Com 101 Study Guide NO. 3
Com 101 Study Guide NO. 3 Com 101
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annabelle Hutson on Sunday October 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Com 101 at Washington State University taught by Taflinger in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Media and Society in Communication at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/25/15
Com 101 Study Guide NO 3 Professor Richard Taftlinger Lecture Notes Next invention was color TV and CBS had the first color system because they created the sequentially color wheel Because CBS was the only channel that produced color productions that was the only channel people with color TV could watch NBC was the next to start on color RCA color TV was in 1954 Producing color shows was more expensive than black and white the networks did not want to produce them therefore the public did not want to buy color TVs RCA gave money so that sponsors could produce color TV Once more things were broadcast in color more people bought color TVs Digital has replaced analog TV has been established as one of the most powerful media ever established Television and Society Had the same impact as writing and printing Biggest on 19505 when everyone started having a set in their home Movies in the home incredible at the time Television took mainstream beliefs and stuck with them promoting them because sponsors did not want to upset people by challenging what people believe Early Television Everything was done in studios and turned into an era of experimentation Originally started with everything that was on the radio Musical Variety shows were the most popular at first Small scale sports boxing wrestling No close ups or multiple angles Live Dramas not series they were plays done in front of a camera Sponsors owned the shows and they used their marketing teams to run the shows which where fillers between commercials Interference by sponsors in shows could get very petty 505 the quotgolden age of televisionquot as culture was brought into the home with these different plays The number of political talk shows during primetime decreased over the years Prime time week 811 and weekends 711 Networks drive was for viewers eyes looking at the commercials and the political talk shows required thinking When everything was started to be filmed rather than live except dramas talk shows Television 19505 people wanted peace and conformity and TV did not do that TV took mainstream beliefs and reinforced them The TV networks stuck with the bland so they wouldn39t upset viewers A new kind of action drama almost drove out all other action that was the Cowboy Westerns were aimed at kids so the tv producers started to create westerns aimed at adults the most famous being Gunsmoke in 195575 Some people complained that the Westerns did not have enough action The antiwestern was the opposite of the cowboy the name of this hero is Maverick and the purpose if it was to undermine the cowboy audience saw it as a real western but it was a spoof Bonanza 1959 73 another big western Society was not really black and white like the westerns with all bad and all good The power of television came into people39s homes which gave it the power to expose hypocracy and show the extremists of good and evil Joe McCarthy lead a witch hunt against communism in the government and Hollywood Accused people of communism with no evidence and badgered them until they confess These trials were televised He destroyed a lot of people39s lives and told people that if they opposed him they would be accused next He had power to play on people39s fear to get them to follow him Edward R Murrow went after McCarthy and said it was no time for men who opposed McCarthy to be quiet CBS let McCarthy talk about whatever he wanted for 30 minutes on prime time TV and he just used the time to accuse Murrow and this lead to him loosing his following TV destroyed him because it exposed his demigodery 19605 a new type of show came out the single parent show It couldn39t be the result of divorce the other parent had to be dead The Andy Griffith Show 1960 Showed that small town values were the best values Country life is better Single Parent Rural Comedy Openness and kindness Explored the changes of American Life 1961 this show put out the message that women are equal to men long before the women39s movement A popular theme became rural life vs big city life taking rural folks and taking them into the big city where they miss behave These comedies were all canceled because the older folks didn39t like it The news was full of war and protests and unrest where as TV produced funny dumb shows during prime time idiocy was king TV needed audiences eyes to sell to sponsors sponsors didn39t want an upset audience because they might not pay attention to the commercial Tv in the 605 was a vast wasteland 19705 Society blew up and there were great generation differences which left conflict Race riots war riots and a growing generation gap Baby boomers fought with WW2 generation over how society should proceed At the end of WW2 the women who had gone into work decided they liked financial freedom and working This came to a head in late 19605 when the younger generation rebelled on the constraints on women The Mary Tyler Moore Show 1970 showed two new ideas o A woman could be at the age of 30 0 She could be happy without being married and still has sex 0 She was the first truly liberated woman on television 0 The networks did not like putting divorced women on TV so they just had her boyfriend dump her 0 Adults unrelated could make a nuclear family and have the same comedy A new show came around All in the Family 1971 o For the first time in any show used taboo subjects for a basis for a plot 0 Taboo subjects Sex race religion politics death 0 People found this really funny 0 Introduced a social political views and had two extremes 0 You do not think in feelings you think in words 0 All in the family gave you the words from the extreme ends so you can think about the issue in words o In the middle of the two extremes was the audeinces oppinion and they now had the facts to support why they think that way 0 Audiences wanted something smart to think about because they were intelligent and liked being involved in the show no longer mindlessness They explored the changes in the social world and actually thought about them The impacts of television on society and society on television MASH 1972 was extremely popular and its final episode is till the most watch TV show First sitcom that didn39t think laughaminute jokes were the only way they brought emotions and dealt with real issues such as death This show caused conflict with the generation gap because the younger people thought it was funny but the WW2 people said it wasn39t funny at all Watergate changed Society forever because Nixon betrayed everyone39s trust of the government Walter Cronkite quotThe Most Trusted Man in Americaquot never let his own opinions be in the news and he played a key role in Watergate he broadcast 2 big stories on the news which let it be known to millions via the TV Even those who didn39t think it was true said it was true because Walter said it was true Prior to Watergate people trusted politicians to do what was best for the country but afterward people realized politicians are just in it to get the job and get power so they no longer trust the government All the old rules of society saying to trust the government were thrown out and society demanded new rules and TV went along with it Sexual Revolution on TV in the late 19605 and early 1970 despite the older generation39s protests most sitcoms became TNA The 19805 this was the lowest time for situational comedy there are mostly dramas on the air this had a storyline that went over multiple episodes Dallas was the first story that went over the whole seasons rather than just a few episodes The Cosby Show 1984 brought back the sitcom with the family comedy and this was the biggest show in the 805 Roseanne 1988 broke ground on TV by showing a sexually active overweight woman and showed fantasies of Roseanne killing her family for comedy to enjoy her bath this was no longer a quotleave it to beaverquot world Married with Children 1987 was the exact opposite of the Cosby show sex was a major part of the show the family didn t get along completely rejected the social story everyone wanted Lead to protests against the show Campaigns lead to publicity of the show and kept it on the aIr The Simpsons 1989 heightened the trend of the idiot competent fatherhusband and the woman rescues him There were lots of complaints against the show especially Bart because he was a poor role model for kids It is the longest prime time running show on TV Biggest problems Social criticism and other cultural ideas One of the most culturally literate shows on the air The Rise of Cable TV Invented by John Walson 1948 to bring Tv to places that couldn39t receive broadcast signals FCC restricted it to prevent competition with broadcast stations until 1972 HBO started in 1972 first network to use satellite instead of phone lines to deliver content Cable Act of 1984 cable restrictions lifted and new networks could start Fox had a hard time getting started because they needed an affiliation so only 50 percent of the country can see Fox but once the cable started Fox could go anywhere in the country Magazines and Radio fragments the audience because of the competition with television they had to target niche audiences Basically this happened with cable too because there were many more channels that could be created more than just the big 5 Every network had to concentrate on a certain audience because they wanted viewers so they had to change their shows to fit the different social stories they marketed to audiences not being represented on the air For decades society showed the same social story but with cable any group had a network that catered to their world view There were cross overs 1999 Will and Grace started changing society by showing a gay couple much of the humor was Will and Jack but overall there weren39t many complaints Will was chill and Jack was so over the top Gay that no one really took it seriously it was too funny In the late 905 TV was changing by showing situations on TV that had never before been ok on Tv before Sex and the City in 1998 showed a lot of single women who were not celibate and addressed a lot of sexuality and liberated women TV and Money When cable came around the networks had to cut costs because there were too many cable networks Shows were often canceled because they cost too much and were not watched enough Syndication was an individual station that simply ran reruns of old shows from other networks TV stations would buy the rights for a show and then started stripping so that they could play the same show at the same time every day during the week day To do syndication there had to be 72 episodes 3 years on the network Scripted shows are very expensive where as unscripted game shows are much cheaper A new kind of show came along based on 1973 show quotAn American Familyquot and it established a cheap show Take real people and put them on TV thus quotreality TVquot was born Writers and actors are the biggest expense for any type of scripted show The participants in reality TV are actually just characters in a drama When you see a reality show you see rearranged reality they just shoot the footage and write the script afterward 0 Reality shows seem to be crowding out scripted shows on the networks 0 The effect of reality shows on the public is huge people think it real and they want a part of it so they apply to be on it or be in real life situations like they characters in the show Journalism and TV 0 Local News 0 Standard format 0 Big Local and regional stories 0 Major national stories 0 Weather 0 Sports 0 Puff Piece a light weight meaningless story to make the audience feel happy because it puts all the other things before it on the same level quotits not important non of this show is don39t worry about itquot 0 Part of their licensing agreement for public service 0 National News 0 Gives national and international news national disasters politics war famine ect O Ends with a puff piece 0 History 0 Each network had an evening news show 0 Only 15 minutes later expanded to 30 minutes 0 1980 Ted Turner begins CNN the first 24 hours news networks Characteristics of TV News 0 Short form 0 Shallow Lots of details have to be omitted and analysis is no longer really there 0 Emotional they could now show the action and the news casters reactions are shown 0 The problem is that not everything can beshould be emotional because having overpowering emotions takes away the ability to think General Characteristics of News TV News 0 News is personalized they put a face an emotion face on the TV to tug at heart strings but the public will dismiss the problems as just specific to the person people in the story 0 News is fragmented there are lots of brief capsulated story that has no relation to any of the other stories there is very little news given for perspective They do not give the how or why events happen they simply state that they happen Journalists are obsessed with objectivity just giving the facts 0 News is normalized they try not to make the audience freak out they really only use the officials to make the audience feel safe and as if they didn t need to do anything They follow the standard script of asking officials how the disaster is going Reinforces that the powerful are able to do their jobs well and make sure everything goes well if no one interferes with their power 0 Journalism helps create our reality but the news gives stories not reality Modern Communication 0 Index cards were originally quotcomputersquot for finding information on research already done 0 Yes or No answers digital computing 0 Charles Babbage designed a calculating quotenginequot in 1830 which would do arithmetic very quickly but it was analog not digital o Basile Bouchon 0 Created Bouchon39s loom JeanBaptiste Falcon on 1728 improved on bouchon39s loom by making card rather than paper so that it didn39t break down as easily Jaques de Vaucanson 1741 improved the system Joseph Jacquard perfected the use of cards in the system so he gets all the credit for making the automated loom this automated loom was quotdigitalquot Article in the constitution says there must be a census every 10 years to count all the people in the US This was ok until everyone wanted to come to the US Herman Hollerith came up with the Hollerith Tabulator which used punch cards when someone new came to the US it was written down and given to a tabulator who entered all the new people into the tabulator39s punch card The card was placed in a holder ending with the Hollerith punch cards in the 18905 census The new way of finding info with the tabulator cut the time needed to do the census considerably Both business and especially war drive technology German 23 1941 was a digital computer which replaced cards with electricity this kind of digital computer did the math to show where to put a gun to shoot down a plane It used vacuum tubes rather than cards which came Binary code You could represent any number or letter or symbol by showing a series of ls and Os British Colossus 1944 was a huge computer they grew in size and the amount of calculations which lead to programming Eniac 1946 was an absolutely huge computer which could be programed to do anything The problem with the vacuum tube was that they were hot so they came up with the transistor which was much smaller and cooler to operate and could pack several transistor in the same place as 1 vacuum tube Kilby39s integrated circuit 1958 allowed several transistors in the same small space now they could be made cheap Modern Integrated Circuit was a very tiny circuit These chips stated showing up in everything that used a vacuum tube radio TV ect They make small portable radios The place that needed the transistors was the space race which needed the calculating power News of these computers spread Altair personal computer 1975 which geeks loved it could be programmed to do things Bill Gates and Paul Allen made quotBasicquot which was computer language in 1975 Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs 1976 they came up with a small computer the Apple I which replaced the switches with keys and used Basic written by Gates In 1977 they made the Apple II which had color display and a floppy disk drive Average people did not like it Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston Visicalc 1978 they made an app that everyone could want to use It was a spreadsheet and soon everyone wants one Tim Patterson and QDOS Quick and Dirty Operating System 19805 which ran on more powerful computers Gates bought it and tinkered with it before putting it out as MSDOS Microsoft Gates licensed it to IBM to put on their computers for cheap but he licensed it to anyone who wanted it not just IBM Gates found that the money was not in the operating system but in the programs that would run on the operating system word excel ect 0 Sony Betamax was the first thing to record TV 0 VHS VCR was an even newer way to record TV and VHS pushed Betamax out Betamax was better sound and better picture but rentals killed it because the porn industry chose VHS The VCR changed things because programming started to be in the hands of the viewers not the networks People were watching tapes rather than what was actually on TV they skipped the unpopular shows and the ratings for taped shows were destroyed because they could not tell when something was being taped Viewers could now avoid commercials and that made the sponsors mad Recording movies off the air so the movie companies were angry because they no longer received royalties so the studios would loose income This changed the field of TV and movies the sponsors wanted deals from the networks Networks had to reduce costs Any show that did not immediately get an audience were canceled The kind of movies being made changed so the movies went more toward making movies that look better on a big screen than a small screen The main point of targeting teenagers for movies is because they are most likely to go to movies The greatest problem with the VCR is the picture quality 1885 Carl Welsbach was an Austrian chemist who was hired to improve the gas lamp to keep it more popular than the lightbulb Concentrated with rare minerals and found a new one Georgia Cayvan was the best actress in the 18805 and she wore a glass dress for a publicity stunt 19605 people got the idea for the laser the first was by Gordon Gould he made the Ruby laser The laser could go to a very small beam and has very little spread and the length can be very finely measured The pits are read by the laser as Os and ls Almost as soon as the laser was invented the laser read compact disc CD was made Sony Philips and Toshiba made a disc with mass amounts of storage so they could now make DVDs The DVD provided better sound and picture but they could not record so the VCR remained the big recorder The DVR then came around and put the VHS out for good But the problem was that the number of shows that could be recorded depended on the amount of storage on the DVR In the 905 they got rid of the floppy disk and started making CD burners so people would burn TV shows recorded previously and able to watch them on DVDs Bluray was the next step allowed 25 gbyte rather than the 47 on a DVD It was a result of improving the mechanics and from changing from the red laser to the blue laser Blue is more accurate and smaller Early cell phones 19805 Sony Walkman CD 1984 iPod 2001 play back purely digital file iPhone 2007 this was the first smart phone The smart phone is popular because it has all these apps that do things that are easily usable to people The internet invented by the Advanced Research Projects Agency ARPA and was created at the request of Eisenhower in the 19505 because he wanted to make sure the nuclear war wouldn39t take out all the computers 0 They wanted to connect the computers but in a way that wouldn t destroy all of them if one place was taken out 0 Required three changes in computers 0 Going from analog to digital 0 Connecting computers through phone lines 0 Packet Switching 0 Divide any message into chunks of data or packets 0 Each packet is a small part of the address 0 Each packet has a final destination address 0 Protocols codes that allow computers to talk to each other regardless of manufacturer or operating system 0 At the beginning it was mostly college professors who used the internet because it was created by college professors 0 When word got out then everyone wanted to be on the internet and then came around the internet provider 0 Tim BernersLee created the World Wide Web www invented in 1989 and public in 1993 created HTML which was a set of codes that told the computer how to display the page on the screen 0 The advantages to HTML had hyperlinks so you didn39t have to know the exact address 0 Marc Andreessen made Mosaic which allowed people to not know all the codes 0 The internet became central to everything 0 Has led to word redefinition quotgooglingquot Modern communication and Society 0 The transistor before it no computers would have existed Without the transistor things would run on vacuum tubes and be huge 0 Lots of transistors in a small space the IC chip 0 The idea of hand writing letters seems to have disappeared 0 We used to talk or write on paper but now we talk on the phone and text on the phone Facts to consider 0 Extended plot stories over multiple episodes require audience commitment 0 USA TODAY the country39s most popular newspapers uses very short stories and lots of graphics 0 Sound Bites have shortened from 42 seconds to 7 seconds bumper sticker politics but leaves out anything that might help people decide if it s a good idea or not 0 Along with bumper sticker politics there are tweets 140 character limit Result 0 Short attention span 0 Low threshold of boredom o Era of instant gratification 0 TV news relies on people taking videos on their phones and looking at social media to find material to report on Greatest change in society 0 The computer 0 They run everything 0 They make the decisions 0 They do what they are told they cannot think but people believe they are thinking 0 They hold all the information about all of us What modern communication has done and is still doing 0 We39re at the beck and call of our devices 0 We39ve developed a low threshold of boredom 0 We39ve lost our privacy 0 Anything anybody wants to say they can say to everybody 0 We39re in a global electronic village we have never been closer or further apart 0 Knowledge is in the data base rather than people39s heads Qualitative effects are those that create someone39s reality about the world and how it works Questions Who had the first color system What did they create to make that happen What year was the RCA color TV What was the problem with the color TV and channels What did RCA do to get color TV more popular with people Is the TV the most powerful media ever established TF What were some of the first programs on TV When was the quotgolden age of televisionquot What was the most famous Western What happened with Joe McCarthy What did the Andy Griffith show portray What conflicts arose in the 705 What did the Tyler Moore Show and All in the Family do differently than other TV shows Why was Watergate important Who was Walter Cronkite What show brought back the sitcom Why was Roseanne important What did HBO do differently than other networks How did Fox get started What is the process of stripping in the TV world What is a syndication How many episodes need to be made for syndication to happen What is cheaper scripted or unscripted shows Why What is the Stanford format for local news For National News What are the characteristics of TV News General Characteristics of news Who is Herman Hollerith and what did he do What is the German 23 What did Bill Gates and Paul Allen create Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak Dan Bricklin and Bob Frankston What is the QDOS What deal did Gates have with IBM What was the rivalry between Betamax and VHS What put the VHS out of operation What did Gordon Gould create What did it lead to What made BluRay different than a regular DVD Who was the internet created by and for what purpose What is Packet Switching What are Protocols What did Tim Berners create What replaced vacuum tubes What are the Facts to Consider What are the results of TVmodern communication
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