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Study Guide for TEST 2

by: Kiana Thompson

Study Guide for TEST 2 1010-07

Kiana Thompson
Introduction to Psychology
Nicholas Comotto

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Here is a study guide for test 2!
Introduction to Psychology
Nicholas Comotto
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kiana Thompson on Monday October 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1010-07 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Nicholas Comotto in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 220 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.


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Date Created: 10/26/15
m Psychology Study Guide Learning is best de ned as a relatively permanent change in behavior that is innate occurs as a result of experience is found only in humans occurs by observing others x inction occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without being paired oomgt gt with an unconditioned stimulus B he unconditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without being paired with a conditioned stimulus C the neutral stimulus is presented repeatedly without being paired with an unconditioned stimulus D the neutral stimulus is presented repeatedly without being paired with a conditioned stimulus A stimulus that does not initially elicit a response in an organism is an unconditioned stimulus neutral stimulus conditioned stimulus unconditioned response W ich of the following is an example of a re ex that occurs at some point in oomgt the development of a human being A child riding a bike B teen socializing C infant sucking on a nipple D toddler walking Two forms of associative learning are and A classical conditioning operant conditioning B classical conditioning Pavlovian conditioning C operant conditioning observational learning D operant conditioning learning conditioning In the stimulus or experience occurs before the behavior and then gets paired with the behavior associative learning observational learning operant conditioning classical conditioning Unwgt 7 In Watson and Rayner39s experiments Little Albert was conditioned to fear a white rat and then he began to be afraid of other furry white objects This demonstrates A higher order conditioning B acquisition C stimulus discrimination D stimulus generalization 8 Slot machines reward gamblers with money according to which reinforcement schedule A xed ratio B variable ratio C xed interval D variable interval 9 Who proposed observational learning A Ivan Pavlov B John Watson C Albert Bandura D B F Skinner 10Rewarding successive approximations toward a target behavior is A shaping B extinction C positive reinforcement D negative reinforcement 11Which is the correct order of steps in the modeling process A attention retention reproduction motivation B motivation attention reproduction retention C attention motivation retention reproduction D motivation attention retention reproduction 12Which of the following is not an example of a primary reinforcer A food B money C water D sex 13ln Bandura39s Bobo doll study when the children who watched the aggressive model were placed in a room with the doll and other toys they ignored the doll played nicely with the doll played with tinker toys kicked and threw the doll is when you take away a pleasant stimulus to stop a behavior positive reinforcement negative reinforcement positive punishment negative punishment H F POWgt POW 15The person who performs a behavior that serves as an example is called a A teacher B model C instructor D coach 16ln Pavlov39s work with dogs the psychic secretions were A unconditioned responses B conditioned responses C unconditioned stimuli D conditioned stimuli 17Which of the following is an example of a prototype for the concept of leadership on an athletic team A the equipment manager B the star player C the head coach D the scorekeeper 18Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on the study of human development human thinking human behavior human society 19W ich of the following is an example of an arti cial concept A Mammals B a triangle s area C gemstones D teachers 20 provides general principles for organizing words into meaningful oomgt sentences A Linguistic determinism B Lexicon C Semantics D Syntax 21An event schema is also known as a cognitive stereotype concept script prototype are the smallest unit of language that carry meaning Lexicon Phonemes Morphemes Syntax is are the basic sound units of a spoken language Syntax N N N w gt Powgt POW B Phonemes C Morphemes D Grammar 24The meaning of words and phrases is determined by applying the rules of A lexicon B phonemes C overgeneralization D semantics 25A speci c formula for solving a problem is called A an algorithm B a heuristic C a mental set D trial and error 26A mental shortcut in the form of a general problemsolving framework is called A an algorithm B a heuristic C a mental set D trial and error 27Which type of bias involves becoming xated on a single trait of a problem A anchoring bias B con rmation bias C representative bias D availability bias 28Fluid intelligence is characterized by A being able to recall information B being able to create new products C being able to understand and communicate with different cultures D being able to see complex relationships and solve problems 29Which type of bias involves relying on a false stereotype to make a decision A anchoring bias B con rmation bias C representative bias D availability bias 30Which theorist put forth the Triarchic theory of intelligence A Goleman B Gardner C Sternberg D Steitz 31Which of the following is not one of Gardner39s Multiple lntelligences A creative B spatial C linguistic D musical 32Which of the following statements is true A Poverty always affects whether individuals are able to reach their full intellectual potential B An individual39s intelligence is determined solely by the intelligence levels of his siblings C The environment in which an individual is raised is the strongest predictor of her future intelligence D There are many factors working together to in uence an individual39s intelligence level 33Who developed the IQ test most widely used today A Sir Francis Galton B Alfred Binet C Louis Terman D David Wechsler 34What is a learning disability A a developmental disorder B a neurological disorder C an emotional disorder D an intellectual disorder 35The mean score for a person with an average IQ is A 70 B 130 C 85 D 100 36ArthurJensen believed that A genetics was solely responsible for intelligence B environment was solely responsible for intelligence C intelligence level was determined by race D IQ tests do not take socioeconomic status into account 37In order for a test to be normed and standardized it must be tested on A a group of sameage peers B a representative sample C children with mental disabilities D children of average intelligence 38Where does high intelligence come from A genetics B environment C both A and B D neither A nor B 39When you are examining data to look for trends which type of intelligence are you using most A practical B analytical C emotional D creative 40The DSM5 now uses as a diagnostic label for what was once referred to as mental retardation A autism and developmental disabilities B lowered intelligence C intellectual disability D cognitive disruption 41 is another name for shortterm memory A sensory memory B episodic memory C shortterm memory D implicit memory 42The formulation of new memories is sometimes called and the process of bringing up old memories is called A construction reconstruction B reconstruction construction C production reproduction D reproduction production 43The storage capacity of longterm memory is A one or two bits of information B seven bits plus or minus two C limited D essentially limitless 44When you are learning how to play the piano the statement quotEvery good boy does finequot can help you remember the notes E G B D and F for the lines of the treble clef This is an example of a an A jingle B acronym C acrostic D acoustic 45The three functions of memory are A automatic processing effortful processing and storage B encoding processing and storage C automatic processing effortful processing and retrieval D encoding storage and retrieval 46According to a study by Yogo and Fujihara 2008 if you want to improve your shortterm memory you should spend time writing about A your best possible future self B a traumatic life experience C a trivial topic D your grocery list 47This physical trace of memory is known as the A engram B Lashley effect C DeeseRoediger McDermott Paradigm D ashbulb memory effect 48The selfreferencing effect refers to A making the material you are trying to memorize personally meaningful to you B making a phrase of all the rst letters of the words you are trying to memorize making a word formed by the rst letter of each of the words you are 0 trying to memorize D saying words you want to remember out loud to yourself 49An exceptionally clear recollection of an important event is a an A engram B arousal theory C ashbulb memory D Equipotentiality hypothesis 50Memory aids that help organize information for encoding are A mnemonic devices B memoryenhancing strategies C elaborative rehearsal D effortful processing 51 is when our recollections of the past are done in a selfenhancing manner A stereotypical bias B egocentric bias C hindsight bias D enhancement bias 52Tipof thetongue phenomenon is also known as A persistence B misattribution C transience D blocking 53Which of the following theories of emotion would suggest that polygraphs should be quite accurate at differentiating one emotion from another A CannonBard theory B JamesLange theory C Schachter Singer twofactor theory D Darwinian theory 54Need for refers to maintaining positive relationships with others A achievement B af liation C intimacy D power 55 proposed the hierarchy of needs A WilliamJames B David McClelland C Abraham Maslow D Albert Bandura 56During the phase of the sexual response cycle individuals experience rhythmic contractions of the pelvis that are accompanied by uterine contractions in women and ejaculation in men A excitement B plateau C orgasm D resolution 57Which of the following ndings was not a result of the Kinsey study A Sexual desire and sexual ability can be separate functions B Females enjoy sex as much as males C Homosexual behavior is fairly common D Masturbation has no adverse consequences 58lf someone is uncomfortable identifying with the gender normally associated with their biological sex then he could be classi ed as experiencing A homosexuality B bisexuality C heterosexuality D gender dysphoria 59lndividuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder have been shown to have reduced volumes of the A amygdala B hippocampus C hypothalamus D thalamus 60According to the theory of emotion emotional experiences arise from physiological arousal A JamesLange B CannonBard C Schachter Singer twofactor D Darwinian 61Which of the following is not one of the seven universal emotions described in this chapter A Contempt B disgust C melancholy D anger 62 is an individual39s belief in her capability to complete some task physiological needs B selfesteem selfactualization D selfefficacy C 63Car mows the yard of his elderly neighbor each week for 20 What type of motivation is this A Extrinsic B intrinsic C drive D biological 64According to your reading nearly of the adult population in the United States can be classi ed as obese one half one third one fourth one fth 65 is a chemical messenger secreted by fat cells that acts as an Unwgt appetite suppressant orexin angiotensin leptin ghrelin 66 is characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by attempts to Unwgt compensate for the excessive amount of food that was consumed A Prader Willi syndrome B morbid obesity C anorexia nervosa D bulimia nervosa 67ln order to be classi ed as morbidly obese an adult must have a BMI of A less than 25 B 25 299 C 30 399 D 40 or more 68Anima research suggests that in male rats the is critical for the ability to engage in sexual behavior but not for the motivation to do so A nucleus accumbens B amygdala C medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus D hippocampus 69Negative effects of stress are most likely to be experienced when an event is perceived as negative but it is likely to affect one39s friends rather than oneself challenging confusing threatening and no clear options for dealing with it are apparent Unwgt 10 70Between 2006 and 2009 the greatest increases in stress levels were found to occur among A Blacks B those aged 45 64 C the unemployed D those without college degrees 71At which stage of Selye s general adaptation syndrome is a person especially vulnerable to illness A exhaustion B alarm reaction C fightor ight D resistance 72During an encounterjudged as stressful cortisol is released by the A sympathetic nervous system B hypothalamus C pituitary gland D adrenal glands 73Which of the following is not a dimension ofjob burnout A depersonalization B hostility C exhaustion D diminished personal accomplishment 74The white blood cells that attack foreign invaders to the body are called antibodies telomeres lymphocytes immune cells 75The risk of heart disease is especially high among individuals with A Depression B asthma C telomeres D lymphocytes 76The most lethal dimension of Type A behavior pattern seems to be A hostility B impatience C time urgency D competitive drive 77Which of the following statements pertaining to asthma is false A Parental and interpersonal con icts have been tied to the development of oomgt asthma B Asthma sufferers can experience asthma like symptoms simply by believing that an inert substance they breathe will lead to airway obstruction 11 C Asthma has been shown to be linked to hostility D Rates of asthma have decreased considerably since 2000 78Emotionfocused coping would likely be a better method than problem focused coping for dealing with which of the following stressors A terminal cancer B poor grades in school C unemployment D divorce 79According to the Holmes and Rahe scale which life event requires the greatest amount of readjustment A marriage B personal illness C divorce D death of spouse 80What is one of the major criticisms of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale A It has too few items B It was developed using only people from the New England region of the United States C It does not take into consideration how a person appraises an event D None of the items included are positive 81Studies of British civil servants have found that those in the lowest status jobs are much more likely to develop heart disease than those who have high status jobs These ndings attest to the importance of in dealing with stress A biofeedback B social support C perceived control D emotionfocused coping 82Relative to those with low levels of social support individuals with high levels of social support A are more likely to develop asthma B tend to have less perceived control C are more likely to develop cardiovascular disorders D tend to tolerate stress well 83The concept of learned helplessness was formulated by Seligman to explain the A inability of dogs to attempt to escape avoidable shocks after having received inescapable shocks B failure of dogs to learn to from prior mistakes 12 C ability of dogs to learn to help other dogs escape situations in which they are receiving uncontrollable shocks D inability of dogs to learn to help other dogs escape situations in which they are receiving uncontrollable electric shocks 84Which of the following is not one of the presumed components of happiness A using our talents to help improve the lives of others B learning new skills C regular pleasurable experiences D identifying and using our talents to enrich our lives 85Researchers have identi ed a number of factors that are related to happiness Which of the following is not one of them A age B annual income up to 75000 C physical attractiveness D marriage 86How does positive affect differ from optimism A Optimism is more scienti c than positive affect B Positive affect is more scienti c than optimism C Positive affect involves feeling states whereas optimism involves expectations D Optimism involves feeling states whereas positive affect involves expectations 87Carson enjoys writing mystery novels and has even managed to publish some of his work When he39s writing Carson becomes extremely focused on his work in fact he becomes so absorbed that that he often loses track of time often staying up well past 3 am Carson39s experience best illustrates the concept of happiness set point adaptation positive affect ow Unwgt ANSWER KEY Nl n gt55 quotS J OD bigth ob gt uigtuwohbwwwwwuuwgtgtowcugt 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 gt5cgtoowwwwgtogtgtwcougtoowowgtcwu 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 coowgtcoocgtcgtgtowcgtwcocuowgtuo 13


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