are more likely to be repeated and behaviors followed by undesirable consequences are less likely to be repeated 0 Operant Conditioning Chamber Skinner Box 0 Includes lever that dispenses food 0 Pulling the lever is associated with receiving food 0 Positive and negative reinforcement and punishment Reinforcement Punishment Positive Something added to increase Something added to decrease behavior behavior Negative Something removed to Something removed to increase behavior decrease behavior 0 Reinforcement generally works better than punishment 0 Shaping rewarding successive approximations of target behavior 0 Complex behaviors are broken down into many small achievable steps 0 Discrimination is important when dealing with shaping 0 Primary Reinforcer have innate reinforcing qualities 0 Examples candy toys physical needspleasures 0 Secondary Reinforcer has no inherent value and only has reinforcement qualities when linked with primary reinforcer example praise is linked to affection O Tokens secondary reinforcement is traded in for rewards 0 Reinforcement Schedules 0 Continuous reinforcement receives reinforcer every single time positive behavior occurs 0 Giving immediate reward is the quickest way to teach behavior 0 Partial intermittent reinforcement behavior not rewarded every time at fixed or variable intervals Fixed set amount of time or responses between rewards Variable varying amount of time or responses between rewards Interval schedule based on time Ratio schedule based on number of responses OOOO Reinforcement Schedule Description Result Fixed Interval Least productive and easiest to extinguish Reinforcement delivered at predictable time intervals Moderate response rate with significant pauses after reinforcement Variable Interval Reinforcement delivered at unpredictable time intervals Moderate yet steady response rate Reinforcement delivered after High response rate with Fixed Ratio predictable number of pauses after reinforcement responses Variable Ratio Reinforcement delivered after most productive and hardest to extinguish unpredictable number of I39CSpOIlSCS High and steady response rate 0 Reinforcement must be immediate for learning to occur suggests cognitive aspect 0 Cognitive map mental picture of the layout of a maze 0 Latent Learning learning that occurs but is not observable in behavior until there is reason to demonstrate it 64 Observational Learning 0 Proposed by Albert Bandura 0 Learn by watching others and imitating their behavior 0 Models individuals performing imitations 0 Involves mirror neuron and cognitive components How observational learning occurs 0 Learn new response 0 Choose Whether or not to imitate model 0 Learn general rule and apply to other situation Kinds of models live verbal and symbolic Steps in modeling process 0 Attention retention reproduction and motivation Vicarious Reinforcement seeing model reinforced for behavior and being motivated to copy Vicarious Punishment observing model being punished and being less motivated to copy Prosocial Models positive used to encourage socially accepted behavior Antisocial Models negative copying socially unaccepted behavior Chapter 8 Memory 81 How memory functions Memory set of processes used to encode store and retrieve information over different periods of time Encoding I storing I retrieving Encoding input of information into memory system 0 Occurs through automatic and effortful processing Automatic processing encoding of details including time space frequency and meaning of words without conscious awareness Effortful processing encoding of information requiring a lot of hard work and attention 0 Easier to encode information when meaning is attached Semantic Encoding words and meaning 0 William Bousfield demonstrated this Visual Encoding images Acoustic Encoding sounds especially sounds of words HighImagery Words encoded both visually and semantically this builds a stronger memory Fergus Craik and Endel Tulving words encoded semantically are remembered more easily 0 SelfReference Effect tendency for an individual to have better memory for information relating to oneself in comparison to material with less personal relevance Storage creation of permanent records of information Sensory Sensory Short Term i Long Term Input Memory Memory lt Memory Sensory Memory storage of brief events ShortTerm Memory STM temporary storage system processing incoming sensory memories Rehearsal conscious repetition of STM information to be remembered Memory Consolidation movement of STM into LTM LongTerm Memory continuous storage of information without limitations Explicit Memories consciously trying to remember and recall Implicit Memories not part of consciousness O Formed on behaviors nondeclarative memory ExplicitDeclarative ImplicitNon Declarative Episodic Semantic Procedural Emotional Conditioning 0 Procedural Memory implicit memory that stores information about how to do things 0 Declarative Memory storage of facts and events personally experienced 0 Semantic knowledge about words concepts and languagebased facts 0 Episodic information about events personally experienced 0 Retrieval returning information from memory storage to conscious awareness 0 Recall accessing information Without cues 0 Recognition identify information previously learned after encountering it again I Involves comparison I Example multiple choice testing 0 Relearning learning information previously learned 82 Parts of the brain involved With memory 0 Engram group of neurons that serves as a physical representation of memory 0 Equipotentiality Hypothesis if part of one area of the brain involved in memory is damaged another part of the same area can take over that memory function 0 Lashley trained rats to learn a maze 0 Eric Kandel studied synapse basic brain structure and the role of controlling information through neural circuits needed to store memories 0 Main parts of the brain involved With memory amygdala hippocampus cerebellum and prefrontal cortex Amygdala regulate emotions mainly fear and aggression 0 Storage in uenced by stress hormones O Involved in memory consolidation encodes memories at deeper level when an event is emotionally arousing Hippocampus normal recognition memory and spatial memory project information to cortical regions that give memory meaning and connect them with other connected memories 0 Involved in memory consolidation transfers new learning into LTM O Damage causes inability to process declarative memories although old memories remain Cerebellum allows creation of implicit memories procedural memory motor learning and classical conditioning Prefrontal Cortex process and retain information allow recalling of information Neurotransmitters epinephrine dopamine serotonin glutamate and acetylcholine 0 Communication is vital for developing new memories Arousal Theory strong emotions trigger formation of strong memories and weaker emotional experiences form weak memories Flashbulb Memory exceptionally clear recollection of important events 83 Problems with memory Amnesia loss of longterm memory due to disease physical trauma or psychological trauma Anterograde Amnesia cannot remember new information 0 Hippocampus is affected inability to consolidate memories 0 Unable to form new episodic and semantic memories but can form new procedural memories Retrograde Amnesia loss of memory of events prior to trauma 0 Difficulty remembering episodic memories Past IRetrograde Amnesia Event Anterograde Amnesia I Present Construction formulation of new memories Reconstruction process of bringing up old memories 0 As memories are retrieved they are altered and modified Suggestibility effects of misinformation from external sources leading to creation of false memories Misinformation Effect Paradigm after exposure to incorrect information a person may misremember the original event 0 Whole events not just words can be falsely recalled even When they did not happen at all 0 Freud discussed the false recalling of traumatic events False Memory Syndrome recall of false autobiographical memories 0 Traumatic repressed memories can be recalled via hypnosis and guided imagery techniques The Recovered Memory Project victims of childhood sexual abuse can recall these memories and allow the healing process to begin Loftus did not think traumatic memories could be repressed and recalled O Believed that hypnosis guided visualization and age regression do NOT work Forgetting loss of information from LTM Encoding Failure memory loss before actual memory loss process begins 0 Example trying to find a book before you buy it 0 Occurs from a lack of effortful encoding Psychologist Daniel Schacter memory researcher Who concocted the seven ways memory fails us seven sins of memory and categorized them into three categories forgetting distortion and intrusion Sin Type Description Example Accessibility of Forget events that Transience Forgetting memory decreases occurred long ago over time Forgetting caused by Forget Where your Absentmindedness Forgetting lapses in attention phone is Blocking Forgetting Accessibility of Tip of the tongue information is temporarily blocked Recalling a dream Source of memory is Misattribution Distortion memory as a waking confused memory Result from leading Suggestibility Distortion False memories questions Memories distorted by Align memories to Bias Distortion current belief system current beliefs Inability to forget Persistence Intrusion Traumatic events undesirable memories 0 Storage Decay unused information tends to fade with the passage of time 0 Herman Ebbinghaus analyzed process of memorization O Forgetting curve memory for new information decays quickly and then eventually levels out 0 An average person will lose 50 of memorized information after 20 minutes and 70 after 24 hours 0 Interference information stored in memory is inaccessible for some reason 0 Proactive Interference old information hinders the recall of newly learned information 0 Retroactive Interference information learned more recently hinders the recall of older information 84 Ways to enhance memory 0 MemoryEnhancing Strategies information moving from STM to LTM O Rehearsal conscious repetition of information to be remembered O Chunking organize information into manageable bits or chunks I Remembering dates and phone numbers 0 Elaborative Rehearsal technique in which you think about the meaning of new information and its relation to knowledge already stored in your memory 10 0 Mnemonic Devices memory aids that help us organize information for encoding I The more unusual or vivid the easier to remember 0 Expressive writing 0 Vocal repetition Chapter 7 Thinking and Intelligence 71 What is cognition 0 Cognition thinking 0 Accompanies perception knowledge problemsolving judgement language and memory 0 Used to understand how we integrate organize and utilize our conscious cognitive experiences without being aware of all the unconscious work that our brains are doing 0 Cognitive Psychology field of psychology dedicated to examining how people think 0 Studies human thinking emotion creativity language and problem solving 0 Organize thoughts and information into meaningful categories of thought 0 Emotion and memory are powerful in uences on both thoughts and behaviors 0 Information Sensations I Emotions and Memories I Thoughts 0 Concepts categories or groupings of linguistic information images ideas or memories such as life experiences 0 Big ideas formed by observing details and categorizingcombining these into cognitive structures to keep information organized and accessible 0 Formed by semantic memory 11 Prototype best example or representation of a concept Natural Concepts created naturally through experiences and can be developed from either direct or indirect experiences 0 You can construct an understanding of something from actual experience Artificial Concept concept defined by a specific set of characteristics 0 Enhance understanding of a topic by building on one another 0 Crucial to communicating with others and engaging in complex thought 0 Goldstone and Kersten concepts act as building blocks and can be connected in countless combinations to create complex thoughts Schemata Schema mental construct consisting of a cluster or collection of related concepts 0 Method of organizing information that allows the brain to work more efficiently 0 The brain makes immediate assumptions about what is being observed 0 Role Schema makes assumptions about individuals based on how they behave in certain roles I Fills gaps in understanding from the world around you 0 Event Schema Cognitive Script set of behaviors that can feel like a routine I Powerful event schema dictates behavior suggesting it can be described as habitual 72 Language Communication that involves using words and systematic rules to organize those words to transmit information form one individual to another 0 Language is a form of communication but not all communication is language 0 Postures movements odors and vocalization are examples of common communication devices Lexicon words of a given language language s vocabulary Grammar set of rules that are used to convey meaning through use of lexicon Phoneme basic sound unit of a given language different languages have different sets Morphemes smallest units of language that convey some type of meaning Use semantics and syntax to construct language Semantics process by which we derive meaning from morphemes and words Syntax the way words are organized into sentences 12 Language is very exible so it is a very distinct way of communicating B F Skinner language is learned through reinforcement Noam Chomsky mechanisms underlying language acquisition are biologically determined 0 We are born with a biological predisposition to acquire a language 0 There is a critical period for learning a new language Developmental Language Stage Age and Communication 1 03 months Re exive communication Re exive communication and 2 38 months interest in others Intentional communication 3 813 months and sociability 4 1218 months First words 5 1824 months Simple sentences of 2 words 6 23 years Sentences of 3 words Complex sentences can have 7 35 years conversations Overgeneralization the extension of a language rule to an exception to the rule 0 Example add an s to the end of a noun to make it plural kids may overgeneralize this and say gooses or mouses Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf wanted to understand how language habits of a community encourage members of that community to interpret language in a particular manner 0 Language determines thought so someone whose community language did not have pasttense verbs would have trouble understanding the concept of the past 0 Lacks empiricism and is too absolute Linguistic Determinism language in uences the way we think Boroditsky habits in language encourage habits in thought 13 0 Language can in uence perceptual phenomena especially in the brain s left hemisphere 73 Problem solving 0 ProblemSolving Strategy plan of action used to find a solution 0 Trial and Error If at first you don t succeed try try again 0 Not timeefficient but most commonly used 0 Continue trying different solutions until the problem is solved 0 Example your phone is malfunctioning 1 Restart phone 2 Turn off and on WiFi 3 Turn off bluetooth 0 Algorithm stepbystep problemsolving formula 0 Example instruction manual or recipe for dinner 0 Must be followed exactly to produce an accurate result I Heuristic general problemsolving framework 0 Example working backwards breaking a task down into steps 0 Rule of thum saves time and energy when making decisions 0 Used most when I You are faced with too much information I The time to make a decision is limited I The decision to be made is unimportant I There is access to very little information to use in making the decision I An appropriate heuristic happens to come to mind in the same moment 0 Working Backwards focus at the end result 0 Mental Set when you persist in approaching a problem in a way that has worked in the past but is clearly not working now 0 Functional Fixedness type of mental set when you cannot perceive an object being used for something other than what it was designed for 0 Experienced in industrialized and nonindustrialized cultures 0 Anchoring Basis occurs when focusing on information when making a decision or solving a problem 0 Confirmation Basis the tendency to focus on information that confirms your existing beliefs 0 Hindsight Basis leads you to believe that the event you just experienced was predictable even though it really wasn t l4 Representative Basis describes a faulty way of thinking in which you unintentionally stereotype someone or something Availability Heuristic make a decision based on an example information or recent experience that is readily available to you even though it may not be the best example to inform your decision 74 What are intelligence and creativity Charles Spearman intelligence consists of one factor which can be measured and compared among individuals Raymond Cattell proposed a theory of intelligence that divided general intelligence into two components crystalized intelligence and uid intelligence 0 Intelligence is a collection of distinct abilities O Crystalized Intelligence acquired knowledge and the ability to retrieve it I Overcome concrete straightforward problems 0 Fluid Intelligence ability to see complex relationships and solve problems I Tackle complex abstract challenges in daily life Robert Stemberg triarchic theory of intelligence is composed of practical creative and analytical intelligence 0 Practical Intelligence street smarts and common sense I Applying knowledge based on experiences 0 Creative Intelligence imaginative and innovative problem solving I Finding a novel solution to an unexpected problem or producing a beautiful work of art or a welldeveloped short story 0 Analytical Intelligence academic problem solving and computation I Ability to analyze evaluate judge compare and contrast Multiple Intelligences Theory each person possesses at least 8 intelligences O A person typically excels in some and falters in others 0 Proposed by Howard Gardner a Harvard psychologist 0 This theory is relative and needs empirical support Intelligence Types Characteristics Representative Career Linguistic Perceives different functions Journalist novelist poet of language different sounds teacher 15 and meanings of words may easily learn multiple languages Lo gicalMathematical Capable of seeing numerical patterns strong ability to use reason and logic Scientist mathematician Understands and appreciates rhythm pitch and tone may Musical Composer performer play multiple instruments or perform as a vocalist High ability to control movements of the body and Dancer athlete athletic coach Bodily Kinesthetic use the body to perform yoga instructor various physical tasks Ability to perceive the Choreographer sculptor Spatial relationship between objects architect aviator sailor and how they move in space Ability to understand and be Counselor social worker Interpersonal sensitive to the various salesperson emotional states of others Ability to access personal feelings and motivations and Key component of personal Intrapersonal use them to direct behavior success over time and reach personal goals Naturalist High capacity to appreciate Biologist ecologist the natural world and interact environmentalist 16 I with the species within it I 0 Emotional Intelligence ability to understand the emotions of yourself and others show empathy understand social relationships and cues and regulate your own emotions and respond in culturally appropriate ways 0 Daniel Goleman author of Emotional Intelligence Why It Can Matter More Than IQ about emotional intelligence being a better predictor of success than traditional intelligence 0 Difficult to measure and study empirically 0 Cultural Intelligence how well you relate to the values of a specific culture oftentimes referred to as cultural competence 0 Creativity ability to generate create or discover new ideas solutions and possibilities O Divergent Thinking thinking outside the box allows an individual to arrive at unique multiple solutions to a given problem 0 Convergent Thinking ability to provide a correct or wellestablished answer or solution to a problem 75 Measures of intelligence 0 Intelligent Quotient IQ score earned on a test designed to measure intelligence 0 Sir Francis Galton developed first broad test of intelligence 0 Alfred Binet developed intelligence test for children to determine which kids have difficulty in school through mostly verballybased tasks 0 Louis Terman standardized administration of Binet s test and tested thousands of differentaged children to establish an average score per age 0 Standardization the manner of administration scoring and interpretation of results is consistent 0 Norming giving a test to a large population so data can be collected comparing groups such as age groups 0 Data concluded provides norms or referential scores to interpret future scores 17 0 StanfordBinet Intelligence Scale new version of the test mentioned above 0 David Wechsler psychologist who worked with WWI veterans and developed a new IQ test in the Unites States 0 Intelligence encompassed the global capacity of a person to act purposefully to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment 0 WechslerBellevue Intelligence Scale combination of IQ subtests later the name was changed to Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 0 Included 4 subtests verbal comprehension perceptual reasoning working memory and processing speed 0 Intelligence is comprised of multiple abilities in several cognitive realms and focuses on the mental processes that a child used to arrive at the answers to each test item 0 Flynn Effect the observation that each generation has a significantly higher IQ than the former generation 0 Named after James Flynn O Recalibrated tests given to each generation 0 Bell Curve graph in the general shape of a bell O Demonstrates the normal distribution of a trait in the human population 0 Representative Sample subset of the population that accurately represents the general population 0 Standard Deviations describe how data are dispersed in a population and give context to large data sets 0 Only 22 of the population has an IQ below 70 indicating significant cognitive delays major deficits in adaptive functioning and difficulty meeting community standards of personal independence and social responsibility in comparison to sameage peers 0 2 of the population has an IQ above 130 Intellectual Disability Percentage of Intellectually Description Subtype Disabled Population Mild 85 3rd 6th grade skill level in 18 reading writing and math may be employed and live independently Basic reading and writing Moderate 10 skills functional selfcare skills requires some oversight Functional selfcare skills Severe 5 requires oversight of daily environment and activities May be able to communicate Profound lt1 verbally or nonverbally requires intensive oversight 76 The source of intelligence 0 High Intelligence involves a genetic component and shaped by a child s developmental environment 0 Genetics are in control of the level of intelligence but the environmental in uences provide both stability and change to trigger manifestation of cognitive abilities 0 Range of Reaction theory that each person responds to the environment in a unique way based on his genetic makeup 0 Genetic potential is a fixed quantity 0 Environmental stimulation decides whether or not you reach full potential 0 Stress and worry in adolescence can lower IQ and have lasting effects in adulthood 0 Mark Kishiyama children living in poverty demonstrated reduced prefrontal brain functioning comparable to children with damage to the lateral prefrontal cortex 0 Arthur Jenson How Much Can We Boost IQ and Achievement O IQ is determined by genetics 0 Intelligence is made up of two types of abilities Level 1 and Level 2 19 I Level 1 responsible for rote memorization 0 Remained consistent among human race I Level 2 responsible for conceptual and analytical abilities 0 Exhibited differences among ethnic groups 0 Robert Williams called out racial bias in J enson s work Learning Disabilities cognitive disorders that affect different areas of cognition particularly language or reading not intellectual disabilities 0 000 0 Specific neurological impairments not global intellectual or development disabilities Language Disability difficulty understanding or using spoken language Reading Disability difficulty processing what is being read dyslexia Usually not recognized until a child begins school Children with learning disabilities typically have aboveaverage intelligence level Dysgraphia struggle to write legibly difficulty putting thought on paper 0 May have problems with spatial abilities Dyslexia inability to correctly process letters 0 0 most common learning disability in children neurological mechanism for sound processing does not work properly 20
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