Anthropology 104/304 Exam 2 Study Guide
Anthropology 104/304 Exam 2 Study Guide ANTH 104
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Date Created: 10/25/15
ANTH 104304 Exam 2 Study Guide Human Variation The biological race concept is based on which three assumptions 1 3 These are all false What are the three phases of radical thinking in science and what occurred in each phase What are the time periods Who are some important people in these phases Phase 1 Homer Aristotle Hippocrates Phase 2 The great chain of being Linneas Races Comte de Buffon Johann Blumenbach Samuel Morton vs Stephen Gould Folk Heredity Eugenics Racial Classification and Typology 4 characteristics Nonobjective science Racialism Typological thinking Biological determinism Boas Criticisms Phase 3 Biological Race Concept If race is biological it should be 1 Polytypic there should be a small number of discrete racial types in humans a Not true Human variation is clinal and polymorphic not polytypic 2 Structured Members of a racial group should be more similar to each other than members of other groups a Not true Human Traits are Nonconcordant 3 Concordant sets of traits are inherited together a Not true Most variation is found within any given racial group not between them 4 Deterministic behavior and culture must be the results of one s biology a Human variation is not static it is always changing Prenatal Stages what happens in it what happens in each trimester Birth lncredibly Stressful for both infant and mother Postnatal Stages what happens what age is each phase Infancy Childhood Juvenile Puberty Adolescents Adult stage what happens in it What are vaccinations what do they do and what is their impact what are some risks Define each term growth hyperplasia hypertrophy accretion development allometry What are the four levels at which adaptations occur at 1 2 3 4 What is Race Define Hypodescent What are some problems with genetic ancestry testing and why is it not completely reliable What is homeostasis Heat Production Basal Metabolic Rate what are some ways to increase BMR What is a fever What is Thermoregulation Bergmann s Rule Allen s Rule Some Human Adaptations a ude nutritional workload skeletal adaptations Primate Morphology Cladogram vs Phylogenetic Tree Primate adaptations arboreal adaptation Dietary plasticity parental investment Bilophodont vs Y5 Molars tooth comb Types of male to female ratio groups Polygynous Polyandrous Multi male Multi female Monogamous Solitary What is kin selection GUEST LECTURE Sex Gender Sexual Dimorphism Two Sex Gender System Transgender ANSWERS Human Variation The biological race concept is based on which three assumptions 1 The Human species can naturally be divided into a small number of distinct races 2 Members of different races are genetically different in important way so knowing a person s race gives you important information about what he or she is like 3 The differences between the races are due to biological heritage These are all false What are the three phases of radical thinking in science and what occurred in each phase What are the time periods Who are some important people in these phases Phase 1 Pre1800 Race was not studied formally but discussion of human variation appears in many ancient texts Homer Aethiopians first written reference to skin color in the West Aristotle Founder of comparative anatomy Thought that climate had an impact on the human form Hippocrates Discusses body form and temperament Tall and thin people were seen easily angered Short and squat people were seen doctile Phase 2 The great chain of being All Species are organized in proximity to the Divine Every species that can exist does Every species is fixed and unchanging Every species grades into the next Linneas Races Europaeus muscular long flowing hair blue eyes inventive and governed by laws Asiaticus black hair and dark eyes avaricious and ruled by opinion Americanusstraight thick black hair wide nostrils scanty beards paint themselves with fine red lines Obstinate and ruled by customs black frizzled hair flat noses tumid lips the women are without shame the men anoint themselves with grease governed by caprice Monstrosus Comte de Buffon Early anatomist influenced evolutionary biology though not DanVin directly Says all races have single origin Johann Blumenbach 5 races based on cranial typology Samuel Morton vs Stephen Gould Morton measured skull volume as a way to classify human races Established 5 racial groups Gould reanalyzed Morton39s data and found many errors Showed there was no relationship between skull size and race Eugenics Compulsory sterilization of the mentally ill prisoners feebleminded often biased towards people of less desirable bloodlines Racialism the idea that humans can be divided into small number of biological groups Typological thinking Variability in the real world must be ignored reduce races to a few ideal types Biological determinism all behavior socioeconomic differences arise from inheritable biological factors Society and history are determined by simple biological traits Boas Criticisms Races or cultures are not inherently superior or inferior Biological determinism ignored social factors and the circumstances of history The environment has a profound influence on behavior and skeletal morphology Phase 3 Biological Race Concept lf race is biological it should be 1 Polytypic there should be a small number of discrete racial types in humans a Not true Human variation is clinal and polymorphic not polytypic 2 Structured Members of a racial group should be more similar to each other than members of other groups a Not true Human Traits are Nonconcordant 3 Concordant sets of traits are inherited together a Not true Most variation is found within any given racial group not between them 4 Deterministic behavior and culture must be the results of one s biology a Human variation is not static it is always changing Prenatal Stages what happens in it Early embryonic development regulated by Hox genes Early stage embryos highly susceptible to stressors Conception to birth 9 months what happens in each trimester First fertilized ovum undergoes many rounds of mitosis to produce millions of cells Cells differentiate into distinct tissues which form organs Second Fetus grows larger Third Organ development movement reaction to stimuli light sound touch Birth lncredibly stressful for both infant and mother Postnatal Stages what happens what age is each phase lnfancy birth through the end of lactation usually 3 Childhood Ages 35 Juvenile Ages 710 girls Ages 712 boys Puberty sexual maturity development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics Adolescents 510 years after puberty Adult stage what happens in it Reproductive period 20 to around 50 for women Aging What are vaccinations what do they do and what is their impact Expose a person to killed microbes which the immune system will build defence to Prevents millions of disease related deaths a year what are some risks Serious adverse reactions but are very rare ex Hepatitis B NOT RISKS AUTISMSDSALLERGESSEIZURE DISORDER Define each term growth Geometric process of self multiplication of living substance hyperplasia Increase in cell number hypertrophy Increase in cell size accretion Increase in intercellular materials development Specialization and differentiation of cells into different functional units allometry Different growth rates for different parts of the body What are the four levels at which adaptations occur at 1 Genetic 2 Developmental 3 Physiological acclimatization 4 Behavioral culture What is Race An erroneous biological concept A social way that we categorize people to make sense of human diversity Define Hypodescent An anthropological term The offspring of mixedrace couples inherit the least prestigious category of the parents What are some problems with genetic ancestry testing and why is it not completely reliable Too many ancestors are a couple generations for you to choose which genetic information you want to know Becomes impossible to track Some of them even make healthrelated claims What is homeostasis Maintenance of internal environment to keep physiological mechanisms at desirable levels with tolerable limits Heat Production Basal Metabolic Rate Minimum amount of energy required to sustain the body s vital functions basic level of heat production by the body based solely on the chemical reactions of metabolism what are some ways to increase BMR Hormones Dietary intake fever What is a fever An upward shift in body s the hypothalamus in the brain set point or core temperature which is regulated by What is Thermoregulation The regulation of temperature changes inside the body when the temperature outside becomes extreme Bergmann s Rule Body weight tends to a minimum in warmer regions increases in colder regions Allen s Rule Among warm blooded animals populations of same species living near equator tend to have longer limbs and ears than populations farther from equator Some Human Adaptations altitude Body responds through production of extra red blood cells and hemoglobin increase diameter of blood vessels and there is a lack of available oxygen nutritional Genetic traits formed that allow for conservation of nutrition during times of famine workload skeletal adaptations Bone is produced where it is needed and removed where it is not Changes shape of skeletal elements Primate Morphology Cladogram vs Phylogenetic Tree Cladogram length of branches is arbitrary Phylogenetic tree length of branches represent the amount of character changes Primate adaptations arboreal adaptation skeletal structure versatile enhanced touch and vision reduced reliance of smell and hearing Dietary plasticity High degree of dietary diversity through trait retention reduced number of teeth dental specialization parental investment amount of parental investment into child depends on species group Bilophodont vs Y5 Molars Bilophodont teeth have four distinct ridges on molar Y5 shows a Y in the molar and has 5 distinct ridges tooth comb The incisors point straight out and are used for scraping or grooming in some species Polygynous one male has multiple female for partners High sexual dimorphism Polyandrous one female39s mates with multiple amels males often cooperate with females in parenting Low sexual dimorphism Multi male Multi female promiscuous mating competition for males low sexual dimorphism low All male groups are typically temporary Monogamous one male and one female male invests large amount of time and energy into young Solitary interaction between females and males only for sex What is kin selection evolutionary benefit of altruistic benefit to kin group outweighs cost to individual acting altruistically GUEST LECTURE Sex Observable physical differences between male and females Especially for reproduction Gender Expressions of thought and behavior that each culture assigns to people of different biological sexes Culturally defined and practiced Sexual Dimorphism male and female of same species differ in physical in primary and secondary sexual characteristics size and shape Two Sex Gender System Culturally constructed categories to divide and regulate population Transgender Gender identity or performance that does not fit with cultural norms related to one s assigned sex at birth
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