DevelopmentWest Civilization HIST 242
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sigrid Braun on Monday October 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 242 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Allison Phillips in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see /class/229816/hist-242-university-of-tennessee-knoxville in History at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
1012009 121800 PM Midterm Study Guide 0 Old Regime aka Ancient Regime generally speaking Europe before the French Revolution gt Hierarchy consists of Nobility on Top I Peasants on Bottom I Merchants and Artisans 0 And the University educated professor 00 0 O Guilds association of craftsman oFa particular trade gave people certain rights to what they could make or sell gt Guidelines specified what artisan could make how much of it and also how many employees they could keep gt These Guilds had a very strong Fraternal social aspect ex Fests celebrations etc gt Technically to be a citizen of a town right to vote in the election you must be associated with a guild gt People of particular guilds generally shared religious relations and played a large role in govern m ent 0 0 Artisans seen as skilled manual laborers who make things both Fuctional and decorative gt Made many things on demandquot basis and were exchanged with their customers Face to Face gt Tended to Focus on his own skill his property and his notion of honor 0 Professionals anyone who is University educated 0 King Louis XIV of France aka the Sun King reigned 5 of century longest reign of any European monarch ever documented gt Extremely vain person thought himself to have divine right over France gt Established Absolutism and taxed his people heavily to gain money For himself used Nationwide Bureaucracy 0 0 Absolutism system of government in which the ruler claims absolute and uncontestable power NOT a Dictatorship CONTROL the goal was to expand territory and power ex King Louis XIV of France 0 Jean Domat recognized ethical and religious views plan was to set out a scheme of Christian law For France in a rationalist view Napoleon Code was in uenced by some of his ideals o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o o 0 Duc de Saint Simon Father was Friend oF Louis XIV so he was always involved in politics but he was also a writer wrote Memoirs From Versailles gt Also expressed an extreme distaste For Louis39s children possibly because they messed up su ccessi on Centralization Napoleon uniFied French Law throughout country reinForce importance oF Family and Men39s rights Court Culture element oF Absolutism New Nobility Nobility oF the Robe in France one oF the two ways For your Family to gain nobility wore uniForms that made yourselFlook useFul to the Crown Constitutionalism system oF government where Crown King and members oF an elected Parliament share control the government not necessarily Democracy varies on participation Enlightenment between 16d 18111 century belieF in Faith and Reason Accepted multiple religions History was moving Forward Commitment to progressdeemed hierarchy in social status irrelevant Cosmopolitan outlook on liFe Open Mindedquot 0 Good manners and eloquent speech developed and were valued had social clubs ex The Freemasons Voltaire French Enlightenment writer and deFender oF civil liberties Rousseau Major philosopher oF the 18m Century Enlightenment Jacobin member Freemasons very secretive exclusive social group oF Enlightenment said that ancestral history that can date back to biblical times 81 claimed roots in construction guilds neither are true Enlightened Despots tended to allow religious toleration Freedom oF speech and the press and the right to hold private property Most Fostered the arts sciences and education o 00 o 00 00 o o o 00 gt Fredrick the Great King of Prussia had been taught about the French Enlightenment and practiced it in private life but was very unsuccessful at actually implementing the ideals within his government Part of Seven Years War but was defeated gt Catherine 11 Queen of Russia Free Economic Society 1765 modernization of agriculture and industry Enlightenment leader but abused censorship laws Mercantilism economic doctrine in which governments must intervene to increase national wealth by whatever means possible by encouraging exports and discouraging imports notably through the use of tariffs and subsidies Trans Atlantic Slave Trade took Africans From northern and central Africa to North and South America via the Atlantic Ocean Very bad conditions Equiano Igbo Tribe member who was extremely influential in the passing of The Slave Trade Act of 1807 gt Traded as a young boy with his sister he went first to a nearby tribe to work but then eventually ended up in Virginia gt Learned to read and excelled in the Navy but was betrayed and sold to the West Indies by his Captain Adam Smith believed individuals interests naturally harmonized with those of the whole society he insisted individual self interest even greed was quite compatible with societies best interest gt rejected Mercantilism argued division oflabor in manufacturing increased productivity and generated more wealth For society and well being For the individuals ex When manufacturing process was broke down into separate operations workers could make one pen a day by themselves and could make 1000 by dividing their labor gt Developed Lassiz Faire Seven Years War World Wide series of battles between Austria France Russia and Sweden vs Prussia and Great Britain diplomatic revolution American Revolution last half of the 18m century Americans Felt bullied by British Parliament and wanted to rebel Acts against tyranny aka monarchy Estates General Structure of King Louis was composed of three estates clergy nobility and commoners decided by voting on laws and such but was very unfair because the commoners 0 0 0 0 0 o o o o 0 making up only 13 of the voting population and also only getting one vote could never overturn a unanimous decision between the clergy and nobles Declaration of Rights of Men and Citizen ended the estate system all men born equal purpose of government was to protect people and nation nation was source of sovereign power state power limited abolition of Feudalism and National Assembly kept King but outlawed guilds required clergy to sign an oath and put authority in hands of the people Guillotine thing that chops your head o i Robespierre Jacobins leader served as head of Committee For Public Safety the Convention members had Robespierre arrested also a Reign of Terror leader that was executed Counter Revolution people Jacobins who were supportive of something through one battle but change sides the next Thermidorian Reaction Robespierre and his council together sent 1300 people to death Reign of Terror Members of the Convention tried him For Grand Treason and beheaded him Napoleon Bonaparte most Famous Frenchman with an Italian background he was extremely smart and excelled in the military when he returned to France From the war he joined a conspiracy group to overthrow the Directory Governmentquot replaced this with a 3 man consulate He is ISt Consul in 1799 in 1802 he pronounces himself Consul For Life Stressed Administrative E iciency was a lot like King Louis XIV but he was a dictator first in the world Nationalism Focused solely on nation of France and uniting all parts Civil Code How people should behave publically made aware by Queen Victoria Paternalism Male dominated policy of hierarchy within a nation Crown acts like parents the first is the assumption that the more powerFul and the better OFF in any society have obligations towards the less powerful and the poor and the second is the set of informal expectations and codes of manners held by men about how to behave towards women Public sphere Masculine domain outside of home business aspect sphere
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