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Art Appreciation

by: Mariah Rau

Art Appreciation ART 1200

Mariah Rau
GPA 3.57

Danielle Pierce

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Danielle Pierce
Study Guide
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mariah Rau on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ART 1200 at University of North Texas taught by Danielle Pierce in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see /class/229150/art-1200-university-of-north-texas in Art at University of North Texas.


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Date Created: 10/25/15
Critical Thinking Questions Richard Ward Bad Hair Days What symbols are associated with the caveman The symbols associated with the cavemen are the harry body and head Animalistic stance features weapons of some sort club axe ext Living in a cave with animals skins of animals covering body and unkempt hair Seen in The Neanderthal Man Harper s Weekly 1873 Which beliefs or attitudes do such symbols represent The belief that the caveman was uncivilized he was primitive and very simplistic in nature These symbols stereotype the caveman as a simplistic person who only relied on his survival instincts and was not far from animal in the evolutionary chain In what other ways or artworks has such symbolism been used The idea of the caveman continues on today even with the Geico commercials and in past artworks such as Savage state from four states of civilization by Jean Bourdichon in 1500 s Early Humans How does art represent the concerns of Paleolithic humans Artwork represents the desire for rituality fertility abundance desire to leave offerings and the general belief system of early humans How does art represent the changes that occur as Homo sapiens become civilized As Homo sapiens become more civilized their art changes and begins to show agriculture sophistication ofsociety and resourcefulness What characteristics of civilization appear in early art and how are those characteristics represented stylistically Early art is represented stylistically through representative Views Contour lines and fine lines Such as in Lion s Panel In Chauvet from 30000 BC and quotHorse and Geometric Symbol from Lascaux in 13000 BC Shelter What are the 2 types of construction techniques in architecture Load bearing and skeleton and skin are the two common construction techniques of architecture an example of Load bearing construction would be the Great Friday mosque from the 13th century An example of skeleton and skin would be that of an everyday home What is the relationship of form and function in architecture Form of the architecture added to the function such as arches and domes the bigger arches were created to accommodate more people and for more important ceremonies What is the relationship of materials and form in architecture Stone was used as more structurally stable material to create larger structures while things like wood were not nearly as strong and therefore could not be used to create massive structures Shelter How did rulers use art to protect their people Apotropaic figures were used to ward off foes from buildings which contained treasure such as the sphinx is used to ward off thieves from the pyramids Statues protected the entry ways to gates and walls all of this warded off foes and protected cities people and riches What artwork did people used to protect themselves Cities used gates and walls to protect their people burial chambers also used ceremonial form of protection in the name of the diseased What Iconic Figures were used for protection Sphinx Lions animalistic creatures Lammassu Ext Were all iconic figures used for protection by people throughout history Patronage Who were the patrons of the arts Rich aristocrats were the primary patrons of the arts they used the arts to atone for their sins of being rich and greedy funding the arts was seen as an indulgence from hell temporarily How does the idea of patronage change over time Originally art was done for pubic viewing but as art became more and more a status symbol patronage changed to more ofa private use of artwork patrons would display artwork in their homes rather than in public places such as in the case of the archduke Leopold Wilhelm seen in his painting Archduke Leopold Wilhelm in his gallery by David Teniers in 1653 How does the changing nature of patronage of the art impact the form art takes and were it is displayed Depending on what is quothotquot in the art market is what is going to be painted artists are not going to paint artwork that does not sell Depending on who is purchasing the artwork depends on where it will be displayed ifa gallery is purchasing an artwork it will be displayed to the public while if a private individual is it is more likely to be displayed in a home or private place Copyright What characterizes a copy The characteristics of a copy is something which reproduces the image of another work such as Yasumasa s Mona Lisa Why would an artist appropriate the Mona Lisa The Mona Lisa was rumored to have a secret meaning of a love affair behind it Artists appropriate the Mona Lisa to change the meaning of the original work of art and to try and revile the secret side How have artists used appropriation to satirize deeply held beliefs Yasumasa satirizes a possible love connection between Leonardo and the subject of the Mona Lisa with his artwork he attempts to bring this affair to the publics view Which artists have unsuccessfully appropriated art Ieff Koon unsuccessfully appropriated art when he took someone else s photograph then made it into a sculpture to sell for profit this appropriation was to similar to the original and since made for profit hurt the potential profits of the artist behind the photograph making it a breach in copyright laws What can an artist do to avoid copyright infringement An artist can avoid copyright infringement by simply creating his own work do not copy other peoples work in which you do not have permission to copy When an artist feels as if he must copy another person s artwork they must obtain permission from whomever they are copying and get proper licensing Beauty ancient What role did Plato suggest artists play in the republic According to Plato artists did not play a role in the republic under the pretence that they did not actually create what was around them they simply copied it and therefore did not understand true beauty Explain the allegory of the cave and how it is relevant to achient Mediterranean art The allegory of the cave states that there are people who live in a cave for their entire lives These people have never seen the light of the outside world nally one of these people reaches the surface and sees the beauty of the outside world When he returns and tells of his venture the others do not believe him This is equivalent to how Plato tells us we see beauty we think we know what beauty is but in actuality we have never seen divine beauty What is the cannon and how is it applied to architecture and sculpture The cannon is an ideal set of proportions that are supposed to define quottrue beautyquot Buildings such as the Parthenon were built according to the cannon as well as Deriferus the spear bearer and Appoyimanous the athlete this ideal set of proportions was used extensively by sculptures throughout Mediterranean art because people who appeared under the guidelines of the cannon were seen to be as perfect and godly Compare and Contrast depictions of male and female nudity in Greek art Male nudity was accepted in public places and the male form was phrased though the female form was not accepted in nude form the female form was represented in a quotwet cloth drapery as to show the female form but not show nudity quotThe David by Michelangelo is an example of how the male physique is put proudly on display while quotHestia Dione amp Aphrodite shows the wet drapery style of sculpture used to hide the female figure Beauty medieval and renaissance How was the true appearance of people represented in art in the medieval and renaissance period People are represented in the form of quotTrue beauty in the medieval period such as quotThe David and the Appoyimanous during the renaissance period though the art form changed to show a more naturalistic View of the subject this is shown in artworks such as quotbasket of fruit by Michelangelo which shows the rotting fruit and dead leaves along with quotSick Bacchus by Caravaggio in 1591 which shows the side effects of over indulging in drink and women Describe the vacillation between naturalism and abstraction in art history The shift from naturalism to abstraction happens when people start doing art for more personal reasons they start doing art more for the message behind it than patriotism s and commissions such as with quotSick Bacchus Describe the role of humanism in Europe s art How is individuality represented In the renaissance the value of the lived human life is represented through this new found look on life people begin to do art that is representational of life not only the afterlife a good example of this lived life is in the painting by Michelangelo the creation of Adam which depicts mans ability to choose for himself his own life and to have the ability of free will Iohn Burger Naked Vs Nude What is the definition of nude and naked What are the characteristics of each Nude seen as an object with a disguise site for those who are dressed subject to judgment examples of nudity in art consist of Adam and eve judgment of Paris Susan and the elders While being naked is to be seen as ones self being without disguise unopposed to the world naked is accepting yourself for whom you are as a person not as a sexual figure Symbols associated with nudity include VenusCupid which gives the viewer the impression that even though there is another man in the picture he is ofnot threat and the model in the picture is seductive towards the Viewer Other symbols include the mirror vanity hairlessness fig leaves and a modest gesture hiding the model Do you agree with the interpretation of nudes Use art history to site examples Yes I agree with john Burgers interpretation of nudes throughout art history in images such as quotOlympiaquot by Manet 1863 and quotLa Grande Odalisque by Ingres 1814 the female figure is blatantly aunted for the male Viewers pleasure With a slight look over the shoulder and ever so modest gesture it leaves the Viewer wanting more from the model Burgers interpretation of nude states that a nude is someone who puts on a disguise someone who is seen as an object not necessarily seen as a person In Olympia the woman was a common prostitute she was seen as an object to buy by the male population and nothing more Therefore in this artwork john burgers interpretation of nudity prevails and I do agree with him Does the argument change the way you think about nudes The argument brings up a good point I had not thought of a difference between nudes and naked models when the differentiation is made it becomes clear in paintings such as quotOlympiaquot by Manet the painting is most defiantly a nude painting Though in paintings such as quotFete Champetre by Titian 1511 the female models are not posed they seem to be in a natural stance the painting is more about enjoying the best things oflife rather than enjoying the figure of the female figure Reproduction and Sexuality Compare the characteristics and symbolism of male beauty and sexuality in the present slide show to the previous slide show Sexuality and reproduction in the current slide show focused more around the physical pleasure involved with sexuality rather than the outcome of child rearing The slide show was more focused around accepting the male physque for its sexual sense instead of paired with a woman to create a child Compare and contrast the characteristics and symbolism of male beauty and sexuality with female beauty and sexuality Male beauty was excentuated for its power and strength showing exed defined muscular structure while the female body was painted using soft modeling to show the curves of the body Along with showing the male body in a sexual sense it represented power and strength of the individual while the female nudes were painted for the Viewing pleasure of the male counterparts which were to View the paintings And example of this would be Venus of Urbino Titian 1538 she was laid out for the pleasure of the Viewer while in statues like The David Michelangelo 1501 The male figure stood for power and strength How is static art used to represent the many senses and experiences of extraordinary events such as abduction or communing with a go d The style of Baroque art uses all of the senses to engage the Viewer and make them feel as if they are more than looking at a statue In the example of the abduction of Persephone Bernini 1621 The artist uses an open mouth to give an auditory element to the sculpture He gives the marble a esh like feel as her abductor grips her thy the hair ailing give the viewer the feel of wind blowing through the piece Things with heightened drama and theatrics are typical of baroque art What are the underlying assumptions that inform Primitivism Primitivism is the opposition of everyday life in artworks such as quotThe abduction of Persephone by Bernini Bernini uses figures from mythology to accentuate his point and elevate the viewer to a heightened dramatic sense Bitches Bimbos and Ball breakers Which symbols do the guerrilla girls appropriate Why would they appropriate these symbols The guerrilla girls appropriate the typical stereotype of the personal ofwomen They take the quiet woman artist and make their voices known The girls also appropriate the symbol of the guerrilla fighters to avoid being personally attacked they hide their identity as a guerrilla fighter would hide himself They also appropriate the typical symbol of the Barbie with a guerrilla to transform its meaning How do the guerrilla girls use satire and parodies to convey the message of their art The guerrilla girls satirize typical statistics and common ideas I their posters such as quotmen make 23 of the money in the art world They use these statistics and facts to strengthen their message their artwork conveys Feminist Art How have artists adapted conventional subject matter to convey feminist political messages Artists such as the guerrilla girls appropriate famous artworks to convey a feminist message along with artist such as Barbara Kruger who take well known images and paste her own text on top of them to change their meaning How did Artemisia Gentileschi adapt popular conventional subject matter to reference her own biography Artemisia Gentileschi adapted the conventional oil painting style to represent her feelings from her past experiences of being raped She used subjects from old stories to convey her message more thoroughly and directly How did Artemisia Gentileschi change popular conventional subject matter Artemisia Gentileschi related experiences which had happened in her own life into her paintings to adapt stories of the past to fit her own personal experience Craft How did nature impact the designs created by artists involved in the Art Nouveau style Artists which worked in the art nouveau style used curvilinear lines and patterning of natural subjects impacted by nature The style was not a rebirth of anything it was a totally new style Why did artists involved with the Art Nouveau style use the female form in their artworks Artists used the female form in there artworks because the naturally curvilinear form of the female body lends its self to blend easily with nature What roles do modern materials and modern technologies play in the Arts amp Crafts Movement and Art Nouveau style Artists used things such as poured concrete electroplating ect To create affordable consumer products They mass produced the components then had skilled craftsmen put together them by hand to give a hand crafted feel to the works Graphic Design What is the purpose of graphic design The purpose of graphic design is to convey a message to a large audience usually through mass media What is the relationship between an image and text in design Both images and teXt are used in graphic design The relationship between them is one that strengthens the other TeXt is meant to more clearly portray the message that the designer is trying to convey while images are used to increase the impact the teXt has by presenting it in a visual format Describe the history of graphic design technology subject and message style Graphic design started as a form of art Artists would hand make posters and signs using lithographs or another form ofprimitive printing As time went on the field has become more or less entirely digital The ideas and subject matter behind graphic design change based on current culture but the idea of conveying a message as effectively as possible has remained the same How is type altered to work with the purpose of a design Type can be altered literally a limitless number ofways to convey a message The way type is used makes a major impact on how the image is perceived Type is a powerful tool of the designer and must be used with thought The Mirror with the Merrory Compare and contrast the physical journalistic photography to the creative photos Photojournalistic photography focuses on reporting information through images vs artistic works which focus on the ascetics ofan image Both types ofphotography want to create a believable scene for the Viewer so their images become more convincing How does photography become associated with objective truth When people are exposed to sertain situations only through photography they belive the photographs are completely true When photography was first becoming popular it was primarily used by the upper class and viewed by them therefore a photograph ofan impoverished ghetto would most likely be the only way an upper class person would have seen such a place Therefore they have nothing to base their facts off of Which physical characteristics of photographs have photographers manipulated to make their photographs more persuasive Photographers take photographs in which seem to capture a moment in time The subject matter is in the midst ofworking in their daily life There are often objects scattered around as they would be in daily life and the subject matters are unposed and most ofthe time not looking directly at the camera Things such as color vs black and white photography timing and composition also aid the photographer in creating a convincing scene Politics Race Nationality amp Art Why have visual artists represented race Visual artists represent race to make the public see a different point of View than their own Race in art can show different cultures which most might not see or be exposed to on a regular basis Consider the phrase identity politics In light of this phrase compare the presence of identity in art during the Italian Renaissance to identity as it is portrayed during the Harlem Renaissance Identity changed from the Italian renaissance to the Harlem Renaissance During the Italian Renaissance change was more focused around religion The artists who participated wanted to show Christian subject matter the Harlem Renaissance attempted to change the image of negro s to try and create a quotnew negro Why is art by Kara Walker so controversial How and why does meaning in her artwork vary depending on the identity of each viewer Kara walker s work is so controversial because it deals with subject matter that no one talks about Race sex and violence are common themes in her artwork and they are depicted in graphic ways Kara Walker uses projectors to insert the viewer into the artwork and make the person think about what they are seeing Roma How have roman artists represented the origins of their policies Roman artists depict images of strength and power these symbols were part of the powerful persona that the roman government wished to portray to its people and to its enemies Describe the role that placement or location plays in specific meanings Artworks such as the seat of St peter signify the head of the church and god entering the church This significance would be deteriorated if the artwork was placed anywhere but the head of the church In what ways have roman artist transformed architectural spaces into propaganda or political spaces Romans used large open spaces to hold meetings rally s and protests they used these architecture spaces because of their openness and ability to hold many people Ierusalem Damascus Compare and contrast the architecture of mosques and churches Both mosques and churches use open oor plans to create a congregational space Mosques on the other hand have centralized oor plans while churches are usually rectilinear in nature Consider the design and purpose of a mosque How does the design accommodate the uses intended for the mosque Mosques have a centralized radial oor plan They also have congregational oor plans Mosques usually have a knit facing Mecca which the followers of the religion pray towards Several mosques temples and churches have been taken and used for other religions How have a few buildings been adapted from one religion to another Buildings can be repurposed to fit a new religion simply by changing what is inside the building to fit the stories ofa new religion New artwork and statues depicting holly images of that religion put in a building can repurpose buildings to fit a new religion Mankind and the Earth What are the functions of the architecture and monuments viewed in to day s slide show Many of the architecture and monuments are used for some sort of ceremonial purpose The people built these monuments to commemorate an event or person or to appease the gods they believed How have societies utilized small sculpture to enhance the function of earthworks buildings and monuments The small sculptures showed the importance of the superior structure These small works of art were given as a sacrifice often with human life to increase the value of the sacrifice How have artists utilized orientation to signify meaning of buildings and architectural features Monuments such as stone hinge were oriented so that one could tell when the summer solstice was other buildings were oriented so that they mimicked the landscape around them In what ways do artists such as Smithson and Goldsworthy defy commoditization of art objects Smithson and Goldsworthy create artwork that cannot be sold They create massive earthworks that are site specific and are for the viewer s enjoyment but retain no monetary value Censoring Art What is censorship and which tactics have been used to censor art Governments and individuals have tried to destroy artworks to censor them They also have run artworks and media through a censor so that anything that could be offensive or show the government in a negative light would not be shown to the public Was censorship a successful tactic for controlling the spread of ideas Censorship has not been successful Ifyou tell someone they cannot do something it simply encourages the behavior Many artworks were said to be destroyed but in some way were saved and we can still view the images today therefore censorship has not been successful What was the role of the public in speci c historical incidents involving the censoring of art Hitler attempted to censor art by showing artworks he did not like as shady artworks and having an entire show which degraded artworks Hitler did not feel met standard this is one example of historical incidents involving the censoring of art Final Review Feminist Art Barbra Kruger Portraits referencing renaissance Open Market becoming diversified because of artist from every race gender ages Race politics and nationality changing market Minority groups Artemisia Gentileschi Changed compositions of biblical stories with expressions and gestures Susann and the elders Feminist baroque art tenebrous Judith and holofernes Art Nuevo and Craft Compare and contrast craftsmen with graphic designers Art Nuevo they use current materials decorative Ironwork whipping styles mosaic with bright colors curvilinear in style EX Tiffany Lamps Craftsman Traditional Medieval angular natural materials each piece was mass produced then assembled by skilled craftsmen Use old materials such as glass wood ext EX Book of keels Graphic Design What are the differences between graphic designers industrial designers and crafts people Printmaking Abrader Entalio process metal plates more resistant Relief Wood plates Lithograph Stones with waxy crayon Chagall Russian Iew who created biblical subject matter Toulouse Lautrec graphic designer who created the Moulin rouge Images illustrate teXt READ job outlooks End of graphic design slides Photography Associated with objective truth photo manipulation for persuasion the angle distance obstacles objects quality of cloths and environment and eye contact all play a part in discerning truth Photography started by studying observation of light Copper plates and silver iodine were first used Paguerre First photographer Leboulevard De Temple groundbreaking photographer Talbot Created the first negatives Essay how is photography associated with objective truth Fenta first war photographer Brady war photographer altered scenes to make a more dramatic scene Drunker Church and the dead Photographing the west created a movement towards colonization Documentation of animals through photography animal locimotion Porther Lin Photographers supported the political agenda Politics Nationality and race Virgin of Guadalupe Caste Paintings mixed race family s conveys messages through visual characteristics Cuban art eXpressionistic Race in Cuban culture new identity incorporating all the parts of society Harlem Renaissance asked how to use art to reinvent themselves used line color to create emphasis New model ofvisual expression EX Iacob Lawrence Cabinetmaker Kara Walker up to us to define the meaning of her artwork Doho Suh house is part of him Roma Religion in art Founding Emphasis on athleticism Portrait bust Bareism truth to the subject matter Iliad story of taking of troy Hellenistic Laocoon group everything innovation Colum of Tragen Arch of Titus sacking Founding of St Peters Caravaggio conviction of Paul and peter baroque art Renovation of St Peters church to bring people back to the church Baroque architecture curvy sculptural buildings not strait lines Iordan Dome of the rock Built on temples oerws sacred to Muslims Christians and Jews NonCongregational centrally planned Mecca Kabba black box Mirab architecture which lets Muslims know which way to prey Great mosque large area to prey Arch of Titus Mankind Tawowtewocan Iconography Talube Parallel Tablaro Perpendicular Sacrifice small arts to increase the value of the human life Geoglyphs Birds gods Stonehenge hell stone aligned to the solstice Andy Goldsworthy uses materials with nature ice rocks ect Smithson resisted commoditization of artworks by doing massive earthworks which could not be sold Censoring READ Richard Serra Moral Rights V Property Rihts Degenerate artshow EX Purim by Chagall Unpainted picture series


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