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UT / Sociology / SOCI 120 / what are the 3 types of norms?

what are the 3 types of norms?

what are the 3 types of norms?

Description

School: University of Tennessee - Knoxville
Department: Sociology
Course: Introduction to Sociology
Professor: Tobin walton
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Sociology 120, soci, socio, socio 120, Intro to sociology, and Introduction to Sociology
Cost: 50
Name: Sociology 120- Exam 2
Description: These are the notes from chapters 7-10 and the terms defined and explained from the study guide.
Uploaded: 10/26/2015
4 Pages 10 Views 10 Unlocks
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Sociology 120- Dr. Tobin Walton


what are the 3 types of norms?



Exam Two- Chapter 7, 8, 9, 10

Material culture- includes all those things that humans make or adapt from the raw stuff of  nature (ex; computers, houses, jewelry, forks…) Material culture is made up of artifacts

Nonmaterial Culture- made up of intangible things; the ideas about truth and beauty,  happiness, what’s funny or not. Symbols, language, norms, sanctions, values, and beliefs  make up the nonmaterial culture.

A symbol is anything that represents something else to more than one person. “$” is a symbol  for a dollar sign, and the swastika is the symbol of Nazi Germany.

Language- is an organized set of symbols made up of spoken and written words, gestures,  and rules (grammar and syntax). Sometimes hard to use these rules to properly express what  we mean (ex: Man shot in head accidentally dies vs. Man accidentally shot in head dies those are to different meanings). The context itself reveals a lot about culture.  


what is idiocultures?



Ex: Masai of Africa have 17 different terms for “cattle”, college students have 12  different words for “vomit.” A thumbs up gesture in Australia is rude, but means  “good job,” in the USA.

Norms- ex: how women should dress in a temple: women must not wear jeans, must not  wear clothing that exposes their navels, must not wear clothing that exposes their breasts)  3 Types of Norms If you want to learn more check out https //quizlet.com live

1. Folkway: casual norms (man not wearing a shirt)

2. Mores: important rules, such as norms against unjustified assaults on other  persons (man not wearing any pants)

3. Taboos: norms so deeply held that even thinking about violating them upsets pleas  (eating human flesh)

Sanctions

1. Negative Sanction- the certain type of response you expect when violating a  norm. For example, negative sanctions for a violation of folkways may be a nasty  look, while for taboo, one may be sanction by imprisonment.


who is Theodor Adorno?



2. Formal Sanction- official responses from specific organization in society (ex:  government, universities, churches, etc.…)  

3. Informal Sanction - individuals in social groups; can range from being laughed at  to being given the cold shoulder.

4. Positive Sanction- can be both formal and informal; being rewarded by going  beyond what is expected.

Values- are abstract ideas about what is good and what is bad in a society. Ex: hard work,  equality, success, freedom, etc.

Beliefs- people’s ideas about what is real and what is not real

“Culture systems may be considered as products of action or as conditioning elements of  further action” (p. 110)We also discuss several other topics like lasation

Sociology 120- Dr. Tobin Walton

Exam Two- Chapter 7, 8, 9, 10

Social Institution – a set of ideas about the way a specific important social need ought to be  addressed. These tend to be justified by values and beliefs, so an institution is a part of  nonmaterial culture. After the pattern of responding to particular social needs, it becomes  established or institutionalized. Being trans historical pattern of behavior all designed to meet some need for society, it spans scales of time outside of the scope. We are born into  institutions. Ex: families meet needs by feeding kids and making them adults into society. We also discuss several other topics like substitution rule integrals

Cultural Diffusion - (cultural leveling) when cultural things are adopted. Ex: Americans  eating sushi and Japanese playing baseball and eating Big Macs.  

Subculture – groups of people within society whose shared values, norms, beliefs, or use of  material culture sets them apart from other people in that society. Ex: In southern US, people  share common folkways, food, and have distinct accents. small If you want to learn more check out anthro 3

Counterculture – members within the subculture hold values and share norms that set them  apart from the subculture, but are perceived to threaten the parent culture. Ex: the Ku Klux  Klan (smaller)

Idiocultures – (p 117) consists of a system of knowledge, beliefs, behaviors, and customs  shared by members of an interacting group to which members can refer and employ the basis  of further interaction (Gary Alan Fine). Over time, people interact and develop shared  knowledge, beliefs, and customs-which become important to their future interactions.  (smallest)

Are all counter-counters sub cultures? Yes.  

Are all subcultures counter cultures? No 

A social status is a position that a person occupies in a social structure; family status (mother,  father, child, grandparents) occupation\al status (president, lawyer, computer programmer) social  class (upper class, middle class, lower class) Also age, race, sex, and ethnicity, etc.

Some statuses are achieved, like becoming a college graduate, and others are ascribed (placed,  generally at birth,) into a status like sex race ethnicity, etc. that they cannot escape

Status symbols: ex- wedding is a symbol of marital status, a police uniform is a symbol of  occupational status, etc. some symbols may not be as obvious, but a backpack on a young person  may be symbol that they are a student.

A Role- is the sum total of expectations about the behavior attached to a particular social status.  Ex: a teacher’s role is to stand up in the front of the classroom and teach students and be  prepared, assign homework, etc. If you want to learn more check out art 1301 exam 1

Role strain occurs when the demands of a particular role are such that the incumbent is hard pressed to meet them all.

Sociology 120- Dr. Tobin Walton

Exam Two- Chapter 7, 8, 9, 10

Status Inconsistency- a person with an ascribed status achieves an inconsistent status. Example:  woman goes to work as a truck driver or a middle-aged man is a college student

Role Conflict- when the roles of inconsistent statuses clash. Example: A juvenile court judge  having his own daughter into court- role conflict.

Master Status- calling a female lawyer “little lady” versus calling a male laweys “counsel” or  “Mr.” We also discuss several other topics like psychology 100 exam 1

Who you are is usually a result of your membership in groups (family, marriage, friendship  group, clubs, organizations, etc.)

A social aggregation is some collectivity of people who happen to be in the same place at the  same time. Example: Tennessee fans at a football gam- they are not social groups, but they all  want the Vols to win the game.

Primary group- more intimate group. Example: your family

Secondary group- larger numbers. Example: this sociology class.

*Think Gemeinschaft and and Gesellschaft*

Socialized- how people are taught to be functioning members of a social group.

Habitualization- when any action is repeated frequently enough to become a pattern. Routine  behavior is the way we do it, but institutionalized behavior is the way it must be done

Socialization- the process by which people acquire cultural competency and though which  society perpetuates the fundamental nature of existing social structure.

Without social interaction, humans find it difficult to survive. Without social interaction, humans  cannot develop a social self -that relatively organized complex of attitudes, beliefs, values, and  behaviors associated with an individual.

Charles Horton Cooley- emphasized that the social self arises through interaction with others.  Based on how our perception of how others see us, we develop our reflected or looking glass  selves.  

The “I” and “Me”- Sociologist George Herbert Mead- The Me is what you see when you put  yourself into the shoes of another and look back at yourself (we act towards our me)- what  beliefs and values you that drive you to your “me”. The I is the part of you that is uniquely you your personal reactions to the situation.

The self evolves continually as it interacts with a variety of agents of socialization (ex: family,  peers, schools, and the workplace)

Sociology 120- Dr. Tobin Walton

Exam Two- Chapter 7, 8, 9, 10

Anticipatory socialization - the second step of making a career choice which involves learning  about and even playing at a work role before entering it

Rites of Passage – the many steps in the process of socialization. These are ceremonies or rituals  that make important transitions from status to status within a life cycle

Total Institution- coined by Erving Goffman. Socialization processes that take place in intense  experiences, such has mental hospitals, prisons, etc.  

The goal of the total institution is to take away the individuals’ self and give them a new one  more in keep with the needs of the total institution. This goal is called Resocialization.

Depersonalization- example: Marine Corps. Young men no longer called by their names, their  possessions are taken away, and they were subject to many new rules.  

The Generalized Other- cultural part of beliefs and values of the entire community (which doll  do you think is the prettiest/ugliest video)

Internalization of an Ideology– the internalized beliefs and values and making them their own.  The process of consolidating and embedding one's own beliefs, attitudes, and values when it  comes to moral behavior.

Terminal Values- These are values that we think are most important or most desirable. They are  desirable states of existence that we will work towards or try to reach. They include but are not  limited to happiness, self-respect, recognition, inner harmony, and professional excellence.

Culture industry (German: Kulturindustrie) was coined by the critical theorists Theodor Adorno (1903–1969) and Max Horkheimer (1895–1973), and was presented as critical vocabulary in the  chapter "The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception", of the book Dialectic of  Enlightenment (1944), wherein they proposed that popular culture is akin to a factory producing  standardized cultural goods — films, radio programs, magazines, etc. — that are used to  manipulate mass society into passivity.

Role-taking theory, or social perspective taking, is the sociological theory that one of the most  important factors in facilitating social cognition in children is the growing ability to understand  others' feelings and perspectives, an ability that emerges as a result of general cognitive growth

Ideal Type - ‘Ideal’ is a “conception or a standard of something in its highest perfection.” It  refers to mental image or conception rather than a material object. It is a model. The term type  means a kind, class or group as distinguished by a particular character. So generally, we may  conceptualize ideal type as a kind, category, class or group of objects things or persons with  particular character that seems to be the best example of it.

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