Exam 3 Review
Exam 3 Review KINE 2330 - 002
Popular in Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries
Popular in Kinesiology
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Celeste Mancinas on Monday October 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KINE 2330 - 002 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Roy Rudewick in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 732 views. For similar materials see Care and Prevention of Athletic Injuries in Kinesiology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
00000 00 O Facial injuries Soft tissue injury Abrasions contusions lacerations avulsions Lots of bleeding 39 Clean and cover Nasal Fx Bony lnjury Nasal bone fracture most common Nasal septum fracture cartilage bone More serious hematoma may develop Tx treatment ice nose packing refer Bony lnjuries MOI direct blows Mandible Jaw Fracture 2nd most common Malocclusion of teeth bleeding around teeth lower lip numbness lce immobilize Dr Eye Anatomy Sit in orbit bony protection Eyelid Sclera tough outer white layer Cornea iris lens Pupil black center Eye lnjuries lnjuries can be serious must be evaluated and referred to ophthalmologist if necessary Orbital Hematoma black eye Foreign body Pain and disability tearing speck of grass dirt sand etc Don39t rub out can tear the cornea Get a qtip and roll the object off Corneal Abrasion Pain tears blurred vision Patch amp refer 12 days to heal Hyphema Blood in eye pupil area vision block full or partial Patch both eyes no ice medical emergency Blowout Fracture orbit of eye is fractured Hit on orbit hit on ye lnc pressure blowout Discoloration inferior margins inabilitv to move eve Up diplopia double vision pain Ex Baseball when hit with a ball Retinal Detachment O Direct blow or quotwhipping of the headquot Specks in vision quotflashes of lightquot quotcurtainquot Not instant Conjunctivitis Pink eye infection of the tissue that line the back of the eyelid Can be irritated from dirt wind smoke air pollution SampS eye swelling discharge itching and burning Highly infectious Tx antibiotic drop or ointment not visine Dental injuries Injuries Teeth have the lowest potential to return to a state of health following traumatic injury Role to athletic trainer care for athlete and tooth and get athlete to dentist if necessary Saving a tooth transport media Save a tooth plastic tube to put tooth in Saline saliva water mouth keep moist Tooth displacement Extrusion or lateral luxation Tooth is turned sideways Can try to reposition see dentist Intrusion Don39t try to reposition mouth closed dentist Fractured tooth crown or root is knocked out o No return still try to save tooth fragment Tooth avulsion Handle tooth by crown only Replace in socket if possible Save tooth keep moist at all times Dentist 122 hrs Less than 30 mins 90 survival rate Greater than 2 hrs 5 survival rate Ear injuries Anatomy External ear middle ear internal ear Injuries Swimmer39s ear external otitis Ear infection otitis medius Cauliflower Ear wrestling Hardened tissue of untreated hematoma auris Keloid tissue is resultant Blood is formed like jelly substance then hardens Need surgery to remove Anatomy of Skull 0 Consists of 8 cranial and 14 facial bones 0 Offers protection of the brain Cerebrum controls memory emotions learning judgement voluntary muscle movements Cerebellum muscle movements Medulla heart rate breathing amp coughing Three layers of meninges o Dura mater tough mother two layers 0 Arachnoid o Pia mater o The brain is suspended in Cerebrospinal Fluid CSF for cushion and acute blood pressure changes Mechanism of Head Injuries 0 Two causes Direct 0 Indirect whiplash FYI o A recent study showed more SOCCER athletes especially FEMALES than football athletes suffer concussions 0 May or may not result in loss of consciousness disorientation or amnesia motor coordination or balance deficits and cognitive deficits 0 May present as cervical spine injury brain injury concussiontraumatic brain injury or skull fracture All unconscious athletes are managed as if there is a Cspine injury until it39s ruled out Head Injury Evaluation 0 ALWAYS assume a neck injury 0 Don39t move the athlete if unconscious 0 Check ABC39s airway breathing circulation Concussion Factoids o Occur in any sport 0 Can be life threatening Head trauma results in more fatalities than other sports injury 0 250000 concussionsyear reported for high school football players 0 After 1st concussion chance of 2nd is 4x greater Brain cells that are not destroyed may exist in a vulnerable state 0 Shane Morris QB for Michigan got hit and knocked out went to the sidelines got back into game Concussion Symptoms 0 Physical Signs O O Headache Vertigo Nausea Balance Slow pupil response or dilation Visual problems double vision tracking Ringing in the ears tinnitus Light sensitivity No grading system Cognitive Signs Confusion Anterograde amnesia can39t recall events that transpired SINCE injury Retrograde amnesia can39t recall events that transpired BEFORE injury Emotional issues Treatment 0 Treat each one individually O 0000 0 Monitoring the changes More important to determine the time course of the signs and symptoms Know when to refer Symptoms increase or worsen Know when to remove from competition on the day of injury Golden rules quotif you were out you are outquot quotif you sway you do not playquot Any amnesia or increase in signssymptoms with activity Inform the parents and have them pick up their child Give the parent a head injury info sheet Removal of technology Keep away from bright lights Allow to sleep It39s not necessary to awaken every 2 hrs Assessment History Do you know where you are Can you tell me what happened Does your head hurt Do you have pain in your neck Can you move your hands and feet S ecial Tests 0 o o o o P o o Romberg Test balance Fingernose heeltoe walking coordination O O 0 Recall three wordslunch memory Months of the year backwards concentration Eye function penfinger tracking blurred vision pupil response to light pupil should constrict get smaller when held up to light Return to contest rules 0 O O UlL Rule a player sustaining a concussion is out for 1 week after symptoms subside lmpactneurocog Check cognitive ability and response time Gradual return to play No activity Light aerobic activity bike Sport specific activity jogrun Noncontact training drills pass drills dribbling Full contact practice Return to game Second impact syndrome 0 O O 0 Brain swelling because a 1st injury hasn39t healed Second impact may not even involve a blow to the head Life altering event could become paralyzed wheelchair or even death Signs may appear dazed followed by a rapid decline in consciousness pupils eye movement Care 911 o What can a coach do to prevent and treat concussions OOOOOO Understand mechanisms of injury Monitor equipment and technique Recognize injury severity No set time table for concussions Collaborate with physician on return to play decisions Understand the potential negative consequences Mike Leach put player into shed during practices 0 Critical Injuries 0 0 Call 911 immediately Epidural Hematoma Right below skin level above dura mater Blow to the head baseball bat helmet to helmet Arterial bleeding so that symptoms present quickly Signs unconscious 1 pupil dilation severe headache nausea vertigo seizures Life threatening situation Subdural Hematoma happens below dura mater More common than epidural hematoma Sow onset maybe hours after incident Caused by whiplash forces that tear venous blood vessels pressure on brain tissue Signs Unconscious w dilation of the pupil on 1 side headache vertigo nausea sleepiness Equipment issues 0 Protective equipment and proper technique Helmetsfacemasks Properly fitted and maintained Will not prevent all head injuries but may reduce risk National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment NOCSAE or American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM Mouth guards No concentrate evidence that reduces head injury but provides protection of mouth No spearing tackle with top of helmet Reduction of full contact practices Spinal Column 0 Complex region of body 3 functions 1 Transmits weight of trunk to lower limbs 2 Protects spinal cord 3 Serves as attachment for ribs and muscles of neck and back 0 Total of 33 vertebrae 1 24 moveable 7 cervical C1C7 C1 Atlas Greek god held the world on his head C2 Axis 12 Thoracic T1T12 5 Lumbar L1L5 2 9 fixed fused 39 5 sacral 4 coccygeal o lntervertebral Disc 1 Annulus Fibrosis outside tissue 2 Nucleus pulposus jelly center 0 Thickest in lumbar region and cervical region Jelly donut goes flat when you bite into it Cervical lnjuries Fairly uncommon in athletics 67 o but greater than 90 of all fatalities are cervical related Cervical injuries are primarily technique related 1 Speanng O O O 2 Tackling or falling head first Axial loading Cervical Spine Conditions Cervical Sprain Muscle and tendons of the neck and region Muscle spasm Limited ROM Active motion most painful Cervical Sprain Whiplash 0 PPM O 1 Posterior ligament structures then anterior ligament structures 2 Passive and active motion painful Care for Strains and Sprains 0 ICE 0 Lateral Flexion Exercises 0 Rotation Exercises 0 Wearing a soft cervical neck collar 1 Lift up neck and support head take weight off neck 0 Heat may be used after 23 days 1 Do not heat an acute injury Cervical Injuries 0 Cervical Fractures 1 Athlete reports of hearing or feeling a pop or snap in the neck 2 Severe pain in the cervical spine w muscle spasms 3 Difficulty swallowing 4 Deformity in the vertebrae 5 Burning numbness tingling in extremities or trunk 6 Weak grip strength 7 Absence of motor and sensation in extremities o Stenosis 1 Congenital defect born with it that causes a narrow opening in the spinal column 2 Will end a football career when discovered Michael Irvin 3 Risk is death or permanent disability 0 Brachial Plexus BrunerStinger 1 MOI Stretching or compression of the nerve 2 Common in football when the neck is forced laterally and the shoulder is depressed 3 Numbness will be present from the tip of the shoulder to the fingertips 4 Arm appears limp 5 Normal function should resume after a few minutes 6 CARE May return to activity once symptoms resolve themselves Football players should be fitted with a neck collarroll limit movement 0 Acute Torticollis quotCrick in the neckquot A piece of the synovial membrane that is trapped between the vertebrae 2 Can be caused by exposure to cold draft air or sleeping in an unusual position First AidCare Check vitals breathing conscious level pulse Physical exam looking for SampS Stabilize the head and neck Prevention of Neck Injuries Preseason Exams Detect Problems Cervical stenosis and hypermobility Flexibility Chin to chest and ear to shoulder Strength Should be a part of other strength programs Readiness quotbull the neckquot Proper Technique no spearing head up with tackle Protective Equipment neck roll cowboy collar neck support goes with shoulder pads Injuries to the thoracic through coccygeal spine Spinal Column 1 Musculature N LCCDNA Ltgtco Superficial erector spinae group Deep transversalis groups go across bottom of back Back malalignments Kyphosis rounding of upper back hunchback Lordosis lumbar is curved in Scoliosis lateral curve in spine Scheuermann39s Disease A condition of the thoracic spine Usually seen in athletes in sports with severe bending like gymnastics Characterized by kyphosis of the thoracic region Treatment Dr referral spinal bracing and exercise Spinal Column Spinal nerves and plexi 31 spinal nerves 4 plexi Dermatomes Correspond to an area of the skin that is innervated by the cutaneous neurons of a single spinal nerve or cranial nerve Myotomes Correspond to groups of muscles innervated by a specific nerve root What is the CORE WNf39SDNT MAC L 4wm Lhw Composed of muscles of the lumbar pelvic and hip regions Weak Core muscular issues in the spine Need to have balance in back muscles and abdominal muscles Unique risk factors for athletes High impact trauma football rugby End range loading gymnastics diving Overuse trauma Impact loading distance running Rotational loading golf baseball Prolonged sitting travel Cervical Nerve Root Injury Disc laceration cord shock The Low Back Complex system All vertebrae work as unit 75 of fwd flexion occurs at L5St Weight bearing portion of vertebral column Sacrum and lumbar regions function with pelvis and legs Mechanisms of Injury Congenital abnormalities born with it Poor body mechanics Back trauma Lumbar Spine Conditions Low back fracture Compression gymnastics pole vaulting stress overuse or spinous and transverse processes Low back muscle strain Acute overextension and chronic faulty posture throwing pitch and not follow thru Herniated Disks MOI Overload direct or indirect or faulty biomechanics or both Local and radiating pain Sciatica a pain that goes through buttocks to hamstring Spondylolysis Unilateral defect in the pars interarticularis More common in boys Sports with a hyperextended back gymnastics spiking in volleyball blocking in football Spondylolisthesis Bilateral defect in the pars interarticularis which causes forward displacement of vertebra L 3 Humerus Nf39PFDNf39P PSDN Slipping L5 on S1 Prevention of Low Back Injuries Avoid unnecessary stresses Sitting increases stress 33 compared to standing Supine decreases stress 75 compared to standing Correct sport techniques Correct any biomechanical abnormalities Use correct lifting techniques Strengthen abdominals and low back muscles Coccyx Injuries Can include sprains strains and contusions MOI forcibly falling being kicked Care ring cushion is used for protection Back locks up when bruised Special Tests Straight leg raise sciatic nerve Sl joint or lumbar region Sacral compression Sl joint Stretches ligaments near the pelvis Hold for 10 seconds and 35 repetition o Spherical 0 Covered with articular cartilage Scapula Spine Acromion process Coracoid process Vertebral border Inferior Angle lavicle Connects the shoulder girdle to the trunk Protects underlying neurovascular structures Lies subcutaneous just below the skin no protection by muscles vulnerable to impact Joint Articulations O O O O O o Glenoid Fossa C O O O o Sternoclavicular jointligament SC joint 0 Acromioclavicular joint AC joint up top 0 Glenohumeral joint GH Anatomical structure provides extreme mobility Mismatch in size between the humeral head and the glenoid fossa percentage on test Static stabilizers Ligaments 39 Joint capsule 39 Glenoid labrum Piece of cartilage that forms the cup around GH Rotator cuff muscles SITS Supraspinatus superman flies high lnfraspinatus under superman Teres minor Subscapularis submarine goes down Work collectively to hold the humeral head in the glenoid fossa through cocontraction o Scapulothoracic articulation Muscles of the Shoulder Girdle o 17 muscles attach to or originate from the scapula to provide stability and movement Trapezius Rhomboids Levator scapulae Serratus anterior Pectoralis minor Deltoid Pectoralis major Biceps Triceps ROM of glenohumeral joint pictures on test Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Internal Rotation External Rotation Horizontal Abduction Horizontal Adduction M of Scapulothoracic Protraction Retraction Elevation Depression Upward Rotation o Downward Rotation Mechanisms of Injury 0 R OOOOOOOOOOOOOO 0 Direct Impact Shoulders hitting in football 0 Indirect Not making contact with other person Shoulder strains 0 Evaluate active and passive 0 Know the muscle functions 0 History is important Empty Can test 0 For supraspinatus 0 Empty can test is for what muscle SUPRAspinatus Should Strain Tx 0 RICE Stretching muscles39 first reaction to injury is spasm Strengthening don39t rehab muscle will make injury come back Plyometrics Supportive bracing and wrapping Clavicle Fracture 0000 0 Signs Deformity Discoloration at the fx site 0 Symptoms feeling a snappop 0 Treatment Ice Sling 68 week recovery 0 MOI Fall on outstretched hand Fall on tip of shoulder Direct blow Acromioclavicular sprain and coracoaclavicular o MOI o SS 1st a little pain to touch 2nd causes clavicle to pop up more pain 3rd complete break degree various ligament ruptures and disability 0 Pain above 90 degree and with horizontal adduction 0 Management Ice Slingshoulder immobilizer Refer to MD Shoulder contusion o Shoulder pointer o MOI blow to the shoulder 0 SS muscle spasms discoloration swelling 0 Tx sling RICE Advil Motrin Shoulder Injuries 0 Sternoclavicular Sprain MOI direct contact or transfer through kinetic chain very rare Grades 1 2 3 sprain to dislocation Dislocation anterior or posterior posterior is very serious Figure 8 immobilization 35 weeks 0 Glenohumeral Sprain damage to capsular ligaments MOI forceful movement abduction and rotation SS laxity tests limited ROM paintenderness Potential for chronic problems Importance of immobilization and strengthening Shoulder Dislocation 0 Most commonly occurs anteriorly o MOI ABD amp ER 0 Dislocations and Subluxations shoulder comes out then go back in Acute 8590 reoccur if MOI was direct trauma Anterior Glenohumeral most common MOI39s falls forward Posterior Glenohumeral MOI39s falls in back Inferior Glenohumeral very uncommon MOI39s feels in armpit SS classic deformities Tx who reduces OO Immobilization 34 weeks Strengthening 0 Treatment Reduction by trained professional only Splintsling Refer to MD Indirect Injuries 0 Early cocking AbductionER supraspinatus very active Late cocking More ER anterior structures stretched Scapula must be stable Acceleration Large muscle groups to IR stable scapula necessary Deceleration All posterior muscles active to slow down especially teres minor Followthrough Scapula protracts abducts serratus anterior Shoulder Injuries 0 Epiphyseal Fracture quotLittle League Shoulderquot Growth plate damaged with indirect trauma of overhead throwing When you damage ends effects bone and does not grow Overuse Injuries 0 SynovitisBursitis SS inflammation pain when bursa or capsule is quotpinchedquot in coracoacromial arch o Bicipital Tendinitisswelling of tendon itselfTenosynovitisswelling of the outside sheath 0 SS pain w activity crepitus Grinding o Tendon subluxation can cause inflammation Treatment 0 RICE o NSAIDS Advil Motrin o Stretching and Strengthening
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