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Popular in History
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elwyn Corwin on Monday October 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1493 at University of Oklahoma taught by R. Metcalf in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/229313/hist-1493-university-of-oklahoma in History at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Yalta Conference Agreements February 1945 A conference for political questions including what to do with Germany Roosevelt lobbied for the United Nations Organization Present were Churchill Roosevelt and Stalin The English Russia US China were like the international police Key points Germany would be split into 4 occupied zones basically two because communist vs everyone else Germany was made to demilitarize and eliminate Nazi part Stalin agreed to join the United Nations Wanted to limit Stalin s power in Europe and Stalin wanted to gain more power for protection Containment Policy Three events contributed to the formulation of the American containment policy Feb througthly 1947 Aid to Turkey and GreeceThe Marshall PlanquotThe Sources of Soviet ConductquotDesigned to confront the Russians with unalterable counterforce at every point where they show signs of encroaching upon the interests ofa peaceful and stable world Kennan argued would check Soviet expansion and eventually foster a quotmellowingquot of Soviet behavior Marshall Plan First instrument designed to achieve US goals in western Europe Europe lacked dollars to buy vital Americanmade goods US would finance a massive European recovery program launched in 1948 sent 124 billion before program ended in 1951 Successful in spurring impressive western European industrial production and investment and start the region toward selfsustaining economic growth American perspective it helped contain communism But caused in ation failed to solve a balanceof payments problem took only tentative steps toward economic integration and further divided Europe between quotEastquot and quotWestquot National Security council Report NSC68 High level officials to advise the president Gave the president increased powers with which to conduct foreign policy NCS68 a top secret document that was delivered to the president in April 1950 Predicting continued tension with expansionistic communists all over the world and describing quota shrinking world ofpolarized power The Cold War was about to become a vastly more expensive more far reaching affair Interstate Highway SystemAuthorized by the FederalAid Highway Act of 1956 National Interstate Defense Highways Act of 1956 Championed by President Dwight EisenhowerPart of Eisenhower s domestic policy it was the largest public works program in the history of the world North Korean invasion In the early morning oqune 25 1950 a large military force of the Democratic People s Republic of Korea North Korea moved across the 38th parallel into the Republic of Korea South Korea Virtually from the moment of the division the tow parts had been skirmishing along their supposedly temporary border while antigovernment guerrilla fighting ared in the South Korean War began as a civil war North s Kim 11 Sung and South sSyngman Rhee sought to reunify their nations Truman and Gen MacArthur McArthur commander ofUN forces in Korea Truman ordered him to send arms and troops to South Korea By early 1951the front had stabilized around the 38th parallel A stalemate set in Both Washington and Moscow welcomed negotiations but MacArthur had other ideasDenouncing the concept oflimited war war without nuclear weapons confined to one place MacArthur hinted the president was practicing appeasement In April backed by the Joint chiefs of Staff the heads of the various armed services Truman fired MacArthur Mccarthy hearings tacticsBegan in 19531955A Iunior Senator fromWisconsin McCarthy made his career out of accusing others ofbeing communists In Feb 1950 he claimed to have the names of 205 communist sympathizers in the State Dept then later narrowed it to 57 cardcarrying members and then became ambiguousFor the neXt four years quotlowblow Ioequot proved a master at manipulating the media and playing upon the fears of the public The careers of countless government officials writers actors and others were ruined when McCarthy labeled them Brown v Board of Education 1954 landmark ruling that separate but equal laws regarding education were unconstitutional Led to the integration of schools nationwide The finding of the majorityopinion quotseparate facilities areinherently unequalquot Montgomery Bus Boycott was protest campaign started in 1955 in Montgomery Alabama intended to oppose the city39s policy of racial segregation on its buses Crippled Montgomery public transit system because the city39s black population was also the bulk of the system39s ridership Lasted from December 1 1955 when Rosa Parkswas arrested to December 20 1956 when a federal ruling took effect Social Critics in the 1950 s Challenged conformity saw outward achievement and prosperity but a lot of emptiness Miller and Nowak Death ofa Salesman and the The catcher in the Rye End of the 50 s led to new movements criticizing new culture pushed for change Rock and Roll Beats authors youth rebels An increasing number ofyoung people felt there was something wrong with society The majority ofAmericans didn t question society they enjoyed conformity Reisman s other directed peopleThe Lonely CrowdDavid Riesman39s book documented a fundamental shift from earlier quotinnerdirectedquot Americans who had an internalized set of basic valuesfixed principles that guided them like a compass to quototherdirectedquot people who had few internalized convictionsthey sought to adaptthey were more concerned with being wellliked and fitting in Eisenhower s presidential style A war hero with no experience in elective government relied on a consensus approach He studied the issues by reading one page summaries prepared by his staff Eisenhower adopted an approach he called quotdynamic conservatism being conservative when it comes to money and liberal where it comes to human beings Raised social security benefits increased government funding for education although largely an anticommunism effort attempt to win the quotbattle of brainp ower Vietnam Con ict Origins Stalin saw the US as a capitalist enemy Prepared by Paul Nitze Kennan39sreplacement NSC68 called for Americanled offensive against Soviet in uence world wide It view communism as monolithic and called for a firm response to aggression anywhere in whatever form It also suggested a liberation policy for E Europe Also warned against an allout Soviet nuclear attack by 1954 To combat the spread of communism the US began to fund the French military in Vietnam and then advisors were provided to train the new Republic of Vietnam South The Beat Beat generation is a term used to describe a group ofAmerican writers who came to prominence in the 50 s and the cultural phenomena that they wrote about the inspired something called the beatnicks Beat culture includes a rejection of materialism experimentation with drugs and alternate forms of sexuality and interest in Eastern religion Shift from beatnick to hippie in the sixties collated with draft dodging during Vietnam Men going to college to avoid the draft U2 Spy Plane incident May 1 1960 the Russians shot down an American U2 spy plane carrying highpowered cameras near Sverdlovsk The State Department quickly announced that no attempt had been made to penetrate Soviet airspace and claimed that the pilot must have strayed in by mistake As a result the Soviets walked out of the Paris summit meeting john Foster DuIIesSec of State John Foster Dulles employed a moral approach to foreign policy The son of a minister he saw the world in black and white terms an arena for the forces of good and evil His foreign policy was filled with rhetoric about the evils of communismThe problem with seeing everything in black and white the Third World In April 1955 29 independent countries ofAsia and Africa met in the BandungConference These countries issued a statement condemning colonialism in all its manifestations American or SovietSpent a lot of time building up NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization Bay of Pigs Kennedy with his Cuban fixation used a CIA plan to land trained exiles in Cuba to secure a beachhead then the Cuban people would rise up against Castro and welcome a new government brought in from the US The exiles landed in aplace known as theBay of Figs too far from the EscambrayMountains and theCuban military quicklymoved to intercept the invasion forceDespite pleas from theexiles on the beachno US air cover wasprovided and theinvasion force wasquickly wiped out Cuban Missile CrisisClosest the world came to nuclear war In 1962 the Soviet Union was behind the US in the arms race Khruschev Soviet idea of placing intermediaterange missiles in Cuba A development in Cuba would double the Soviet strategic arsenal and provide a real deterrent to a potential US attack against the Soviet Union Castro approved Soviet plan also allowing for a way to protect his island from the US Summer 1962 SU worked quickly and secretly to build its missile installations in Cuba Kennedy organized the EXCOMM Kennedy proposed navel quarantine around Cuba He proclaimed that any nuclear missile launched from Cuba would be regarded as an attack on the United States by the SU and demand that the Soviets remove all of their offensive weapons from Cuba Oct 196 2 US reconnaissance ights discovered that the Soviet Union was constructing missile bases in Cuba Election of 1960Democrat Kennedy vs Republican Nixon Closest electoral vote in any presidential election since 1916 Kennedy won Kennedy s catholic faith helped and hurt him many feared that he would take orders from the pope Kennedy called Eisenhower s foreign policy unimaginative and missed chances to reduce threat of nuclear war Southern Christian Leadership Conference In January 1957 in the afterglow of the Montgomery Bus Boycott victory Dr King invited some 60 black ministers and leaders to Ebenezer Church in Atlanta Their goal was to form an organization to coordinate and support nonviolent direct action as a method of desegregating bus systems across the South They later expanded its focus beyond busses to ending all forms of segregation Students for a Democratic Society 1962 One of the progressive boomer movements SDS sought to wrest power from the corporations the military and the politicians and return it to the people They condemned racism poverty in the midst 0fplenty and the Cold War Protested that Americanlife was dominated byhuge organizationalstructures Churchesschools and especially corporations which dehumanizedpersonal living LBI s Legislative Legacy Johnson said the govt must work actively to improve the lives ofAmericans Biggest legacy was to sign into law the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Great SocietyWar on Poverty LB declared quotwar on povertyquot established new student loan and grant programs Immigration Act expanded the Food Stamp program Upward Bound Head Start and Job Corps and set up the Community Action Program which failed miserably Voting Rights Act Along with 24th amendment outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the United States The Act prohibited states from imposing any quotvoting qualification or prerequisite to voting like literacy tests or standard practice or procedure to deny or abridge the right of any citizen of the United States to vote on account of race or color The act also provided federal examiners to register voters in aread where local officials obstructed black registration Civil Rights Act of 1964This law struck at some of the main supports ofIim Crow First it outlawed racial discrimination in all public accommodations Second it provided an equal opportunity provision for hiringpeople could not be denied a job because of race gender religion or national originLB knew it would shatter his party democrats saying I think we just gave the south to the republicans Lyndon Iohnson s expansion of the Vietnam WarAs the situation in Vietnam became untenable more and more troops were sent in Theoretically US ground forces would stabilize the situation as they had in KoreaYet Vietnam was not Korea It was not simply a situation of the southern nation being invaded by the northern one South Vietnam was engulfed in a civil war of its own Definition of a quagmire he didn t want to be the president who lost the war but by 1964 the US was losing Decision to escalateIn early 1965 there were 25000 American advisors and special forces in Vietnam By the end of the year this number increased to 184000 troops By the end ofohnson39s term in 1968 543000 troops were stationed in Vietnam Wage and Price In ation In ation due to war debts 170 billion by the end of the war which would only increase as govt paid out veterans benefits which caused in part the wage in ations Freedom Riders were Civil Rights activists that rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the United States Supreme CourtdecisionBoynton v Virginia outlawed segregation in restaurants and waiting rooms in terminals serving buses that crossed state lines 1960In 1961 CORE began its program of sendingquotfreedom ridersquot on segregated interstatebus rides chie y inAlabama andMississippiSegregated interstatebus lines had already been declared illegalin a 1946 SupremeCourt decision but successiveadministrations refused to enforce thedecision March on Washington 1963 The greatestmoment of the civilrights movementcame with theMarch onWashington whichoccurred in Augustof 1963 200000people participatedMartin Luther Kingdelivered hisfamous speech in front of the Lincolnmemorial Tet Offensive Tet proved to be a costly military defeat for the communists but a great psychological victory Theoffensive came at a time when Americans were beingtold that the war was almost won that the enemywas near defeat Tet offered conclusive proof to the contraryThe NLF Viet Cong launched a wave of attacks on the morning of 31 January South Vietnam This early attack did not however cause undue alarm or lead to widespread defensive measures When the main NLF operation began the next morning the offensive was countrywide in scope and well coordinated Gulf of Tonkin Resolution ohnson went on television and announced to the world thatthe North Vietnamese had attacked an American ship on the high seas and that the attack was quotdeliberatequot andquotunprovokedquot It gave LB authorization without a formal declaration ofwar by Congress for the use of conventional military force in Southeast Asia Malcolm XBlack Muslim preacher who Favored black separatism Condemned the quotblueeyed white devilsquot Malcolm X advocated violence to meet ViolenceHe was gunned down by black gunmen as headdressed a large crowd in New York City Black Power movementIn 1966 several young radicals broke with King over his nonViolent approach One of these was StokelyCarmichael who advocated Black Powerto quotSmash everything that Western civilization has createdquot Many advocates only intended this slogan to mean that the black community would exercise its voting power but others responded with Violence Presidential election of 1968 Nixon s appealRepublican Nixon vs Democrat Herbert Humphrey Nixon was the comeback politician who spoke for the values of middle American or what he called quotthe silent majority Nixon used backlash politics meaning every time government took a step forward there were those who disliked something thus creating back lash Nixon drew his vote from those Nixon had a secret planto end the war His plan was Vitnamization training S Vietnamese to fight on and we can remove out troops Also summer of1968 Nixon secretly talked to S Vietnamese to stall talks with LB Stall winning the war bc Nixon didn t want to win the war The vote in the 1968 election was heavily in uenced by a third party candidate George Wallace ofAlabama Wallace was famous for his defense of state39s rights segregation and his candidacy cost the Democratic Party support in the South New Left protest movement Free Speech Movement The University of California at Berkeley was the focal point because the university administration banned most forms ofprotest As a result the students organized FSM to protest for the right to hold political demonstrations Protests become Serious in 1965 Pres Johnson39s decision to escalate the war also meant an escalation of the draft What could be more impersonal bureaucratic and dehumanizing than to be drafted into the service and sent to fight and die in some faroff country for some hazy objective Revolt 1 College campuses antiwar Kent stateUnv May 1970 violent upheavals 2 Degradation of military forces troops refused to fight drug abuse rampant quotfraggingquot Counterculture A solution to the impersonalbureaucratic forces that controlledpeople39s lives to the materialistic world of the establishment Celebrated the legitimacy of pleasure quotSex Drugs and rock 39n roll became a mantra of quothippiesquot The essence of thecounterculture wasthe notion that theonly true solution tosocieties problemswas to be found in aradical change ofpersonal lifestyle Nixon and China in February 1972 Nixon made visits to China Before then the US did not formally recognize the PRC Chinese were happy to cultivate the relations because it opened trade opportunities and would make their onetime ally and now enemy the Soviet Union more cautious D tente Under Nixon Doctrineperiod of thaw in relations between Soviets and US Both powers were feeling the drain of resources from the Cold War The Feminine Mystique 1963 By Betty Friedan described the quotproblem with no name the dissatisfaction among educated middleclass housewives who looked around guiltily wondering if this was all there was to life Friedan instead of blaming individual women for failing to adapt to women s proper role blamed the role itself and the society that created it The popularity of this book was proof that the fire existed to fuel a revived women s movement in the 60s Equal Rights Amendment Failed mainly due to STOPERA movement women had no desire to be equal ifit meant giving up traditional gender roles in marriage or going out to work at lowwage physically exhausting jobs STOPERA stalled the amendment until it expired in 1982 AltamontWoodstock Altamont or Woodstock of the West was held December 6 1969 was infamous for considerable violence including 1 homicide and 3 accidental deaths 300000 people attended Conversely Woodstock was the most famous music festival and remembered for being peaceful billed as quotAn Aquarian Exposition 3 Days of Peace and Music 5 00000 people Stag ation In ation skyrocketed into double digits for all of the 70s and at the same time the economy went into a recession with falling stocks and increasing unemployment NixonKissinger policy to end Vietnam Sec of State Kissingermet with Le DucTho ofNorth Vietnam andproposed a ceasefire without the removal ofcommunist forces fromVietnam SouthVietnam knowing thatsuch an agreementmeant doom refused togo along Ian 27 1973 US and North Vietnam signed an agreement quotending the war and restoring peace in Vietnam and US promised South Vietnam that it would respond with fullforce to any violation of the ceasefire When the war erupted again Congress refused to assist South Roe vs Wade 1973was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court In the first trimester the state cannot restrict a woman39s right to an abortion in any way The court stated that this trimester begins at conception and ends at the quotpoint at which the fetus becomes 39viable39 In the second trimester the state may only regulate the abortion procedure quotin ways that are reasonably related to maternal health In the third trimester the state can choose to restrict or proscribe abortion as it sees fit when the fetus is viable quotexcept where it is necessary in appropriate medical judgment for the preservation of the life or health of the motherquot Watergate Coverup and resulting scandal June 17 1972 the Watergate office complex Democratic National Committee in DC was broken into Men were caught with militarygrade surveillance equipment including phonerecording devices At first it was written off as thirdrate burglary 2 Reporters from the Washington Post exposed the White House s involvement The Burglars were paid with 25000 of Nixon s reelection campaign money White House aides attorney general and Nixon himself were all indicted Congress voted 3 articles of impeachment in July 1974 for obstruction for refusing to hand over tapes and ordering the CIA to pressure the FBI to drop the investigation abuse ofpower and contempt of Congress Nixon couldn t pressure the FBI because of Edgar Hoover Watergate Tapes and Nixon Culpability When Nixon finally did hand over the his Oval Office tapes 20 minutes had been erased from one that would have proved his knowledge of the Watergate breakin beforehand and DID prove his hand in the cover up Camp David Accords The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian PresidentAnwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime MinisterMenachem Begin on September 17 1978 following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David The two agreements were signed at the White House and were witnessed by Jimmy Carter The Accords led directly to the 1979 IsraelEgypt Peace Treaty Middle East Peace Process Since the 1970s there has been a parallel effort made to find terms upon which peace can be agreed to in both the Arab Israeli con ict and in the Palestinian Israeli con ictThe term quotpeace process began to be widely used to describe the Americanled efforts to bring about a negotiated peace between Israel and its neighbors Reaganomics Once in office Reagan pushed an agenda that included cuts in government spending and in excessive taxation Reaganomics was an idea that problems arise from excessive government regulation and taxation which sti e incentives to work save and invest His approach was a departure from his immediate predecessorsReduce government spendingReduce income and capital gains marginal tax ratesReduce government regulation of the economyControl the money supply to reduce in ation Deficit Spending under Reagan Massive increase in Cold War related defense spending coupled with significant upper division tax cuts caused a large budget deficit In order to cover the deficit the United States borrowed heavily both domestically and abroad raising the national debt from 700 billion to 3 trillion and the United States moved from being the world39s largest international creditor to the world39s largest debtor nationReagan described the new debt as the quotgreatest disappointmentquot of his presidency
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