Popular in Dance Anatomy Through Movement
Popular in Dance
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by shelby on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to dan 260 at University of Oregon taught by Stephen Chatfield in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Dance Anatomy Through Movement in Dance at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Anatomy science of structure of human body including its systems organs and ssues Kinesiology science of human movement including anatomy biomechanics psychology physiology and neuroscience Dewey s Codification of the Scientic Method Broadly defined as the use of observation and experimentation to test hypotheses and generate theories Theories that stand without disprood make up our knowledge base John Dewey started a modern scientific method 5 phases 1 hesitation 2intellectualization 3 form a hypotheses 4 reasoning 5 testing Perception and Action are linked in the brain BY A SINGLE SYNAPSE Incoming sensory data from interoceptors proprioceptors and exteroceptors inform our actions Exteroceptors Distant senses including vision hearing and smell Near senses including taste and touch Proprioceptors found in joints muscles Proprioception can be thought of as the muscles awareness of its own position in space Proprioceptors are important for unconscious spinal cam termm ue at reflexes two important meter Eater 5322155 umt 1i u llt 2 I proprioceptors are MUSCLE SPINDLES AND GOLGI TENDON ORGANS Im t ir new rah EEIIII handy Kinesthesia the 6th sense J integrates information from am 39 proprioceptors and muscle 39 exteroceptors DAY TWO NEUROSCIENCE at Astana qf39 mutur mexur ns extgn l firaim the spinal Gard tn the THEEEl n There each i l divide5 iiiflt a umber M axnn terminals that farm aneurammscullar jungtiams with Imu cle fibers scattgred thrgughault the miruaglllg Anatomical representation of a motor unit How Motor Units function lt s composed of one motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates They are the smallest functional component of neuromuscular system They branch off many times and form functions using fibers 1 Fine vs gross motor recruitment places in the body with more motor units are for gross motor skills and vice versa for fine 2 spacial and temporal factors of muscle tension development temporary motor units can recruit more motor units by quickening and adding more strength to the unit Spacial Recruitment MORE means power movement while LESS Stimulus units is for softer movement 3 all or none principle 10 must go at the same time to make it workALL CONNECTED MUST GO TOGETHER AT ONCE Monosynaptic Knee Jerk AKA the Stretch Reflex caused by a patellar tendon tap Steps sssss39rss mu ssllls stilssh Ed is same tsn disan rslmrtsrs and nelissss ssssss39 tenstain i musslss Ei lllil l t b Afters at new m n Ts Infra i n Hussls spinsls 39 Fallsllllalr i ts Iradun V lntsrnsur un Effsrsnt l39lIEiUlF 39n 5 If there is 10 fiber strands in the motor unit the nerve and ALL In hihitsry in39tsrnsunsn j msttss H EUHEIH 39 il39ill lih d g sssssstr 39 NlEUH HI stratified In srsssssl waists1 39 stimulates Thus 7 EWEFWL a a a r Spinal news A Essilt stsry Within INTEGRATING intsrnsumn T EEHITEH spinal ssr slln ssnss r nursn Estirsstss inhibitsw lintsrnslurssi Mlstsr nsursnrlss antagisinistiis al lfl usslss is sssits 1 Stretching of muscle stimulates muscle spindle 2 Activation of Sensory Neuron 3 Information processes at motor neuron 4 Activation of motor neuron 5 Contraction of muscle lnverse Myotatic Reflex Golgi Tendon Organ GTO stops and inhibits movement Analysis of the kicking leg during running AGONIST Muscle whose contraction produced the desired joint movement ANTAGONIST muscle with an action opposite to the prime mover NEUTRALIZING SYNERGIST Work with agonist by neutralizing an undesired secondary action of the prime mover STABILIZER Muscle fixes the skeleton against forces acting against desired action including movement of the prime mover gravity or momentum WEBERS LAW The threshold of discrimination between 2 stimuli increases with stimulus intensity Exercise for mapping new areas of Agnimiiat somatosensory and motor Ham trinagg humunculeses I 39 39 STEquot lit 2 To refine our coordination patterns we 1m r9 1 Erratafilmm ligande m fi must sense difference Wthh we can use mammal h mg rii g Weber s law to do Sensing differences enables successful brain mapping and entrainment of brain networks resulting in improved movement execution and state changes Remus abdimminis DAY 3 Bones And Joints and Breathing nm nm l m fem irisji quoti Wolffs Law changes in internal quot a Hamstrings in architecture and external conformation of AJCWU39H bone occur in accordance with laws BONE IN A HEALTHY PERSON WILL ADAPT TO LOADS UNDER WHICH ITS Miamifilm PLACED Hams rings r flail artinn and t39rur king d3 Eganlist a Quads wurkinjt as antagonist I flamed Knee Typical Synovial Joint adjacent bones are quot NOT directly connected to each other and there is actual space called joint cavities in between This is different than fibrous and cartilaginous joints Synovial joint is the most Articularcannlage 3quot Epmiml common type Of joint Spam mm I 39 BrainWEE Space cmmalmiingi a 7 red maiwnw 6 SUB Load Mm nggihll CATEGORIES OF g Elumpact Darius quoti 3l lMHdruillliaw E wiy Valium marmw Enaphy 39 l39 Iquot Pretrii ateum Tension Compression ham 1 hem l39yptca I Long lDiSliZ II Epiphy i 1 Hinge Joints spool shaped fitting into concave surface IE Ankle elbow knee 2Pivot Joints Archring shaped surface rotates about a round peglike pivot 3 4 Ball and Socket Joint ball shaped head fits into socket IE Hip and shoulder joints 5 6 Gliding Joint Joint surfaces are generally flat Occur between intercarpal joints and vertebrae 3 PLANES AND AXIS OF MOVEMENT on table below and in image right Fiber Arrangements and attachments of the diaphragm 2 TYPES Fusiform muscle fibers are close to parallel and generally longer and thinner Penniform pennate muscles fibers run at relative angle to muscles longitudinal axis which allows more fibers 1 2 es nttlsfi Mssislstsrsl llthl l lF39assssthrsughhs y side is sis Ellipsoid Joint Condyloid oval shape that fits into elliptical cavity lE wrists Saddle Joint saddle shaped bone fits in socket lE Thumb J t mt 53 Bled vessel filled with p News Eynlmriial x uid Airticiulla r e cartilage Tnsllsin sheath H l if E l r smhrane Joint I 1Fiilbirrsus aps u39e capsule f Fibrous layer 9 Membrsnmtis layer TEndnnv w f 1 VI Bone IPErliusteuim V 3 4 r ml ning llmgi39ru im39l fungi l s Fif mlpp i sunshcars zull 5533mm mi HEHIIFEP IEl llim App quot Fman Ellfill rsorsnszilplslmsl I Tramsquot pins madmlul arall I Emmi Imam1rst gt quot 5r 7 if II 5 I i 45 fl 1 I i i l V r 1 o Ml ul i i I uspasl 7quot 39 a is J imam i assus 39i 1 I Msssttts t Es mpls lssis running thfsughl hip lint Flsinas mtisi n Sagittsl Parallel d gags ljfnntl Antsmstssisr ifst tPsssss thnsugit by frsm ir nt ts basis Firsnts Parallel ssgsss fsldsl life lial Fsssss thssugh Essay tsp Hrtssstsl fuming ut smils standing in first i l1 ltl39Jl39i l in a given volume of muscle AKA it can produce greater force but have reduced speed and range of motion Contraction of the diaphragm results in a resting breath by contrasting bolume and pressure changes in the thoracic and abdominal cavities assosiated with inspiration and expka on lnlnspha on lnspiratory muscles contract diaphragm descends rib cage rises 2 thoracic cavity volume increases 3 lungs stretch and intrapulmonary volume goes up 4 intrapulmonary pressure stops to 1 mm hg 5 airgasses flows into lungs down its pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure is O In expiration 1 inspiratory muscles relax and the diaphragm rises while the rib cage descends due to recoil of costal cartridges 2 thoracic cavity volume decreases 3 Elastic lungs recoil passively and intrapulmonary volume decreases 4 intrapulmonary pressure increases to 1 Hg 5 air gasses flow out of lungs down its pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure is 0 ln FORCED Expiration The abdominal muscles contract and force the diaphragm upwards and contraction of the internal intercostal muscles actively pulls ribs downward this generates higher air pressure Paradoxical Breathing Costal breathing ribs open so the lungs are elongated by an overly stretched rib cage This raises the base of the lungs and diaphragm The diaphragm then pulls the abdominal mass along with it The belly strongly moves inward during inhalation while ribs expand Then during exhale ribs fall in and close up Abdomen descends towards pelvis and belly bulges out DAY 4 EIWH39IITI llll39 muttEdna Ham W 39 WWMM r Skeletal muscle and related connective tissue Muscle litter 7 Semelemme Mycftlj ril I39lElEiEILll l l Nucleus a 7 Eammplasm E tlcmysium 39 VAStriellns 39 Epill li lygi39um glge l tal mama Thick Imm i j Thin laclln lial em m lullwlrilalmerlts Vl mi e 39i r r 3i Mi Iquotl m1 ll man I r MDEW rfEumrt m Muscle Excitation and Contraction 39 i quot r 7 a 7 Muscle Excitation and 739 7 739 action mtatualtblack arrows at the motor neuron twinal CO ntractIo n l of are aEtttticm 4 P it iit39 Calcium is very important in muscle Mwmmuscutar 39 neurmus ul W jllf39Tfiattt m v QWEIEE an action potential spreads denim T tubulesquot i tutmilieu 39 fluwhich calm the release ContraCtlon and i at Eat stated in the excitation 39 quotserials7135mm reticulum IN MUSCLE rfrtyutibrit CONTRACTION 1 the distal end of a motor neuron releases up sarcoplasm stimulating 39139 Released t diffuses in quot muscle contraction a acetycholine Samutilisi r rrau i Flamd 2 Acetycholine diffuses WEI5339s r quotEV 25 g hm rf39fcnmtirane gmggml quotgig I across the gap at the H quotterminating muscle contractiimJ neU romUSCUIar junction 3 The sarcolemma is stimulated and a muscle impulse travels over the surface of a muscle fiber and deep into the fiber through the transverse tubules and reaches the sarcoplasmic reticulum 4 Calcium ions diffuse from the sarcoplasm and bind to troponin molecules 5 Tropomyosin molecules move and expose specific sites on actin filaments IN MUSCLE RELAXATION 1 Acetycholinesterase decomposes acetycholine and the muscle fiber membrane is no longer stimulated 2 Calcium ions are actively transported into the sarcoplasmic reticulum 3 ATP causes linkages between actin and myosin filaments to break without ATP breakdown 4 Cross bridges recock 5 troponin and tropomyosin molecules inhibit the interaction between myosin and actin filaments 6 muscle fiber remains relaxed yet ready until stimulated again Filaments Threadlike structure thats a series of cells are the mechanisms by which muscles contract Efferent action potential from a motor neuron results in changes in actin and myosin during skeletal contraction EACH MYOSIN Filament HAS 6 ACTIN Filaments Myosin filaments contain cross bridges activation of a muscle releases calcium from within a muscle fiber Using a muscle s attachments and path to project its line of pull The result of applied forces on a common point of attachment of every fiber contained within a given muscle If you locate points of attachment and assess their pull relative to joint center you have found the line of pull Think of standing bending knees example and what happens to your hips muscles only pull they don t push Remember Eccentric Isometric and Concentric movements THERE ARE 3 TYPES OF CONTRACTIONS THAT CAN BE MADE Concentric shortening of muscle Like a crunch or sit up Eccentric lengthening of muscle Like front of hip when extending leg after knee bend Isometric Static or equal length Partial or complete muscle contraction where no visible joint movement will occur The force that is produced during contractions is determined by motor recruitment patterns DAY 5 AtlantoOccipital Joint This is the articulation between the atlas and the occipital bone consisting of a pair of condyloid joints The movements permitted in this joint are FLEXION and EXTENSION around the mediolateral axis which give rise to the ordinary forward and backward nodding of the head Atlantoaxial Joints is the joint in the upper part of the neck between the first and second cervical vertebrae which are the atlas and the axis It is a pivot Joint Atlas is Ct and does not have vertebral walls and body Just hollow space with vertebral in front Axis is 02 have big dens or lump These two are what create the pivot joint 5th lumbar lintarr V39E fehlmll disc Sacmlllac joint Lumbosacral Joint The sacral base is tilted forward to a degree it s composed of L4 L5 and St in the bottom of the vertebrae considered a gliding joint Sacroiliac Joint pictured right considered a mixed cartilaginous fibrous synovial joint Structural Features of a Typical Vertebra joints One pair faces upward and one downwardinferior articular facet Articulations between vertebral bodies Each vertebra has two sets of facets There is one joint on either side to the right and left Facet joints are hingelike and link vertebrae together They re located at the back of the spine Facet joints are synovial Spinoos process jornts meanrng each point is surrounded Lamina I Superior articular process by a capsule of 11 ii 739 ertelorsl Ioocly connective tissue and VEHEE FHI H i 35 TFHHSVEI SE 39 produces a fluid to f famen 7 CHEESE h nourish and lubricate quot quot the jOlnt FIE dime I 7 W j ertelorsl forsmen A Inferior srticulsr process Ligament ame Deserliptlein quotUnique Anteater Lengiitttdtnail Ligament nLLJ Intertransneree shew ene ineh wide the FALL runs the entitle length at the spine treat haee efthe sltull tn the saernnt It emeeets the treat entener at the neutehrat he yte fnsnt at the annulus hrssis Lilga n1th lustrerlier Lengitndiinail Ligament FILL shew shethen wide the PLL runs the entitle length at the spine tram haee efthe shell ts saemrn It remneets the heels neste er l at the senehral been In the beta ef the annulus hrssis L I 7 Fastener El 1 Lengltttdiitail 39 Ligament iugmeplnaus Ligament This ligament attaehes the tie at eaen sninees memes te ethen titeasiplneus Ligament V Anterlar Eu Iras lneus 39 F P Laingltnnllnal This thin ligament atteehes te anether liganten t lea et ligamentnnt anurn that nuns sleep inte the sninal eelnntn Liga n1th lament ignmen39hmrniFlanunt the tigemettt morphological characteristics of This gellew ligament is the shengest It runs trent the base at sthlt tn the nel39tiisi in treat at and hehtreen lntinai amt the spinal earn and The ligamean atrnnt else mns in trent at taeet Isint nsnles a cervical vertebra of thoracic vertebra of lumbar vertebra MAJOR SPINAL LIGAMENTS
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