Exam Two Study Guide
Exam Two Study Guide HI 1063
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HI 1063 Early US History with Dr Evan Kaplan Exam Two Study Guide 10293015 V Confederation and the Constitution Wasn t here for this part due to sickness sorry ll Constitutional Convention A Road to Philadelphia Each of the states sent representatives to philadelphia to scrap the Articles entirely and make a new system The Founders as they were called included Washington Madison and Hamilton B Balancing Power and Liberty In order to not infringe on the rights of the citizenry there had to be some way to ensure that the government did not put too much power in one place The result was the split of the government into three separate branches Judicial Executive and Legislative C Problems and Compromises The Founders did not agree on some things and as a result there had to be several compromises that were reached before the Constitution was sent out to be ratified 1 Great Connecticut Compromise The issue over representation in the legislature was a fight between the larger and smaller states The larger states wanted representation by population size while the smaller states wanted a fixed number The compromise made by Richard Sherman established that the lower House of Representatives would be elected by population size while the upper Senate would be a flat number 2 for everybody 2 35 Compromise The issue of how slaves would be counted for tax and population size measures was also determined The decision was that slaves represented only threefifths of a person D Results 1 Stronger National Government than was existent during the Articles 2 The powers that did not get explicitly given to the Feds went to the States 3 The democracy was reduced and the market was more contained as measures to keep things running smoothly E View of Constitution Some viewed the Constitution as a betrayal of the original purpose of the revolution which was to throw off the shackles of an oppressive government The new laws and regulations did not seem better to some people they seemed to have just restarted this problem lll Ratification 87 88 Had to be ratified by 9 of the 13 states A Federalists vs Antifederalists 1 Feds a Viewed as one of the first political parties b Followed the fiscal and political policies of Alexander Hamilton c Wanted a strong federal government and the ability to intervene directly in the national economy a Not a true political party b Opposed the strong federal government and got their views from Jefferson c They were not favorable towards the growing market and generally opposed the growth of slavery B Ratifying and the Federalist Papers 1 Ratification in 1788 the document was ratified by the necessary 9 states and was passed The problem came with the fact that two of the most powerful states Virginia and New York abstained over questions about the individual rights of citizens As a response to these doubts and due to the need for the states supportthe Federalist Papers a collection of 85 essays detailing reasons for supporting the Constitution were published a Federalist 10 and 51 Two of the most well known documents were written by James Madison Federalist 10 was a discussion about the danger that factions posed to a new government and how factions can never be truly removed but they can be contained Federalist 51 addressed the concern about the centralization of power in the government by explaining that power was diffused into the three branches which in turn checked each other b The Bill of Rights As a final way to assure the states and citizens a set of 10 Amendments known as the Bill of Rights was passed to explain what the government is explicitly forbidden to do to its citizens This was never before seen as it restricted the government s own power Vl Securing the Republic Questions Facing the US in 1789 A B C D Would the new national government be strong enough to deal with the remaining problems left by the war Would the US be able to command respect as an independent nation What defined the relationship between the government and its citizens Would political parties emerge and would the government be able to withstand their infighting ll Launching the New Government A First President The first President had the extraordinary job of bringing legitimacy to the nation Their leadership would show the world how the nation was going to be George Washington was unanimously approved as the first President of the United States He and the new government inherited what can only be described as an absolute chaos situation but they were adamant about maintaining the rules and laws of the Constitution to fix it First Congress The first thing Congress ever did was raise taxes to pay off the debt from the war This was was followed by the Judiciary Act of 1789 which established the structure and functioning of the lower Courts They also created much of the Executive Organization namely the Cabinet and also the Departments of State Treasury and War III Hamiltonian Federalism A Alexander Hamilton as the Secretary of Treasury 1 Alexander Hamilton was born in the British West Indies but violent storms forced him to go to the colonies There he was very poor initially but he was brilliant and married into one of the wealthiest families in New YorkWhen he became the Secretary of the Treasury he was granted what was at the time possibly the most important position available 2 Purpose He had an absolute obsession with the centralization of power in England and viewed it as the epitome of how the government should function He believed that the states should be nulled and that a central US governmental entity was necessary to the survival of the nation 3 Philosophy Hamilton had no faith in the common man and even detested the lower classes that he had once been a part of He was an adamant elitist and gladly told everyone else this He thought that only the wealthy were valuable to society and considered the poor to be part of the mob He said that the government could capitalize on the natural greed of humanity by turning that private greed into public good with a capitalist system Report On the Public Credit 1790 The government was in great debt and the money issues were rampant so Congress ordered Hamilton to propose solutions to the problem The only problem was that Hamilton knew absolutely nothing about what he was doing and relied solely on his own brilliance E 1 Decisions Federal Government would absorb the debts of the States the US would establish credit as he viewed debt as something not necessarily bad Funding amp Assumption if the debt doesn39t have to be paid off at once then use taxes to pay off the interest and fund the debt wanted a stable currency and market and suggested that the US should become an industrial economy 2 Reaction James Madison the then Speaker of the House was fearful of the massive increase in power that Hamilton wanted the government to have and started to side with the States and Thomas Jefferson Madison could ve held the report up but he understood the need for a strong national government and allowed the Report to circulate through Congress They passed the resolutions Hamilton made on the grounds that the national government would be moved out of the North from New York at the time to its current location in DC Report on the National Bank 1790 The question of who would manage the money came to light and very few people trusted the idea of banks at the time Hamilton s solution was the National Bank to be chartered by the government run by citizens and centered in the North There was immediate uproar in opposition to this as it was believed that doing this might be Unconstitutional The problem was that the Constitution didn t say you could do it but it didn t say that you couldn t This led to a debate over Constitutional Interpretation 1 The difference between the two factions in this debate was of Strict and Broad Interpretation The Strict view stated that the Constitution must be followed directly along its very narrow scope while the Broad side said that some assumptions can be made The two sides were not willing to cooperate until Hamilton used Article I Section 8 to convince George Washington to his side who then promptly twisted a few arms in Congress to get the proposition passed Report on Manufactures 1790 Hamilton s ambition did not stop with the establishment of the National Bank He wanted to make sure that the US became an industrial nation because he hated Agrarian society and used the powerhouse explanation to try and convince Congress that his was a good idea They did not agree with him on this point and refused to allow the government to support big business Results of the Hamilton Programs The US became financially stable the federal government had achieved the significant national power it required and the Federalist Party had been founded IV Jeffersonian Republicanism 89 92 A Mr Madison s Party Jefferson and Madison organized the DemocraticRepublican party together The party consisted of those who were concerned with the states inability to stop the growing power of the national government Jefferson 1 Political Philosophy Jefferson was very much against the increasingly strong federal government He did not agree with the idea of the National Bank at all and wanted very much to lessen the amount of federal power being given to the government 2 Agrarianism In the aspect of the US future he was the opposite of Hamilton Jefferson despised the growing market and industry itself and preferred that the US remain in a farm based economy 3 Strict Constitutional Interpreter Jefferson believed in keeping rigidly to the letter of the Constitution C Republican Party The DemocraticRepublican party became the Republican party under Jefferson V Foreign Policy and Party Politics A B Jefferson and Hamliton differ on Foreign Policy Problems of the French Revolution 1 Neutrality Would the US remain outside of the conflict or come to the aid of the nation that helped them against England was a big quesion 2 Citizen Genet The French ambassador to the US He gathered support for the French and began to use US ships as privateers to attack British ships Eventually his actions forced President Washington to ask that his status as an ambassador be rescinded British Violations of Neutrality The British were stopping American ships heading to France and seizing their goods despite the fact that America was a neutral party in the conflict This added on to the problem that was the remaining British forts that were still active in the US which also purposely irritated the Native Americans against the settlers This instance damaged the Federalist party because they had a preference for English ways of doing things and the Republicans used it to lash out since the French revolution had damaged their own credibility The Federalists knew that they couldn39t declare war to finish this so they decided to send an ambassador They didn t have a set ambassador at that time so they sent John Jay the Chief Justice to negotiate the terms 1 Jay s Treaty 179495 Jay was told by Washington to go to England to negotiate American interests from a position of strength He was told that the issues of maritime crimes and the forts had to be solved The treaty that was agreed to decided that England would remove its forts from the US if they were granted favored nation statusquot This term made the US an international partner with England against France Jay returned to see himself burning in effigy by the Republican party who viewed the treaty as them now being lawfully beholden to England Whiskey Rebellion 1794 Congress placed a high tax on whiskey to help pay for things Out in the western areas it was harder to enforce so many distillers in Pennsylvania simply ignored the law The federal government realized this and in response Washington raised a 12000 man militia to march into Pennsylvania to claim the taxes that the government was due and enforce the laws 20 men were arrested and 2 were set to be executed but Washington pardoned them Federalist party used this rebellion to flex its power and show that it had the right and ability to levy and enforce a tax The Republicans once again attacked this action with the argument that the government was overstepping its bounds again Washington Farewell Address 1796 At the end of his second term Washington had come to despise the presidency and all of the political infighting that was inherent with it Though the 22nd Amendment had yet to be in place he stepped down from the Presidency in a move that shocked many people as there were almost no prior instances of someone in a high level of power relinquishing it In his farewell address he encouraged the nation to stay out of the politics of the constantly warring Europe and said that if the political parties remained then the system would fail His leaving did not help the situation Instead he was the only things holding the system together at some level and him leaving allowed the parties to be at each other s throats even more fiercely than before Vl Adam s Administration 17971801 A B John Adams won the election that took place after washington which left the Federalist Party still in power There was dissension in the party along the faultlines of Hamilton who wanted Adams position and Adams who had to deal with Hamilton s strong political allies XYZ Affair 1797 Due to the French not seeming to care about US neutrality diplomatic relations between the two countries were broken off To try to reconcile this Adams sent three ambassadors to France The three waited for months without hearing from anyone but then three individuals who referred to themselves as X Y and Z showed up and agreed to negotiate if they were given 10 Million dollars Adams was furious and the Republican party was ashamed over this incident but Hamilton was quite happy about the idea of going to war with France Undeclared Naval War with France 1798 Since there were no longer any diplomatic relations protecting the situation both sides began to attack one another s ships and steal their goods The whole fiasco split the parties even more and allowed the Federalists to launch a smear campaign against the Republicans As a final act against the Republican party the Federalist led Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts which made it a criminal offense to speak against the government Most individuals were immune but Jefferson who was the explicit target of the new laws which carried a punishment of 2 years in prison and a 2000 dollar fine The Republicans shouted about the fact that it was unconstitutional but they were the minority party and could do nothing In an effort to solve the problem Jefferson and Madison tried to solve the problem of Constitutional Interpretation once and for all The went to the states of Virginia and Kentucky to argue that the states could declare an act of Congress unconstitutional and following the Compact Theory that says that the states that made up the Union could control it said that the states didn t have to follow an Act of Congress if they saw it as Unconstitutionaland illegal Virginia and Kentucky agreed with the idea and refused to follow the laws D Election of 1800 1 Issues What is the role of the Federal Government What kind of identity is the US trying to form 2 Results and Significance Jefferson won This meant that the political party controlling the White House switched hands due to the public will The parties conceded to the change and so it was established that the parties no matter how divided were not strong enough to totally collapse the system because they would always have a common interest in maintaining said government Vll Republicans in Power 18011815 A First Term 18011805 1 Revolution of 1800 Jefferson declared his election a Revolution which was kinda dumb since it didn39t really change anything at all 2 Struggle with the Federal Judiciary At this point nobody still had any real clue as to what the Judiciary was for but Adams had made sure to pack the lower courts and the Supreme Court with Federalists before he left office Jefferson began to see a problem when they began to make political speeches even though they were supposed to be apolitical His biggest issue was with the fact that the new Chief Justice was John Marshall 3 Marbury v Madison 1803 When John Adams left office he made what are called midnight appointmentsquot before he left These appointments to the Federal Judiciary were done so late that their enaction overlapped with the presidencies of both Adams and Jefferson Mr Marbury was one of the men that Adams had ordered an appointment for but he did not get his appointment letter as it had landed in the hands of Jefferson s Secretary of State James Madison who kept the letter under the order of Jefferson himself Marbury sued for his appointment and worked the case all the way up to the Supreme Court The Supreme Court had a very convoluted Opinion in this case as they stated that Marbury deserved the appointment he had been given but also that the Court could and should not assume the right to decide the matter as it placed more power in their possession than was necessary This was in direct conflict with the Judiciary Acts which said that the Supreme Court could in fact do that This resulted in the Court declaring that section of the Acts to be Unconstitutional This decision and the case that brought it before the Court was what established the idea of Judicial Review 4 Louisiana Purchase 1803 The enormous amount of land that the French had under their control was impossible for them to effectively control so Napoleon agreed to sell the land to the US for a miserly 15 Million dollars This action was in direct opposition to Jefferson s prior stance for strict interpretation of the Constitution and he received a lot of criticism for his flipflopping Regardless deal gave the US a HUGE amount of land 5 Lewis and Clark Expedition Jefferson who was fascinated by the new land ordered an exploration of the area Lewis and Clark set out from the area that would become St Louis and went all the way to the Pacific They sent several samples and collections back to Jefferson along the way B Alternatives To War 18081809 F 1 England and France had resumed fighting each other again and once again neither nation respected nor cared for the idea of US neutrality The British escalated the problems with the action of lmpressment a lmpressment English ships would land on American soil and essentially force American citizens to work for the British Navy They would do this to ships as well and it became a horrible and massive issue on the international scale as it made it apparent that England still viewed the colonies as their possession 1 Chesapeake Affair 1807 The ship Chesapeake was stopped and teh captain of the ship refused to be forced into British service This event infuriated the American people and war became a big topic even as Jefferson understood that they would not be able to afford another war b Embargo Act As an attempt to punish the two nations the US passed laws that banned trade with them This was an attempt to economically damage the countries It backfired horribly as it only really damaged American merchants and allowed England to have a monopoly on trade and eventually the Acts were repealed Election of 1808 Though the Republicans should have lost due to the whole international scandal Madison won Drifting to War 18091812 1 2 Continued Economic Coercion While the Embargo Acts got repealed the problems with England got worse and worse until the two countries broke diplomatic relations in 1811 War Hawks The new generation of Republicans were very enthusiastic about a war with England under the pretense of protecting American interests and commanding respect War of1812 1 Military Failures Entire territories of the US were seized and the British had massive gains in control Federal Opposition to the War Those against the war blamed the Republicans for causing it and wasting resources and lives In protest those opposing the war met at the Hartford Convention of 1814 where they laid out a series of resolutions and demanded to end the war or their states would secede Treaty of Ghent 1814 Eventually the warjust became pointless and a failure on all accounts England made three big offensives and lost two of them both sides had wasted huge amounts of time and resources so Parliament declared the war to be over and both sides agreed to meet in Ghent Belgium to settle The agreement made was that the state of things would go back to what it was before the war had ever started essentially it was as though the war never happened Death of the Federalist Party After the war the Federalist party as an institution simply ceased to exist leaving the Republicans as the only active party Andrew Jackson Jackson had gathered a mercenary militia to fight for him in what would be called the Battle of New Orleans It was a fight that the British should ve easily won but in the end Jackson s troops decimated the British 700 British casualties to around 20 Americans Jackson became a war hero Hamilton Hamilton died during this time period after he insulted Aaron Burr and refused to formally apologize In response Burr challenged him to a duel which Hamilton accepted Hamilton shot into the air to signify that he was willing to talk it out but Burr still shot him Hamilton later died at 49 New Questions 1 Would the US be strong enough without becoming oppressive 2 Would the US remain to be run in an aristocratic manner or not 3 Would the US be able to maintain its independence and respect on the International Stage 4 Would political parties manage to rip the country apart VII Nationalism and Sectionalism 1815 1824 I Nationalism After the War of 1812 The imaginary victory over England increased the national pride while a boom in technology and several social changes altered the social atmosphere ll Economic Nationalism A Growth of the US As people moved into the new Louisiana Territory the economy boomed The Southern states remained agricultural and plantations became even more common and influential Boats and eventually trains made transport through the nation easier and increased trade Market Revolution Prior to this point farms existed for the sole purpose of survival as people would consume what they made With mass transport the market system grew rapidly and the idea of cash crops and specialized farms grew which in turn increased the power of the market even more New Republicans The new generation of Republicans were different from their predecessors They favored the new market system and appreciated the war the occurred 1 Tariff of 1816 A tax was placed on imported goods This made those goods more expensive than those produced by local manufacturers The tax was created for the sole purpose of encouraging local purchases to better the economy 2 2nd Bank of the US The 1st Bank s charter had run out so it had to be renewed 3 Internal Improvements Government funded infrastructure roads bridges etc There was resistance to the idea as strict interpretation did not allow the Feds to do that They failed to get most of it passed at first 4 American System Henry Clay combined all the above three ideas into the idea of the American System Clay was an ardent nationalist but his ideas were viewed as Sectional state focused and mostly shot down Ill Political Nationalism A James Monroe won the election of 1816 because there was no one to run against him however as it was believed that George Washington should forever remain the only President to receive unanimous approval for office the Republicans threw in a trash candidate to save Washington s status As the Republicans were the only party active it was called the Era of Good Feelingsquot since there was theoretically no problems with each other IV Judicial Nationalism A John Marshall a Federalist was still Chief Justice McCulloch v Maryland was a case where the state of Maryland tried to tax the National Bank in its state out of existence under the idea of the Compact Theory Mr McCulloch who worked for the bank sued the state up to the Supreme Court Marshall issued that the Compact Theory had no grounds and was a worthless argument and states had no power to overrule the Federal Government V Diplomatic Nationalism A FloridaInternational Treaty The US desperately wanted Florida from the Spanish for its location and trade aspects and to decide what to do about the runaway slaves that went there to escape their slavers Andrew Jackson who was now a General was set on the FloridaGeorgia Line and got annoyed with the whole thing and just decided to invade FloridaHe won the area easily and did so without permission from anyone even though he said he did Monroe sent John Quincy Adams to Spain to try to stem the situation but instead Adams said that Spain might as well just give Florida to the US since they couldn t even protect it well anyway Eventually the point was made that the Latin American colonies of the Spanish were gradually achieving independence anyway Adding to that point was the American concern for the idea that these newly independent nations would be readily latched onto by other European nations Monroe Doctrine 1823 Due to the escalation of the above situation Monroe declared that the entire Western Hemisphere was now under the explicit protection of the US and that it would be totally closed to further European influence The US could not actually achieve this idea but it was held anyway due to the huge boost in national selfesteem that rose from the victory of the War of 1812 VI Economic Collapse and Sectional Conflict 18191821 A Panic of 1819 The Boom and Bust Cycle of the market system that America had entered itself into had passed its Boom phase and was now in the worst economic depression in the nation s short history up to that point The Boom period was caused because of the rapid expansion of the nation and the increase in agricultural production of cash crops like cotton The demand for cotton on the world market skyrocketed but eventually that demand faded and the economy that was built around its production tanked The problem with this was in that the US Bank had loaned out HUGE amounts of money to farmers who had planned to make money off of the increasing market but instead got taken down with it when the market crashed The new Westerners were hit the hardest by this particular effect as they had taken out the most extensive loans to set up on the new land Following the American tradition they blamed the government for forcing them to take out those loans and became upset with the East as a whole for allowing such a thing to occur This began the issue of WestEast Sectionalism Missouri Controversy and Compromise 1820 1 The most politically violent and dangerous exercise in government power to that point At this time the debate between slave states and free states was at an alltime high as there had been a massive explosion in the use of slavery as the nation grew westward The Founders had expected slavery to die out of its own natural course but that of course did not happen They had tried at first to set up ways to end it in the future but the southern states wouldn t ratify the Constitution with those provisions so the Founders conceded and left those ideas out By 1819 there were 11 Free States and 11 Slave States in the Union but when the territory of Missouri asked to join the Union as a Slave State both sides erupted into chaos The North saw the admission of a new slave state as a way to tip the balance of political power in Congress towards the South due to the 35 Compromise which would increase the state s population size and thereby increase their representation in Congress and their resistance was viewed as a breach of Constitutionality by the South A New York Congressman proposed the idea that Mlssouri would be allowed to be a slave state but it could not bring in any more slaves and the children of slaves already there would be freed on their 25th birthday This proposal infuriated the South as it was a very transparent attempt at making Missouri a free state at some point in its future a Questions from this Problem 1 Could Congress restrict slavery s expansion South said no because of Constitutional Compromise over the issue but the North said they could because the Founders had never imagined the huge expansion slavery managed to get 2 Wasn t there a moral problem in this Many viewed slavery as wrong but the southerners by majority did not and worked hard to reconcile their acceptance of the Constitution with their acceptance of slavery 2 Compromise Henry Clay proposed his own way to end this issue and allow both sides a win Missouri would be admitted as a slave state as long as Maine a new state to the North would be admitted as a free state This was done in order to ensure that the balance of power in Congress would not be tipped one way or another The Compromise was accepted and was held as a sacred trustquot between the two sides of North and South but simultaneously inspired HUGE political backlash C Protective Tariff and Southern Opposition 1 The Tariff of 1816 was increased even more and the South already riled up by the Missouri issue lashed back more violently than ever Southern identity grew alongside the Northern and both sides now transferred their nationalistic feelings into sectionalist as they favored their respective sides of the issue Vll Election of 1824 A The Republican party was still the only true political party but now the sectionalist conflict allowed for several candidates to vie for the office Nobody received the necessary majority though Jackson received a plurality and Adams got the second most in the Electoral College and as such the vote for the Office went to the House of Representatives The only problem with this was that one of the candidates Henry Clay was the current Speaker of the House To prevent backlash Clay stepped away from the election and manipulated enough support for JQ Adams that he got the Presidency 1 Bargain and Corruptionquot Jackson s supporters were infuriated by this as up to this point every President had been the Secretary of State of the former President That former Sec was Henry Clay and even though they didn t like Clay either they did like the tradition In response the Jacksonians made Adams life a living hell B Candidates 1 Henry Clay Kentucky Senator famous for securing the Missouri Compromise and his creation of the idea of the American System 2 William Crawford Unimportant from Georgia oldschool Jeffersonian Compact Theory and Strict Constitutional Interpretation 3 John Quincy Adams Son of John Adams very intellectual follower of Henry Clay believer in National Power and Supremacy 4 Andrew Jackson The people s manquot not a politician in ANY way war hero no set political ideology had a tremendously influential and favored personality Vlll Rise of American Democracy 18241840 Emergence of Democratic Republicans A By the end of JQ Adams presidency the Republican party had died outjust like the Federalist party before them They were actually replaced with the Democratic Republicans though unlike the Federalists who just kind of vanished Their death was caused almost entirely by the Jacksonians themselves B Jacksonian Image Jackson became what was essentially a folk hero as he and his followers crafted his reputation and image into that of the people s manquot and his party as the people s partyquot They made sure to make out that they were removing the aristocratic style that the system had possessed for so long Their intention was to bring the common man into the political world 1 Jackson His father died before he was born His mother died when he was 15 years old and he grew up a proud gritty brawler During the Revolution he had his face scarred by the saber of a British officer who sliced his face after Jackson refused to shine the officer s boots when he was captured Held staunchly to the belief that you must be able to command respect and even fear He engaged in several duels won all of them and had several men who died by his hand He was even shot in the heart once and survived In essence he got shot at and threatened A LOT but still survived One man even attempted to assassinate him but when the hammer froze in both the main gun and the backup apparently Jackson chased the wouldbeassassin down and proceeded to beat him with his cane He even engaged in a race with another steamboat and when the other boat began winning he took out his gun and began shooting at it All in all Andrew Jackson was a very charismatic and eccentric man who took nobody s shit Martin van Buren A New Yorker with massive ambition and favor towards Jackson s political ideas John C Calhoun The Warhawk New Republican from South Carolina who became Jackson s righthand man II National Republican Party A The entire party was unable to get anything done as the Jacksonians opposed every idea and proposition made by their rivals Due to continued stress on Congress the Jacksonians managed to break the Republican party and their influence until the party itself was dissolved Ill Election of 1828 A The Election of 1828 was the first modern election in all its mudslinging epic stupidity It was up to that point the most bizarre election to ever occur B Jackson vs Adams Jackson s image of a charismatic war hero vs Adams image of a studious and brilliant aristocrat Jackson ran around the nation riling up the populace against Adam and his intellectual nature This was shocking to many as the people had never been directly involved in the election process but now Jackson was saying they could be and this idea won him a HUGE following The two sides attacked each other brutally in the media but Adams ways were far less effective as they tended to backfire such as when he called out Jackson s hitlist of the men he had killed in duels with the intent of tarnishing Jackson s image instead the people loved this In response Jackson started the rumour that Adams who had been the diplomat to Russia had secured the Tsar an American pleasure girl C Results 1 2 3 IV Jackson Popular 56 went to Jackson which was the most popular support achieved by a President up to that point Electoral 68 Inauguration Jackson invited the American Public to his Inauguration Address and the Party following it 10000 people showed up and trashed the place in what became a massive violent and drunken party People stole paintings the entire estate was damaged etc as President 18291837 A Spoils System Jackson began a practice that tarnished his image on both sides of the aisle the Spoils System In this practice Jackson handed out political appointments to his friends and supporters regardless of their qualifications for those positions This made people lose faith in the electoral system B Indian Removal Jackson was welldocumented as violently hating Natives As a response to pressure from Southern farmers wanted the land that some of the Native Nations held Jackson initiated the infamous Trail of Tears This action was the forced removal of five of the Great Native Nations Chickasaw Choctaw Creek Seminole and Cherokee from their lands towards a reserve of sorts in an area that Jackson thought no white people would ever want to live Oklahoma This entire process destroyed these great Native peoples and earned Jackson contempt and love in equal measure C Tariff Continued with South Carolina 1 The Protective Tariff that was made to ensure that Americans bought American was causing more and more issues as time went on The Tariff really only helped the industrialized North while it damaged the South and the West Somehow South Carolina equated the Tariff with a threat against slavery and argued for the purpose of criticizing the majorityminority power struggle Calhoun spoke up for South Carolina even though he was an ardent nationalist as he was politically shrewd and knew that he would lose his office if he did not follow the will of his electors D Tariff of 1828 This increased the Tariff even higher than the last increase South Carolina was having none of this and began to discuss secession from the Union as a viable option for resisting this South Carolina Exposition and Protest 1828 Calhoun responded to quotthisquot with an anonymous letter that stated the Compact Theory as active and that the states could nullify Federal Law and that if the Feds didn t concede then the state would have the full right to secede He did however say that nobody should do anything until Jackson s election if they wanted to avoid secession South Carolina calms down but the theory was put out there and began to take hold of many minds jackson himself suspected Calhoun of being the author of the letter and the relationship between the two started to crumble as Jackson was a massive proponent of the Union and National Supremacy One man Robert Haynes tried to mollify both sides at one dinner and Jackson responded with the Union must be preserved while staring directly at Calhoun Calhoun responded to that pointed address with the Union next to our libertyquot End of JacksonCalhoun Alliance The rift between the two was being encouraged by the massively ambitious Martin van Buren who wanted to replace Calhoun as Jackson s nghbhand a Peggy Eaton Affair John Eaton was an early ally of Jackson and his present Secretary of War The widower met the daughter of a barkeep whose husband was a Navy man The two had an affair so Eaton kept it quiet until the husband died at sea Four weeks later the two got married Everyone saw this as extremely odd and saw it for what it was the result of which was an insane rift in Jackson s cabinet The wives of Jackson s cabinet members had always met but Calhoun s wife refused to be in the same room as Peggy and riled up her friends as well Jackson insisted that everyone accept her and even called an official Cabinet meeting to discuss the matter van Buren was the only one unaffected by this as he did not have a wife involved in this and suggested that Jackson fire his entire Cabinet and start over Jackson conceded and in doing so left Calhoun without a single ally as he was still Jackson s VP This was the nail in the coffin as Calhoun no longer had a reason to stop his state from their secessionleaning ac ons Tariff of 1832 Congress being the stubborn individuals they wereare passed another tariff that increased the tax even higher than it had been before Predictably South Carolina lost their minds and immediately voted to nullify the action The problem with them doing this was also in that they did so alone instead of having the support of other states Jackson was furious and responded with a rebuttal of the action saying that while the Compact Theory had credibility in the idea that the states made up the Union it was wrong in every aspect as the states could not claim to be part of the Union and also be able to pick and choose the laws they wanted to follow South Carolina decided their response to this was going to be raising a militia to protect against the US Army Obviously that did not go over well with Jackson or Congress and Congress responded by passing the Force Bill which allowed Jackson to use any means necessary to subdue them Compromise Tariff 1833 During this huge power struggle moderate voices began to become more influential Henry Clay again showed up with a Compromise for the whole thing His idea was that a tariff be put in place that would steadily decrease over a span of 10 years Both sides of the aisle agreed and it got passed as both sides viewed it as a personal victory War with the National Bank V VI VII 1 The National Bank was set to be rechartered in 1836 at the end of Jackson s second term The Bank was much more stable at this time than it had been previously and was able to hold itself 2 Nicholas Biddle The current head of the National Bank Jackson hated him mostly for the fact that he was part of the Bank and so did many people in the population The Bank was viewed as an establishment built to serve the aristocracy and the Northeastern gentry 3 ReCharter Bill of 1832 Four years before the Bank s charter was set to expire the Republican led Congress thought it would be a good idea to send out the proposal for its rechartering early Their idea was that if Jackson signed it everything would be fine and if he didn t they would crucify him in the press or at least attempt to before the next election The idea backfired Jackson vetoed the Bill and even stated that the Supreme Court was wrong in McCulloch v Maryland as he said the Bank was Unconstitutional Jackson managed to get popular support for this decision as he spun the idea that the Bank was built for the elite The reason it was a backfire was that Congress was unable to override his veto which started a whole snowball of crap to come E Election of 1832 The Jacksonians praised Jackson s veto of the recharter as a second Declaration This was of course worth some sideeye but the Republicans didn t know what they were dealing with The Republicans doing what no politician should ever do assumed that the American people were intelligent enough to see past emotion and look at the facts of the situation They tried to use the economic explanations and detailed information to convince people that the Bank was necessary Meanwhile the Jacksonians were again running around riling the people up and essentially winning Jackson the vote Jackson won the election extremely easily and credited his success to his veto and dealing with South Carolina F Completion of War Against the Bank 1 Jackson ordered his Secretary of the treasury to withdraw all government deposits from the Bank The Secretary knowing that this was an absolutely insane decision refused and Jackson fired him and replaced him with Roger B Taney Taney did as he was told and the money was distributed to pet banksquot across the country These were horrible and dangerously badly run but that s not on the test By 1836 the Bank was effectively nothing and Biddle blamed Jackson for everything G Economic Boom and Speculation Immediately after Jackson got rid of the Bank America had a boom period as the cotton market rose again and people again headed west This was attributed to the Bank thing though which was completely unrelated Election of 1836 A Jackson was so powerful and influential by the time he left office that he was able to effectively handpick his successor Of course he went with Martin van Buren who ran even though he didn t have to under the pretense of being Jackson s third term B Whig Party The Whigs were a looseknit band of OldRepublicans that were broadly nationalistic and feared the states rights movement for what it could potentially do to the UnionThey were large proponents of Henry Clay s American System and the big problem with them was that they couldn t really sum themselves up beyond being against Jackson Van Buren and the Panic of 1837 The demand for cotton tanked for a second time and the short boom period was gone The problem now was that with the Bank gone there was no way to regulate the huge depression that occurred This tragedy damaged the Democrats massively and the Whigs used this opportunity to wait for the next election Log Cabin Campaign 1840 The Whigs selected William Henry Harrison one of the Virginia wealthy elite as their candidate and spun his background into a lie about a harsh life that made him into the wellrespected war hero he was at the time The Whigs because they wanted to seem like they could be nonpartisan chose to balance the ticketquot by putting a man that opposed everything they believed as the VP John Tyler Harrison was woefully unqualified for the presidency and Tyler was an adamant states rights proponent so this was a big fup on the part of the Whigs The biggest issue came in the form of what would known as the Whig Fiasco of 1841 A Whig Fiasco For whatever reason Harrison had decided that he wasn t going to wear a coat or anything to protect him from the weather during the freezing rainy day that his inauguration got The moron caught pneumonia and died a month later This put Tyler a man who stood for everything that the Whigs did not as the President This complete and utter backfire threw the whole set into chaos Tyler and his supporters stalled and negated every idea and project that was not favorable towards their own interests and as such the Whigs got exactly the opposite of what they wanted Good luck on the test guys Hope this helps
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