Second Lecture of Human Computer Interaction
Second Lecture of Human Computer Interaction CSC212
Comsats Institute of Information Technology
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This 34 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alina Mario on Friday March 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CSC212 at Comsats Institute of Information Technology taught by Yasmeen Khaliq in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Human Computer Interaction in ComputerScienence at Comsats Institute of Information Technology.
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Date Created: 03/25/16
Lecture 2 Human Computer Interaction COMSATS INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY In the last lecture Significance of HCI Truths about computers Feature shock Human computer nature Software Apartheid Software Quality levels In today’ s lecture Human psychology Human Information System Human cognitive psychology User as an information system Working of information system ◦Information comes in, ◦stored ◦processed ◦passes out Human Information System Three components of human information system ◦Input-output ◦Memory ◦processing Input/output ◦Vision ◦Auditory ◦Haptic ◦movement Memory ◦Short term ◦Long term ◦sensory Processing ◦Reasoning ◦Problem solving ◦Learning ◦Mistakes Input-Output channels Means of interaction with the outside world User’s output -> Computer’s input Computer’s output -> User’s input Human input channels Input Senses ◦Sight ◦Hearing ◦Touch ◦Smell ◦Taste Human output channels Output Effectors ◦Limbs ◦Finger ◦Eyes ◦Head ◦Vocal system Human Eye Mechanism of transforming received light into electric energy through receptors Detects light reflected from real world objects Forms an upside down image on retina Human visual perception Primary source of information Stages of perception ◦Reception ◦Interpretation/perception Visual Reception Visual Perception Notion of Visual Perception Size and depth ◦Visual angle ◦Visual acuity ◦Overlapping Brightness and color ◦Luminance ◦Visual Acuity increases with luminance ◦Hue, intensity, saturation Limitations of visual processing Limitations …. Limitations …. Optical Center Illusions Optical Illusions… Optical Illusions… Textual Vision Reading Stages of reading ◦Perceiving visual patterns ◦Decoding ◦Syntactic and Semantic analysis Negative vs. Positive contrast Human Auditory System Sense of Hearing Perceives sound waves ◦Distance ◦Direction ◦Objects Sections of ear ◦Outer ear (protects inner parts and amplifies sound) ◦Middle ear (transmit sounds) ◦Inner ear (causes impulses in auditory nerve) Sound Processing in ears Changes or vibrations in air pressure Characteristics of sound ◦Pitch ◦Loudness ◦Timber Filtering of sound Haptic Touch Works with stimulus received through the skin Vital sense for impaired persons Provides vital information about the surrounding environment Used in virtual reality systems Kinesthesis: awareness of the position of the body and limbs Memory Sensory Memory ◦Buffered memory ◦Depends on the stimuli coming into our senses Short term Memory ◦Working memory ◦Scratch pad for holding chunks of information Long term Memory ◦Main memory ◦Long term storage of information Processing: Thinking Reasoning ◦Inferring new information Problem solving ◦Finding a solution to an unfamiliar task Thinking: Reasoning ◦Deductive reasoning ◦Logical conclusions ◦May not be true ◦Inductive reasoning ◦Generalization of results of seen situations to unseen situations ◦Unreliable but useful ◦Abductive reasoning ◦The action and the cause of that action ◦unreliable Thinking: Problem solving Gestalt theory: ◦Problem solving is both productive and reproductive Problem Space Theory: ◦Space comprises problem states (initial and goal states) ◦Involves generating state transition operators ◦Heuristics may apply to choose operator to reach the goal Analogy: ◦Solving novel problems ◦Mapping knowledge of similar domain Skill acquisition and Errors Skill acquisition ◦Gradually acquire skills in particular domain ◦Conceptual activity ◦Information is more structured Errors ◦Slips ◦Poor skills ◦Mistakes ◦Incorrect understanding Emotion Emotion involves cognitive and physical responses to stimuli Emotion is our interpretation of a psychological response to a stimuli (James Lange) Emotion is the result of our evaluation of our psychological responses, in the light of the whole situation we are in (Schacter & Singer) Affects The biological response to physical stimuli is called affect “Negative affect can make it harder to do even easy tasks; positive affect can make it easier to do difficultD.A. Norman Conclusion Understand the psychology Consider problem context Understand particular problem conditions Use previously acquired information Correctly apply knowledge
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