PSYS 100 Exam 2 Study Guide
PSYS 100 Exam 2 Study Guide Psys 100
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maddie Butkus on Friday March 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psys 100 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Paul Biner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychological Science in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 03/25/16
3/25/16 10:47 AM Exam 2 Study Guide PSYS 100- Biner Ch. 7 – 11 Chapter. 7 – Learning Video Notes: “The Brain – Learning & Memory” 1) Two basic approaches to memory a) Look at nerve cells b) Look at people 2) Mouse Maze Experiment a) Removing less than 1/5 of the mouse’s cortex did not affect the mouse’s memory of the maze route b) Concluded that memories are not localized 3) Penfield’s Experiment -parts of the temporal lobe are stimulated particular memories are shown a) Penfield concluded that memories are stored in temporal lobe – He was wrong b) Memories are not in one spot – they are stored throughout the cortex wherever processing occurs 4) Learning to speak a) Most important is first two years of life b) When a child is 2 and shows proper speech skills it’s determined he had proper development – biological 5) Why don’t we remember certain times? a) Freud: repress these memories b) Study of amnesia: we don’t store these memories 6) Smell memories are the earliest memories that we have a) Like cut grass in the spring 7) Emotional simulations are easily recalled- most vivid a) The amygdala (takes in new memories) & hippocampus (stores new memories- “file clerk”) b) Like 9/11 or other traumatic events c) Damage to hippocampus blocks new memories from being stored, but you can recall old memories. i) EX: Peter (college basketball player) had endured specific brain damage and cannot remember new memories 8) Gary Lynch believe that learning new concepts leaves biological path through the brain * important research* a) Lynch found that certain cells grows new synaptic connections b) Learning forms new biological wiring of the brain Introducing healthy hippocampus tissue to old rats brains allowed the rats to remember the location of the podium – shows that there’s a possibility we can improve memory function (amnesia) in humans 2) Peter was able to regain his ability to recall new memories with a healthy brain 3) Long-term memory is limitless 4) Working-memory is short term: a) Up to 7 digits 5) -Video Notes (‘The Brain – Learning and Memory’) & Biner’s Information 6) Two basic approaches to memory a) Look at nerve cells b) Look at people Mouse Maze Experiment c) Removing less than 1/5 of the mouse’s cortex did not affect the mouse’s memory of the maze route d) Concluded that memories are not localized 7) Penfield’s Experiment -parts of the temporal lobe are stimulated particular memories are shown a) Penfield concluded that memories are stored in temporal lobe – He was wrong b) Memories are not in one spot – they are stored throughout the cortex wherever processing occurs 8) Learning to speak a) Most important is first two years of life b) When a child is 2 and shows proper speech skills it’s determined he had proper development – biological 9) Why don’t we remember certain times? a) Freud: repress these memories b) Study of amnesia: we don’t store these memories 10) Smell memories are the earliest memories that we have a) Like cut grass in the spring 11) Emotional simulations are easily recalled- most vivid a) The amygdala (takes in new memories) & hippocampus (stores new memories- “file clerk”) b) Like 9/11 or other traumatic events c) Damage to hippocampus blocks new memories from being stored, but you can recall old memories. i) EX: (college basketball player) had endured specific brain damage and cannot remember new memories 12) Gary Lynch believe that learning new concepts leaves biological path through the brain * important research* a) Lynch found that certain cells grows new synaptic connections b) Learning forms new biological wiring of the brain 13) Introducing healthy hippocampus tissue to old rats brains allowed the rats to remember the location of the podium – shows that there’s a possibility we can improve memory function (amnesia) in humans 14) Peter (Basketball Player) was able to regain his ability to recall new memories with a healthy brain 15) Long-term memory is limitless 16) Working-memory is short term: a) Up to 7 digits ▯ Chapter. 7 Learning – Lecture Notes ▯ ▯ Learning ▯ Learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experiences with out environment ▯ Three General types of Learning (Classical, Operant, Observational) 1) Classical Conditioning: most people have a fear response just sitting in a dentist’s chair! a) Why? i) We associate the chair with pain b) Ivan Pavlov 1927 i) Experiments with dogs outlined this type of learning (1)Food (natural or unlearned stimulus) -> (a)Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) -> (i) Salvation (natural or unlearned response) -> 1. Unconditioned Response (UCR) ii) Unconditioned = Unlearned iii) Stimulus that does not lead to UCR (Salvation) -> (1)Neutral Stimulus (NS) -> (a)DOES NOT lead to Unconditioned Response (UCR) -> iv) Know Acronyms!!! v) Pair NS (tone) with the UCS (food) repeatedly vi) After enough pairings… the NS will being to elicit the UCR (salvation) by itself! (1)NS -> CS (conditioned learned stimulus) (2)UCR -> CR (Conditioned learned response) c) Classical Conditioning occurs in humans too! i) In one study using humans, a puff of air was delivered to the eyes. (1)Before learning: (a)Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) puff of air to the eyes -> (i) Unconditioned Response (UCR) blinking/head jerk (b)Neutral Stimulus (NS) buzzer (i) Nothing (2)During learning: (a)Pair NS with UCS repeatedly (i) Buzzer -> puff of air -> blink (3)After learning (a)NS- buzzer -> CS (b)UCR – blink -> CR (4)Learned sequence that you didn’t associate before ii) Back to the dentist’s office (1)Before learning: (a)UCS – injection with long needle -> UCR -fear of pain (b)Neutral Stimulus – waiting room -> nothing (2)During learning: (a)Pair NS with UCS repeatedly (i) Waiting room -> injection -> fear(learned response) (3)After learning (a)NS -> CS (b)UCR -> CR iii) Same learned fear can be found with dogs and cats when they are taken to the Vet d) Evidence shows that classical conditioning occurs with cancer patients receiving chemotherapy i) Before learning: (1)UCS - heavy dose of chemotherapy -> UCR - Sever Nausea (2)NS – travel -> nothing ii) During learning: (1)Pair NS with UCS repeatedly (a)Traveling -> Chemo -> Nausea (b)Being in a car is going to make them throw up knowing they’re going to get Chemo iii) After learning: (1)NS- traveling -> CS (2)UCR – Nausea -> CR e) Three Important Variables in Classical Conditioning (2 test questions) i) 1. Magnitude of the UCS (1)The UCS (puff of air) must be sufficiently strong to elicit the UCR (head jerk/blink) ii) 2. Contiguity (or timing between receiving the NS and UCS) (1)For optimal learning, the NS should occur about ½ or .5 seconds before the UCS (a)Buzzer ½ second before air puff iii) 3. The number of times the NS has been paired with the UCS (1)The more times the NS (tone) and UCS (food) are paired during learning, the longer the learning will last. f) Four Important Properties of Classical Conditioning i) Extinction ii) Spontaneous Recovery iii) Stimulus Generalization iv) Stimulus Discrimination v) LOOK IN BOOK! 2) Operant Learning: “instrumental learning” a learning process in which the probability that an organism (human or animal) will emit a response is increased by the subsequent delivery of a reinforcer Note: the reinforcement is delivered after the response has occurred. This should increase the changes that the response or behavior will occur again. Behavior occurs -> reinforcement delivered Press bar -> get food/stop shock Two lines of research on operant conditioning: o 1. Shaping o 2. Superstitious behavior Shaping: process of reinforcing small behaviors step-by-step until the total desired behavior is performed o Often used to teach small circus and amusement park animals tricks. o Idea: to reinforce animal at each new stage until total behavior occurs! o Note: for larger animals (elephants, whales, dolphins), trainers must wait for natural behaviors to occur and then reinforcement must be immediate. Wait for the whale to jump then ring the bell every time they do it so it becomes on command. Superstitious Behaviors: initially documented when researchers found bizarre behavior sequences among chickens reinforced randomly. o Method: chickens were randomly administered food pellets during the night hours. o Results: the next morning each chicken displayed a unique sequence of very odd behaviors. o Conclusions: Accidental reinforcement – the behavior that happened right before the pellets were distributed was accidental and by giving them the pellets after the behavior they become associated. o In humans, superstitious behaviors are commonplace among sports figures. In fact, these “sports rituals” are sometimes very complex! What happens is that certain behaviors were accidentally reinforced in the past – so the player continues to perform those behaviors in similar situations. EX: baseball video. ▯ Lots of test questions from this lecture material! ▯ 1) Two types of reinforcement cont. a) Positive Reinforcement: the presenting of a rewarding (or pleasant) stimulus after a behavior has occurred. b) Negative Reinforcement: the removal of a negative (or unpleasant) stimulus after a behavior has occurred. i) The reinforcement in negative reinforcement is the termination of a painful stimulus ii) A good example of a negative reinforcement (1)Children often learn that, if they “overcry” at the start of spanking then the overcrying terminates a painful stimulus (spanking) (a)This is negative reinforcement 2) In sum: a) Both positive and negative reinforcement increase the probability that a certain behavior will happen again b) With positive reinforcement, get something good. c) With negative reinforcement, take away something bad. d) These are very different from… 3) Punishment: decreases the probability that a certain behavior will occur again. a) Primary Punishment: Punishment with stimuli that naturally cause pain i) Spanking a child ii) Shocking a rat b) Secondary Punishment: punishment with stimuli that are associated with the pain (but do not actually cause physical pain) i) A frown ii) A cold stare iii) Saying “no” loudly iv) Acting aloof v) A common type of secondary punishment (1)The removal of a pleasant stimulus (where something good is taken away) (a)Getting a traffic ticket (b)Grounded (c)No gaming for a week (d)Time out (2)This is NOT negative reinforcement (a)Remember… negative reinforcement involves the removal of an unpleasant stimulus. c) Is punishment effective? i) It does suppress simple behavior patterns for the short term. ii) BUT, punishment has two major drawbacks that should be considered: (1)When the punisher is absent, original behaviors often return quickly (“Denver- example”) (2)Punishment can only be used to suppress behavior! d) In other words, punishment only allows one to eliminate old behaviors, NOT teach new behaviors e) Research shows that punishment can be effective, but only under TWO conditions: i) Only secondary punishment should be used ii) Positive reinforcement should always be used along with the secondary punishment f) The combination of secondary punishment and positive reinforcement can be very effective in shaping behavior 4) Why we shouldn’t use primary punishment (especially with children)? 5) Data shows that, a) Approximately 80% of US adults agree that it is OK to spank a child “under certain circumstances” b) Problem? i) Research shows very clearly that it is “Not OK” to hit children ii) Spanking leads to some extremely negative consequences iii) Main Problem with using primary punishment: (1)Children imitate parental aggression! (a)People who use physical punishment with their kids (i) End up with children who will use physical aggression when they are parents. (ii)Had parents who used physical aggression with them. (iii) Children imitate their parents! ▯ PROFS MIDDLE NAME IS MARK!*** ▯ ▯ Learning: ▯ Imitation is a type of learning itself Our third type of learning (a type of learning which is very different than classical or operant conditioning). 3) Observational Learning (or modeling) a) Here, we learn behaviors simply by observing others engaged in those behaviors. b) Four important points regarding observational learning: i) Reinforcement is not needed for learning to take place. ii) Learning by watching or listening to others occurs and is not limited to humans. iii) People do not need to be actively engaged in a behavior to learn it (1)EX: brother gets in trouble you observe that and learn not to do it as well iv) Observational learning is not a simple process (1)It requires the study of thinking (cognitive processes). Mirror neurons have been implicated in the process (see text) (a)EX: Bobo doll experiment (Bandura – Stanford) Chapter. 8 Memory 1) Forgetting: forgetting is often through of in negative terms… a) Actually forgetting is a very positive phenomenon! b) It gets rid of the TRASH from our working memory (garbage disposal of the mind) c) One of the earliest research areas is forgetting dealt with a type of “partial forgetting” 2) Tip of the Tongue Phenomenon: a) First described by William James 1890 i) EX: you’re watching an old movie with a friend and she asks (1) What’s that actors name?? (a) You’re Certain you know the actor’s name, but can’t get at the…. (b) Memory Trace: this is the part of a neuron holding a given memory (i) Source of the problem? 1. The Retrieval Stage! a. So, how do we retrieve the memory? b. Idea… c. Use a memory trace that can be remembered d. The one you are sure is linked with the tract that holds the lost memory! e. They are both part of the same “cell assembly” f. If you can fire the linked trace(hopefully) it will fire the neuron with the lost memory and you remember! 2. Based on this logic…. 3. There are several methods for over coming tip-of-the- tongue phenomenon: a. Try to recall the face and voice of a person b. You can try to remember other movies the actor has been in c. Go through as many common male names as you possibly can d. Go through the alphabet phonetically. i. Perhaps a sound memory trace will be linked with the actor’s name e. Again, tip of the tongue phenomenon is a problem with retrieval of memory. ii) Forgetting is due to faulty processing in any one of the three stages of memory: (1)Problems can occur at: (a)Encoding Stage (b)Storage Stage (c)Retrieval Stage (e.g. tip of the tongue phen.) (2)Encoding Problems (a)Pseudo-forgetting (or false forgetting) (i) EX of pseudo-forgetting… 1. Draw the standard symbol for disabled parking a. This has never been encoded even though we’ve seen it a million times. b. Can’t remember exactly what it looks like (ii)Pseudo-forgetting isn’t really forgetting at all – it just seems like it. (iii) Pseudo-forgetting occurs when you try to retrieve (or remember) information that was never put into memory (or encoded) in the first place. 1. You just thought the memory was there (iv) So, you were trying to remember something that you never knew in the first place (3)Storage Problems (a)Decay: memories tend to fade with time. They become less clear/precise and are also subject to distortion (b)Interference: when other memory information interferes with or blocks a particular memory thereby causing you to forget (KNOW FOR EXAM) (i) Two types of interference: 1. Proactive interference- when prior learning interferes with something you have just learned. a. EX: study algebra- study psych – forget the psych 2. Retroactive interference- when new learning blocks out older information that you have learned. a. EX: study bio – study psych – forget bio (4)Retrieval Problems (a)Tip of the tongue phenomenon (b)Motivated/willful forgetting (aka memory repression – Freud) (c)Here we can’t retrieve information because we really don’t want too. (d)Sometimes the repression of a terrible even will take other important information with it (i) Called psychogenic amnesia (e)Amnesia can also occur from damage to the brain… (i) Called somatogenic amnesia (f) What about forgetting everything (totally everything) (i) Does it occur? (ii)Yes, but it is extremely rare! (5)IMPORTANT (a)Usually selective memory loss occurs with actual brain damage. (b)The type and extent of the memory loss depends on where and how badly the brain has been damaged. (i) Who has forgotten the number? 1. Point: active forgetting enhances memory! a. One of the most effective memory techniques is rehearsal 2. Goes back to the work of Herman Ebbinghaus in the 1880s 3. Showed that the more one rehearses stimuli, the better it is remembered 4. And… 5. Every time you tried to forget the number, you rehearsed it and embedded it deeper and deeper into your memory. 6. This often times happens with catchy songs! Chapter. 9 Thinking and Language Development 1) Stages of Language Development: a) Cooing Stage i) Even deaf babies coo b) Babbling/Echolalic Stage i) Gibberish – trying to recreate words/sounds they hear c) One word stage i) Owie, mommy, ball, no d) Telegraphic/Two-word stage (2yrs) i) Up-me, owie – hurt e) 2 ½ to 3 children explode to exploit thousands of words 2) Overgeneralization: when children apply grammatical rules to irregular verbs and nouns. a) To make past tense of a verb we add”ed” BUT not always i) EX: (1)Children say: “I goed to the store” “I runned” b) To make the plural of a noun we add s BUT not for all nouns i) EX: (1)Man becomes men (2)BUT, children will always use the rule (a)Man becomes mans 3) Video Research with Kids a) All children go through this stage (despite culture and environment) b) Deaf infants use the same processes c) Language environment has strong affect on language acquisition d) Child learns language from imitation of parents e) Parental reward/reinforcement for the use of children’s correct language helps in proper development f) Humans are biologically programmed to developed language g) Deaf children make the same grammatical mistakes as hearing children Chapter. 10 Intelligence 1) Intelligence: the ability to adapt to one’s environment (Socrates) a) Estimating someone’s intelligence level can be very difficult task! b) Why? i) We can’t always assume someone’s intelligence from their behavior ii) Some people demonstrate intelligent behaviors in one are but lack them completely in other areas c) So, what do intelligence tests measure i) Intelligence tests are, for the most part, a measure of your ability to succeed academically (that is they measure academic aptitude) ii) This, we often use other types of tests iii) Achievement tests – tests designed to measure how much information a person has learned about a topic (1)A good example are the tests we take in this course. d) Intelligence testing began in 1905 in France i) Alfred Binet ii) Theophile Simon iii) Goal: (1)To identify and target mentally challenged children in the French school system (2)One of the most influential IQ tests today is a direct result of Binet & Simon’s work. “Standford- Binet Intelligence Test” e) In early 1900’s intelligence scores of children were not recorded directly, byt rather, put into a quotient. f) (Mental age/ Actual Age) x 100 = IQ g) Highly intelligent child? i) 15/10 x 100 (1)IQ Test Development ii) Test: a standardized device designed to measure a person’s responses to a specific stimuli (which are typically problems and questions) iii) 3 important concepts in test construction: (1)Standardization (a)The process of developing a uniform, standard procedure for administering and scoring a test. (b)Rules must be established so that no test taker is given an unfair advantage (2)Norms (a)Test scores and corresponding percentile ranks of a large, representative sample of individuals. And, we compare your score to the norms. (b)Norms must be established using a representative sample (3)Representative Samples (a)A large sample of people that are representative of ALL people just like you (e.g., 18-22yr old English speaking males and females) (b)To be fair, we should only compare your score to people who are just like YOU (c)E.g., SAT’s are not required for college applicants older than 22 because there are no norms. Norms are constantly changing – only use HS GPA iv) Reliability and Validity (1)Reliability: stability or consistency of a set of test scores (a)A test is said to be reliable if it yields about the same score for the same individual in repeated testing. (b)Assessing test reliability: (i) Test-retest method: administer same test to the same individuals on two different occasions (ii)Alternate Forms: administer two different versions of the same test to the same individuals on two different occasions (iii) Split-Half Method: administer the test once and calculate individuals scores on each half of the test (2)Validity: a test has “validity” if it measures what it’s supposed to measure. A test should measure that and only that! (a)Thus, intelligence tests should measure intelligence and nothing else (not cultural, racial, or language experiences, socioeconomic status, gender, age, etc.) h) What is intelligence? i) Intelligence is probably a group of abilities as opposed to a specific ability ii) BUT, defining it has been extremely difficult (hundreds of definitions have been proposed iii) The most widely-accepted definition of intelligence was proposed by David Weschler iv) Intelligence is “the aggregate” or global capacity of the individual” to: (1)1. Act with purpose (2)2. Think rationally (i.e. logically) (3)3. Deal effectively with one’s environment v) Dealing effectively with the world involves: (1)Already having acquired a lot of knowledge and having the capacity to acquire new knowledge (2)This is why vocabulary breadth is often highly associated with intelligence (3)A large vocabulary not only reflects what has already been learned, but also enhances the capacity to learn new things. vi) People can act with purpose, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment in many different areas of their behavior (1)This notion has led to the idea that there are Multiple Intelligences (a)The most popular theory of multiple intelligence was proposed by Howard Gardner (i) Gardner proposed seven different types of intelligence 1. That is people can be intelligent in seven difference areas of their lives (ii)Seven Types: 1. Linguistic Intelligence: skilled in speaking, listening, reading and writing (poets, writers, trial lawyers, evangelists) 2. Mathematical Intelligence: people highly skilled in solving mathematical puzzles and equations, programming computers, analyzing statistical data (engineers, software specialists, Einstein) 3. Spatial Intelligence: people highly skilled in visualizing objects and themselves in 2 and 3 dimensional spaces, navigating from one location to another without difficulty (pilots, astronauts, architects, mechanics, chess masters, painters) 4. Musical Intelligence: people highly skilled in playing an instrument, composing music, appreciating the tonal qualities of sound (Mozart, Clapton, page, lennon) 5. Body- Movement Intelligence: people highly skilled in controlling gross and fine movements of the body. People highly successful at activities involving running, jumping, hunting, fighting, small detail work with hands (Olympic skaters, boxers, jewelers, surgeons) 6. Interpersonal Intelligence: people highly skilled at reading and understanding other people (leaders, ministers, rabbis, psychotherapists) 7. Intrapersonal Intelligence: people have great insight into their own thoughts, feelings, and actions (philosophers, theoreticians, theologians) vii) Cultural Biases in IQ testing: (1)Life experiences affect language experiences which affect performance on IQ tests (2)Based on this logic, some psychologists have argued that… (3)Certain groups of people (not exposed to the same education or life experiences as the white middle class) are bound to do poorly on IQ tests because of their “very different” life experiences. viii) In other words… IQ tests are culturally biased. ix) ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Chapter. 11 Motivation ▯ ▯ The Study of Motivation: An attempt to understand what causes us to choose our behavior, what energizes us to behavior, what maintains behavior and what stops behavior.. and all of the perceptual and attitude changes that accompany these stages. ▯ 1) ESSAY ALERT!! 4 major classes of Motivational Theory 2) Four Major Classes of Motivational Theory a) Drive Theories b) Expectancy Theories c) Cognitive Theories d) Humanistic Theories 3) Drive Theories: a) A set of theories that explain behavior by emphasizing the internal conditions of arousal (drives) which energize the seeking of maintaining of some goal (which is usually to re-establish a state of psychological well-being or homeostasis) i) EX: Food, Sex 4) Expectancy Theories: a) Explanations of motivated behavior that emphasize a person’s expectation to succeed and his/her need to achieve (learned drive) 5) Cognitive Theories: a) A set of theories that emphasize an individual’s choice regarding life goals and the means of attaining them (thinking/deciding are most important) 6) Humanistic Theories: a) Theories emphasizing the tendency of humans to strive to reach perfection, total self-acceptance, and self-actualization. b) Self-Actualization – The process of realizing one’s uniquely human potential for good. i) It is achieving everything that you are capable of achieving 7) NONE of the 4 types of theories alone can explain all motivated behavior 8) Drive Theory Example: a) Hunger Drive i) Most dieters agree that anyone can lose weight, but very few can keep it off. ii) Why? (1)Obesity changes the structure of fat cells and this lowers the level of energy expended. (2)The metabolic rate of obese e=people is not only lower than normal-weight people when they are awake, but also when they are asleep. iii) In order to understand obesity, psychologists have extensively studied the hunger drive. iv) What causes hunger? (1)Low Blood Sugar (glucose) (a)Blood sugar is needed for normal cell activity. When the blood sugar is low, the body sends signals to the brain and we feel hungry. (b)Hypothalamus controls feelings of hunger and eating behavior. (i) Lateral Hypothalamus: 1. “Start eating center” when stimulated, we feel hungry (ii)Ventromedial hypothalamus: 1. “stop eating center” when stimulated, we feel full v) So, do obese people have a stronger hunger drive than the rest of us? (1)Two popular theories of obesity say NO. (2)Physiological View of Obesity: (a)Several researchers have shown that the number of fat cells we will ultimately have as adults is genetically programmed from birth (and this will determine our weight as adults) (b)Body fat is stored in fat cells throughout the body (c)Obese people have been found to have three times the number of fat cells compared to normal-weight people. (3)Again, these researchers propose that it is our genetic makeup that determines the number of fat cells (4)However, the size of out fat cells appears to be determined by our nutritional experiences. (5)That is, by what and how much we eat. (6)So, people born with many fat cells (obese people) are more likely to stay fat for two reasons: (a)Dieting decreases the size of fat cells, but not the number of them (you cannot get rid of fat cells once they are there) (i) Problem? 1. Obese people have SO many fat cells throughout their bodies that shrinking them does not make a bit of difference in terms of weight loss (b)When dieting, the body automatically tries to maintain the size of fat cells at a constant level. (i) The body does this by naturally decreasing energy levels when food consumption goes down 1. People on diets often report fatigue 2. Set-point Theory: a. Energy In (Food) = Energy Out (Activity) (7)When dieters do start losing weight (by decreasing food intake and really increasing exercise levels) (a)Fat cells being to shrink (b)The body revolts (c)A “food deprivation state” is induced (8)This explanation of obesity is very compelling in that our data show that: (a)Most formerly overweight people report that they are constantly battling weight gain (b)50% of all people who lose weight will gain it ALL back within 3 years (99% will fain it back within 9 years) (i) Every concentration camp survivor of WWII returned to their original weight within one year of being released. (c)Each time you died, it will take longer to lose the same amount of weight and the weight will return faster. (i) The human body fights weight loss! (d)What about liposuction? (i) Liposuction will eliminate unwanted fat and weight but for the short-term only. 1. However, research shows that within 2-4 years, the remaining fat cells will expand in size to fill the void left by the removal of fat cells. 2. Individuals will return to the same weight and shape they were before the liposuction
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