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Humankind in the Biotic World

by: Treva Veum V

Humankind in the Biotic World BIOL 102

Marketplace > University of Tennessee - Knoxville > Biology > BIOL 102 > Humankind in the Biotic World
Treva Veum V
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E. Cantwell

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Date Created: 10/26/15
Bio 102 Exam 4 2 4162010 121400 AM CHAPTER 19 part 1 BIOLOGY 102 CANTWELL XIX THE EVOLUTION OF VERTEBRATE DIVERSITY Phylum Chordate A Chordate Phylogeny 1 slide What are the four distinguishing features of chordates 1 Dorsal hollow nerve chord spinal chord in us 2 Notochord stiff but exible Supportive longitudinal rod that runs between the digestive system and nerve cord backbone in us 3 Pharyngeal Slits may be used for feeding andor respiration Usually we only find them in the embryonic stage Gills 4 Muscular Postanal Tail Can you draw the phylogenetic tree naming all classes of chordates and without looking at the questions below Can you name and describe the shared derived character at each branch point Can you demonstrate divisions within the classes and name their specific characteristics which the questions below will ask for in more detail Can you do this without your notes in front of you The Simplest Invertebrate Chordates Marine Invertebrates o 1 Tunicates o Sessile 0 Adults have only the pharyngeal slits left but the embryos have all 4 features 0 Pharyngeal slits allow suspension feeding o 2 Lancelets 0 Suspension feed also 0 Adults have all 4 chordate features 0 Have a simple brain All animals have brains from now on Phylogenic tree of Vertebrate Diversity is based on anatomical molecular amp fossil evidence Shared derived characters play a huge role Define the following terms chordate craniatehave a skull vertebrate jawed vertebrate tetrapod amniote Which of the classes of chordates you listed above are included in each of these categories B Hagfishes and Lampreys 3 slides Describe hagfishes including habitat food sources and any distinguishing adaptations they may have They are the only craniates that are also invertebrates They are acting as a transition from the invertebrates to the vertebrates They are classified as vertebrate because they have a skull Skulls are in every animal from now on They have a prominent notochord Habitat Marine Food Sources eat dead fish and marine mammals Will eat live large marine invertebrate Disgusting adaptations 1 They have an escape mechanism in which they exude slime if they are agitated or caught When the slime mixes with water it turns into a gel and can clog gills and suffocate predator 2 They have a second adaptation in which they can tie themselves in a knot to remove gel from body They can also use the knot for leverage during eating Describe lampreys including habitat and food source What is unique about their mouthVertebrates craniates and chordates The rest of the animals from now on are truly vertebrates They are the most ancient vertebrate and have remained relatively unchanged overtime They are vertebrates with mostly notochord with some rudimentary vertebrate Habitat Freshwater Food Source The adult has a rasping tongue which can penetrate live prey and suck blood and tissue C Origin of Hinged Jaws 1 slide What is the prevalent hypothesis on how hinged jaws formedHinged jaws evolved from skeletal supports around the gill slitsThe gill slits were used for suspension feeding and gas exchange At the point of separation the gills were still used for gas exchange and the jaws were for eating What is the benefit of hinged jawsIt increased complexity because of the benefit of an increase in variety of possible prey D Fishes 3 slides What are the common characteristics of all fishesAll have jaws gills scales amp paired fins How do we subdivide the fishes Describe them including any subgroups and their characteristics 1 Cartilaginous Fishes sharks amp rays 0 They have a flexible skeleton made of cartilage o They have a very large brain when compared to bony fishes o Most ancient among fishes o A Sharks have a lateral line system in common which senses vibration They are found in the open ocean Some are suspension feeders but MOST are predators o B Rays live on the sea floor They are suspension feeders Many have stingers on their tails for defense 2 Bony Fishes c all bony fishes have a skeleton of calcified bones and cartilage o A Rayfinned fishes most diverse Fins are skeletal rays that are covered with skin and no flesh These are what most fish we think of fall under Lung derivatives from now on n 1 Operculum Acts as a pump and moves water over gills even when the fish is not moving Water must be moving over the gills constantly in order for gas exchange to occur a 2 Swim Bladder adjusts the depth at which the fish is swimming by filling up the air sac o B Lobefinned fishes have muscular fins that are supported by bones Three linages 1 Coelocanth 2 Lungfishes actually have lungs Can jump to different bodies of water 3 Tetrapod ancestor Give two examples of lung derivatives and name the types of fish in which they are found Operculum acts as a pump to move water over the gills for gas exchange The swim bladder is an air sac that fills up to adjust the depth at which they are swimming These are found in the rayfinned fishes What are the three lineages of lobefinned fishCoelocanth Lungfish Tetrapod ancestor E Origin of Tetrapods 1 slideA tetrapod is an organism with 4 limbs and feet What do we believe to be the common ancestor of all tetrapodsThe common ancestor of all tetrapods would be an amphibian similar to a salamander since they are the most ancient amphibians Hyp Tetrapods evolved from lobefinned fishes Fossil evidence that supports this has been documented very recently in 2006 Shared derived characters that we re interested in o Lungs vs gills o Fins o Neck o Limbs o Fingerstoes o Locomotor ability on land What types of adaptations were necessary for animals to move onto landGas exchange water conservation structural support reproduction sensing external environment amp locomotion Describe the major evolutionary trends we discussed in the evolution of tetrapods 1Pandericthys the first fishapod It has lost some of the fins it has a very small tail fin It maintains the presence of gills and lungs until Acanthostega 2 Tiktaalik lstfishapod with a neck neck will continue down the line Neck is major characteristic that differentiates fishes from tetrapods Has a fin foot which is a bone structure of a foot inside the fin Also has gills and lungs 3 Acanthostega has limbs with fingers and toes from now on The formation of the limbs was first It had a stronger backbone but not one strong enough for land yet Backbone is strengthening though Has gills and lungs 4 Ichtyostega 1St that is capable of locomotion on land From lobefinned on there are muscular appendages of some type Amphibians They are the most ancient tetrapods Tetrapods have limbs that allow movement on land Most embryos and larvae still develop in the water ex Tadpoles Adults may be terrestrial 3 Orders o Anurans frogs amp toads 0 Best adapted for movement on land 0 Frogs spend more time in water toads spend more time on land o Caudatessalamandars 0 Made up primarily of salamandars 0 Thought to be most closely related to lobefins The first tetrapods are thought to have resembled salamandars o Caecilians 0 Blind and legleSS but came from sightedlegged salamandar ancestors 0 They burrow in tropical moist soil 0 They adapted the blindness and leglessness it was not a trait that their ancestors had 0 Some can be extremely colorful Amniotes o Have an amniotic egg The embryos that develop in an amniotic egg are protected by membranes They develop directly into adult form There is no larval stage no metamorphosis They breed meaning they are capable of gas exchange They have mechanisms to deal with waste If not removing waste then they compartmentalize was te so 39that it does not harm the embryo Amniotic eggs survive out of water This is a huge leap forward The amniotes include both reptiles amp mammals 1 Reptiles They have several adaptations in common waterproof scales shelled amniotic egg Heat Source o Sauropsids are ectothermic They have to absorb external heat o Birds are endothermic meaning they produce their own heat Metabolic rate is so high and heat is a constant byproduct Sauropsids 1 Crocodilians o largest living reptiles o spend most of their time in the water but they breathe air 2 Tuatara o 2 species that live in New Zealand 3 Squamates o include the lizards and the snakes o most diverse group contains numerous species o snakes evolved no limbs 4 Turtles and Tortoises Turtles spend more time in water tortoises spend more time on land Most ancient sauropsids They have a hard shell that is developed from a modification of their ribs 5 Dinosaurs o Extinct o They are the most diverse reptiles that ever inhabited land o Include the largest animals ever on land Birds Hyp Some Theropod dinosaurs survived the Cretaceous Mass Extinction Archeopteryx considered to be the oldest extinct bird for now Recent evidence shows that theropods had feathers This indicated that feathers evolved before powered flight They would have allowed birds to glide then could have been coopted for flight Birds have LOTS of adaptations that aid flight Flightnessness is also an evolved trait 2 Mammals They are endothermic amniotes with hair Hair serves as insulation Endothermics require a lot more food Snakes that are ECTOthermic only have to be fed once a week or so They have mammory glands that produce milk They have a larger brain Found only in mammals o Hair Milk o Mammory glands o Sweat glands o Diaphragm o L39arge brain A Mono tremes o Oldest lineage of mammals o Lay eggs this sets them apart from the other mammals o Ex Platypus B Therians o They have external ears helps funnel sounds into their inner ear o Have ankles o Most can suck at a nipple but there are exceptions for everything o Viviparous meaning they give birth to live young o 2 groups 0 1 Marsupials embryos are born live but they complete development attached to a nipple in a pouch By far they are most diverse in Australia and New Zealand The Opossum lives in N Amer amp S Amer o 2 Eutherians they have a placenta that nourishes the developing young found on all continents and in all oceans Very widespread 4162010 121400 AM Bio 102 Final Exam 1 NEW 4282010 50400 PM CHAPTER 35 BIOLOGY 102 CANTWELL XXXV BEHAVIORAL ADAPTATIONS TO THE ENVIRONMENT A Introduction 2 slides Define behavior everything an animal does and how it does it and behavioral ecology The study of behavior in an evolutionary context What two kinds of questions do behavior ecologists consider 1 Proximate Questions asks about the IMMEDIATE causes of behavior 2 Ultimate Questions looks at the evolutionary causes of behavior Why did this behavior develop What was the selective pressure What types of behaviors does natural selection preserveIt preserves behaviors that increase fitness meaning it preserves behaviors that increase an individual s ability to reproduce B Fixed Action Patterns 1 slide What is a fixed action pattern Unchangeable sometimes complex innate behaviors Would you recognize an exampleYes The behaviors must be completed from start to finish They may be formed correctly without practice What is a sign stimulus Simple cues that trigger fixed action patterns FAPs Would you recognize an exampleEx A duck seeing one of her eggs outside of the nest She then has her FAP which is rolling it back to the nest She has to run through this movement start to finish even if a human removes the egg from under her She still continues to roll the egg back What is the benefit of fixed action patternsIt enables the completion of a task that is necessary for survival without having to take the time to think or learn This maximizes fitness Behavior at its most basic is innate and unlearned C Nature vs Nurture 2 slides Describe briefly the debate citing examples Nature The Drosophila fruit fly has genes that govern courtship amp other mating behaviors The gene fruitless encodes a protein that is found in males that allows them to court females In lab experiments1 Male fruitless mutation meaning male fly no longer produces a useful copy of that protein this results in males courting other males 2 If you take a female and give her fruitless then she will attempt to court other females So there is strong evidence that naturegenetics plays a major role in behavior Male visually recognizes female Male extends chemicals and vibrates detected by wing producing the male s V V a courtshi sense of smell son Orienting Tapping quotSingingquot g Nurture Using the rat example we can examine crossfostering Some mothers are highly interactive mothers and their offspring often become interactive mothers as well Also some mothers are not interactive thus having offspring that are not very interactive mothers With crossfostering taking some offspring and switching mothers at birth we find that these behaviors that appear to be genetic are strongly influenced by environment Highinteraction mother Lowinteraction mother Pups become fearful adults Pups become relaxed adults 4 39 N w v Female pups become lowinteraction mothers Female pups become 7 highinteraction Crossfostering im t nu Pups become relaxed adults 3 L Pups become fearful adults IfI were to present you with an example would you be able to tell me whether I was describing the effects of nature or nurture In reality are behaviors more influenced by nature or nurtureBoth are extremely important D Learning 8 slides Define learning A change in behavior resulting from some experience and habituation Learning to ignore a repeated unimportant stimulus Would you be able to identify a case of habituationTo study animals in their nature state they have to become habituated to your presence otherwise they won t act normal Define imprinting Irreversible learning It is usually limited to a sensitive period during development What is the sensitive period A short stage during early development Would you recognize different examples of imprintingThere were some examples that were given that could be called types 1 offspring can imprint on their parents 2 parents can imprint on their offspring 3 offspring can imprint behaviors from their parents 4 offspring can imprint on their hatching grounds Describe the steps captive breeding programs must take in order to provide proper imprinting models They need to know what information a particular species learns by imprinting and make sure they provide something that accomplishes it What improper model did we discuss in classWhooping cranes both in terms of recognizing their own species and migrating Define kinesis and taxis Two types of movement do not require learning 1 Kinesis random movement in response to a stimulus Ex Stop start turn change speed 2 Taxis automatic movement directed towards or away from a stimulus EX 0f taxis shown below What is spatial learning Using landmarks chemical trails amounts of sunlight etc to move through an environment This is more complex Describe the wasp experiment that demonstrated use of spatial learning Some wasps and Europe burrow in the ground When they get out of their burrow in the morning they fly out and circle around the nest a few times They do this to learn the spatial environment so they know what to come back to What did it tell us Complex learning can use visual cues Would you recognize another example What is a cognitive map A more complex version of spatial learning involves cognitive m aps They are neural repreSentations of spatial relationships of objects in the surroundings What group of animals regularly uses cognitive maps Migratory animals They have to remember lots of details to be able to migrate from one place to another Its very important from them to use cognitive maps sun stars coastlines landmarks Earth s magnetic fields etc What evidence is there suggesting that cognitive maps are geneticYou can do an experiment with migratory birds You put them in a cone with paper all in it and an ink pad in the bottom When it comes time for them to do their migratory behavior they scratch and try to fly in the direction of migration We can tell what direction they set themselves in by the ink prints Even in a paper cup with very little cues they are able to orient themselves Also monarch butterflies are able to migrate from Seattle all the way to central Mexico However one butterfly can t y all the way They will fly part of the way reproduce die Those offSpring will keep going reproduce die and so on How do they know where to go and how to get back It is suggested that it s genetic What is associative learning A particular stimulus or response which is linked to a reward or punishment What are some ways of testing associative learning in the laboratory Skinner box You operate a lever get a treat Repeat repeat repeat What do we call associative learning in natural settingsTrial and error learning An animal LEARNS to associate a behavior with a positive or negative effect What is social learning Change in behavior that results from the observation amp imitation of others In what ways do predators use social learning They learn to hunt from mommy Describe the Vervet monkey example including the task being learned the manner in which it was learned and the reward or punishment involved in the learning of the task Vervet monkeys of Kenya have different alarm calls for different predators Infants learn to make these calls by mimicking adults They receive social confirmation when they do it correctly Would you recognize other examples of social learning What is cognition The ability of an animal s nervous system to perceive store process and use information What is problemsolving behavior Involves complex cognitive processing ability to apply past experience to novel situations Would you recognize an exampleRecognizing problems and finding a creative way around it E Foraging Behavior 1 slide Define foraging Identifying obtaining and eating food What is a generalist They will eat basically anything A specialistEat only specific types of food Into which of the two groups do most animals fitMost animals are somewhere in between Example Impalas prefer grass but if no grass is available they will eat other shrubs What does optimal foraging theory state An animal s feeding behavior that maximizes energy gain and minimizes energy expenditure and risk Would you recognize an illustration F Communication 1 slide Define signal Stimulus sent from one animal to another Animal to animal and communication Sending of reception of and response to signals Therefore signals are tailored to the species What types of signals are used by nocturnal animals Sounds and smells Diurnal animals Sights and sounds Aquatic animals Sight electrical signals chemical signals sound can travel great distance in waterWhat does the complexity of communication indicate about social organizationEvolutionary advancements have made receiving sightsounds faster Communication is evolving to be more complex and efficient G Mating Behavior 2 slides What is a courtship ritual A mating behavior It s a series of behavioral or physical display What does it advertise Species verify sex confirm willingness to mateIn what different groupings may one occurWhat is the typical outcome of group courtshipOne or both sexes choose from a group of candidates Often best 10 of chosen sex are chosen What are the three basic mating systemsPromiscuous Monogamous and Polygamous Why the different systems Needs vary For what evolutionary purposes might they have evolved ExplainFor needy offspring monogamy is beneficial With independent offspring polygamy is found This increases the males contribution to the gene pool Promiscuity is rare It occurs in populations where territory is not guarded and no traits are favored particularly in unpredictable environments H Sociobiology 4 slides Define sociobiology The study of interactions of 2 or more animals in an evolutionary sense What is territorial behavior Parcels out resources and space Defends from others of SAME species What are territories used for Feeding mating rearing offspring How is ownership advertisedOwnership is constantly advertized Ex verbally scent markers What is agonistic behaviorThose behaviors which cause threaten to cause or seek to reduce physical damage or injury to an individual animal Agonistic behavior is made of a suite of three different divisions of behaviors threats aggression and submission How much of a factor is combat and why is that a good thing What is the point of agonistic behaviorHow permanent is the outcome of a contestAgnostic behavior settles disputes where death is likely to occur Threats rituals and rarely combat Disputes seldom are refought What is a dominance hierarchy Pecking order It is maintained by agnostic behavior It partitions resources among members of a social groups How are dominance hierarchies determined In times of plenty everyone gets stuff In times of want the alpha gets dibs Sometimes the omega gets nothing What is the purpose of a dominance hierarchy Strongest survive Define altruism Behavior that reduces an individual s fitness Increases the fitness of other in a population kin selection Helping close relatives survive to reproduce because they share the same genes and allelesWhat is the difference between inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism Inclusive fitness is when an individual increases fitness notjust by reproduction but also by kin selection Reciprocal altruism occurs when an individual does favors for nonrelatives so that they may later be repaid How do populations maintain altruism if the altruistic are usually killed off One would presume particularly in kin selection that the altruism genes also exist in those that were saved Basically anyone could have thrown themselves under the bus it39s whoever sees the danger firstHow does altruism benefit the population What about the individuaThe population benefits because more individuals survive attack The individual benefits by insuring the survival of close relatives What distinguishes humans from one anotherComplex traits How is human social behavior affected by nature vs nurture What kinds of studies may be used to probe this question What specific example did I mentionIn studies of identical twins being raised apart and fraternal twins being raised together it was shown that both genes and the environment play a major role in shaping behavior Cultural pressures also play a role They determine how we communicate settle disputes and find life partners From an evolutionary standpoint what traits were most likely favored in humansNatural selection favors mechanisms that enables humans to adjust their behavior as needed using experience amp an ability to read the environment 4282010 50400 PM Bio 102 Final Exam 2 NEW 572010 42800 AM CHAPTER 37 BIOLOGY 102 CANTWELL XXXVII COMMUNITIES AND ECOSYSTEMS A Introduction 1 slide Define community The sum of all populations inhabiting a particular area having the potential for interaction and ecosystem Includes a community and the abiotic factors in which it interacts B Major Features of Communities Interspecific Interactions 6 slides Define interspecific interaction Relationships of individuals of different species in a community How are they classifiedBased on the effect they have on the individuals involved Define ecological niche A species total use of biotic and abiotic resources interspecific competition Competition between individuals of different species within a community It is mainly a competition for resources When does interspecific competition occur It occurs when a shared resource is limited Could you recognize an illustration You have two different types of warbler species If you consider the area that they overlap and you remove individuals from one species the other species has a population burst Vice versa In what way does interspecific competition negatively impact the populations involvedIt is considered a interaction because competition limits the sizes of both populations Define mutualism A symbiotic relationship in which both partners benefit It is a relationship symbiotic relationship An interaction between 2 or more species that live in direct contact commensalism One species benefits without significantly affecting the other Ex Barnacles living on the back of a hump back whale It doesn t hurt the humpback but it s not positive either Could you recognize illustrations of them all How do they affect the populations involved Define predation interaction Occurs when one species predator kills and eats another prey How are adaptations to predatorprey relationships refined They have been refined by natural selection What are some predator adaptations Claws teeth fangs poison stingers Prey adaptations Color patterns camouflage mimicry King snake has a similar color pattern to the coral snake mechanical defenses oysters have a tough shell and is hard to open chemical defenses poison arrow frog Could you recognize an example Define herbivore An animal that eats plants or algae What are some herbivorespecific adaptations Insects have chemical sensors on their feet They can determine from this whether or not the plant can be utilized as a food source They also have mouth parts adapted for shredding and sucking leaves Vertebrates have specialized teeth very flat and specialized digestive systems It gives them the ability to break down the cellulose found in plant material and use it for energy They also have a heightened sense of smell How have plants evolved in response Because they cannot run away they have adapted to produce toxic chemicals spines and thorns What is coevolution In the context of both predation and herbivory a new adaptation in one species acts as a selective pressure to another Could you recognize an example of herbivory Define parasite An organism that lives on or in a host species It obtains food from the host pathogen Microscopic parasites They are disease causing agents What type of relationship might you say they form with their host What types of parasitehost will natural selection always favor Natural selection will favor skilled parasites and hosts that avoid parasitism How do parasites affect a community or ecosystem as a wholeEffects they have on communities and ecosystems are not well understood but as genetic information increases we are finding out more C Major Features of Communities Trophic Structure 2 slides What is trophic structure The pattern of feeding relationships within a community Trophic level Quaternary Hawk consumers Killer whale Snake Tertiary M I t 7 Tuna consumers i ll Mouse Herring Grasshopper Zooplankton Plant i Producers Phytoplankton A x 4 A terrestrial food chain An aquatic food chain How may it be represented Represented by food chains Define detritivore Animal scavengers fungi prokaryotes What is the function of a detritivore They decompose waste and recycle the nutrients into the ecosystem What is a food web Interconnecting food chains Why does a food web portray a more realistic view of trophic structure in a community A consumer may eat more than one kind of producer or perhaps a mix of producers and consumers Species can be on multiple levels depending on what they eat With a food web you can connect everything Why don t food chainswebs include detritivoresThey are not shown because they decompose on all levels Quaternary terti I Producer plants D Major Features of Communities Species Diversity 2 slides What are the two components of species diversity 1 Species Richness number of different species present Diversity increases with more species 2 Species Evenness based on the relative abundance of the species present is equal between the species IfI described two communities could you tell me which was more diverse What are the two major benefits of increased diversityPromotes greater diversity of animal communities and also presents a barrier to pathogens and parasites Ex A parasite can cause sudden oak death In a forest full of oak trees the parasite has to go through barriers of other diversity to get to the oak trees Also is species evenness TABLE 37 1D What is a keystone predator A species that is crucial for the maintenance of a particular food web What effect does the removal of a keystone predator have on community dynamics Removal causes major changed in community dynamics For example Kelp is a very important producer in marine habitats Kelp is eaten by sea urchins Sea urchins are eaten by sea otters and sea otters are very recently being eaten by orca killer whales Orcas prefer seals or sea lions but have started eating sea otters instead Sea otters are now declining in number so now the sea urchins can increase in number Now the sea urchins need more kelp and so the amount of kelp goes down Since orcas have shifted to a sea otter diet there has been a drastic reduction in kelp This is bad because the producer is being reduced so what you see in areas of decreased kelp is low species diversity Could you recognize an example ifI gave you one E Major Features of Communities Disturbance 1 slide What is a disturbance Events that damage biological communities What effect might a disturbance have on a community They will do this by removing organisms from them and altering the availability of resourcesDefine ecological succession A transition in species composition of a community following a disturbance primary succession The gradual colonization of barren rocks barren rocks are colonized by lichens Lichens facilitate the production of soil Once soil is laid down on top of these rocks small plants and weeds will begin to form Their diversity and complexity will increase over time Primary Succession Pioneer Speclas hundreds at years secondary succession Occurs after a disturbance has destroyed the community but not the soil For example fire Basically the difference here is that the succession starts on soil and not on rock l l Plonser Species 0 years 1392 years 3 4 years F Major Features of Communities Invasive Species 1 slide Define invasive species Introduced species that become invasive How does an invasive species affect the habitats they invade They can completely destroy the food web They colonize and damage every suitable habitat they can find They alter nativeinterspecies interactions Could you recognize an illustration Australia in the 1950 s The bunnies were introduced and destroyed grasslands farmland grazing land This led to soil erosion They also burrowed in the cows grazing lands and many cows broke their ankles from stepping in them This hurt the farming industry Also the bunnies competed against the native marsupials for resources Why is biological control of invasive species challengingThey introduced a lethal bunny virus and released it to the population It only attacked the rabbits Coevolution followed The result was a less fatal virus and a more resistant bunny Therefore there was a balance and the bunny population was able to go back up G Ecosystem Ecology 6 slides What are the two key components in the study of ecosystem ecology Describe energy flow through an ecosystem Describe nutrient cycling through an ecosystem 1 Energy Flow shown by yellow and red arrows ONE WAY Comes in as sunlight makes its way through the food chain and is released as heat It is one way We cannot reuse energy 2 Nutrient Cycling chemical cycling used interchangeably Nutrients chemical nutrients are found in the soil water air They are used to produced food molecules by plants The nutrients get locked in the plants and then the plants get eaten by the first consumer and they acquire the nutrients The nutrients continue down the food chain until everything dies and then after decomposition the nutrients are released back into the soil which can then be reused by producers quotiE l ci f 7 7 m yellggi 7 i 395 Bacteria and fungi Define biomass The living organic matter in an ecosystem and primary production The rate at which producers convert sunlight to chemical energy stored in biomass Open ocean Estuary Algal beds and coral reefs Desert and semidesert scrub Tundra Temperate grassland Cultivated land Boreal forest taiga Savanna Temperate deciduous forest Tropical rain forest I l l I 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Average net primary productivity gmZyr True or False All habitats produce roughly the same amount of biomass per unit area Explain False The chart points out that some ecosystems produce more than others PER UNIT AREA Food is organic matter that we do 2 things with Amend our biomass add fat add protein etc and use it to produce energy Why is meat a uxuryMost chains are limited to about 35 levels because there is simply not enough energy to continue This also explains why meat is a luxury There is far more energy available to us if we eat a corn than if we eat the cows that ate the corn You have to produce the cows then eat the cows and get far less energy than you would have had if you had have just eaten the corn So basically raising meat requires more resources Explain how energy supply changes as you ascend the trophic structure of a communityWe don t digest 100 of what we eat The amount of usable energy diminishes with each trophic level Rule of thumb In truth for every organism that you eat you ll only use about 10 of the energy available 10000 kcal Human vegetarians Producers What two resources do nutrients cycle between Organisms and abiotic reservoirs Do all nutrients have the same cycleThe organisms and the abiotic reservoirs involved vary What does chemical cycling depend uponIt depends on the integrity of the food web 39 Abio c reservoir 1 j Geologic processes V Nnrogeri fixation quot r d 7 Decomposmon cyanobacteria rogen xat an r C02 in atmosphere 5 3 i I 39 LWastes death PlanAi 1er death Deco a g Em 572010 42800 AM Bio 102 Exam 4 1 4152010 55500 PM CHAPTER 18 part 2 BIOLOGY 102 CANTWELL XVIIITHE EVOLUTION OF INVERTEBRATE DIVERSITY D Kingdom Animalia 1 slide We are looking at just one possible tree of animal phylogeny What is our tree based uponBecause animals diversified so quickly it is very hard to look at just the fossil recordPhylogenetic tree is based mainly on body plan and embryonic development Define the following terms Eumetazoans true animals Most animals are invertebrates Chordates is the only phylum that includes vertebrates There are some invertebrates within the Chordates also Bilaterians 3 axes topbottom leftright headtail They are usually active and move head first through environment Sense organs tend to be around headmouth Deuterostomes first opening becomes the anus but second opening forms later to make the mouth Protostomes first opening becomes the mouth E Asymmetrical and Radial Animals 2 slides Phylum Porifera What does dogma state is the most ancient phylum of animalsPhylum Porifera What is the common name of animals in Phylum Porifera Sponges What are the general characteristics of poriferans no true tissues acoelate asymmetrical sessileGreeks thought they were plants defensive toxins and antibiotics most are marine but they all live in aquatic habitats What is the body form of poriferans canbe very large walls of sponge are composed of 2 layers of cells o Amoebocytes digest food outer layer o Choanocyte trap food inner layer perforated by pores What is the ecological role of poriferansThey are filter feeders and clean the water The water is usually crystal clear where sponges are found How does their feeding mechanism aid them in this roleThey pull water in through the pores and trap it in the central cavity The Choanocytes grab the food molecules and send them to the Amoebocytes to digest it and once they are done with that water they eject it back out through an exit Phylum Cnidaria What are the characteristics of animals in Phylum Cnidaria includes organisms that have radial symmetry acoelate they have 2 true tissue layersfound in all animals forward simple muscles and nervesfound in all animals forward have tentacles with stinging cells for defense amp predation some have toxins some deadly like the Sea Wasp some secrete a hard external skeleton What two body forms do cnidarians take 1 Polyps for the most part tend to be stationary 2 Medusal freely moving Have in most cases a mouth ampgastrovascular cavity different from coelum o Standard jellyfish o Gastrovascular cavity is for both digestion amp circulation Also helps maintain shape Does their frequency of movement correlate to their body forms How do cnidarians eat Take water in through the mouth and once they close their mouth they trap water in the gastrovascular cavity and remove food molecules from the water and then spit the water back outWhat two major structures are involved Is the only purpose of those structures for eatingdigestingNo it is also used for circulation of nutrients and to help maintain shape Why are corals hardSome secrete a hard external skeleton F Bilaterians 1 slide What are the two characteristics that all bilaterians have in common bilateral symmetry true tissues have embryos with 3 germ layers What two groups not phyla of animals are bilateral according to our phylogenetic treeProtostomesampDeuterostomes G Protostomes 8 slides Name the five protostome phyla we discussed Phylum Platyhelminthes worm group 1 What are the animals in Phylum Platyhelminthes commonly called Flatworms What are the general characteristics of platys acoelate 1 mm20 m long have a gastrovascular cavity more complex with intricate branches still only has one opening Water enters amp exits through the mouth What are the three major groups of platys 1 Planarians free living 2 Flukes parasites of animals 3 Tapeworms parasites of animals Have a scolex specialized hooks that help them latch onto intestines Where do they liveAquaticdamp terrestrial habitats Phylum Nematoda worm group 2 What are animals in Phylum Nematoda commonly called Roundworms What are the general characteristics of nematodes pseudocoelum can fill this with nutrient fluid to help distribute nutrients and also acts as a hydroskeleton have a mouth came from first opening amp an anus covered by a tough nonliving covering called a cuticle They molt amp secrete a new cuticle when needed decomposers of water and land some parasites of animals What are their two major habitats Important decomposers of both aquatic and terrestrial habitats What specific nematode parasites of animals did we discussHookworms and heartworms Phylum Mollusca Describe the general body plan of the animal from Phylum Mollusca all have the same general body plan in common all have a muscular foot that helps them move have a mantle that forms a cavity around the visceral mass so there is a true coelum from now on shell gets secreted by the mantle used for protection feed with a specialized structure called a radula It makes it easy to scrape algae off of rocks heart complete circulatory system for the circulation of nutrients What are the three types of molluscs that we discussed What animals are found in each What are the common characteristics of molluscs from each class Squid and octopuses are adapted to be agile predators explain How do you tell the difference between the two 1 Bivalves anything that has a shell in two halves that is hinged clams oysters scallops 2 Gastropods include snails and slugs 0 Very diverse habitats both aquatic amp terrestrial o Snails have a single spiral shell o Slugs have evolved no shell 3 Cephalopods squid and octopus o Adapted to be very agile predators with these adaptations 0 Large brains 0 Complex sense organs o Squid o 10 tentacles 0 small internal shell 0 live in open water 0 move by jet propulsion use mantle cavity for movement 0 very smart o Octopus o 8 tentacles o no shell lost it in lineage 0 live on ocean bottom 0 uses its foot to move 0 very smart Phylum Annelida worm group 3 What are the general characteristics of animals in Phylum Annelida also have separate digestion amp circulation found in all animals from now m segmentation a series of repeated parts that allows increased flexibility and mobility 1mm3m long What subgroups of Phylum Annelida did we discuss Did I mention any characteristics 1 Earthworms break up soil digest leave behind nutrients They eat their way through soil 2 Leeches most are free living but some are parasitic They were used for medical purposes to remove toxins from blood They have a very powerful anesthetic in their saliva and also have anticoagulant so blood won t clot 3 Polychaetes may be free living or tube worms Marine worms They have very elaborate appendages that are used for movement feeding and gas exchange How are leeches still being used for medical purposes todayWhen reattaching a limb they will use leeches to stimulate bloodflow Phylum Arthropoda What are the general characteristics of animals in Phylum Arthropoda truecoelom overwhelmingly the most successful animal phylum in terms of numbers segmented but are more defined with a head thorax and abdomen have jointed appendages increases mobility have exoskeleton made of chitin and proteins It s particularly thick around the head and thin at the joints Molt they secrete their exoskeleton themselves What four subgroups of Phylum Arthropoda did we discuss specificallyWhat are the characteristics of organisms in those subgroups What types of organisms are in those subgroups How do you tell a millipede from a centipede 1 Myriapods o resemble worms o have jointed legs 0 a Millipedes have 2 pairs of legs per body segment Eat decaying plant matter o b Centipedes have 1 pair of legs per body segment They are poisonous carnivores 2 Chelicerates o named after their mouthparts chelicerata spider o a Horseshoe crabs one of the most ancient animals relatively unchanged 0 b Arachnids spiders scorpions mites ticks They are terrestrial carnivores except mites which are scavengers 3 Crustaceans o nearly all aquatic o they have as a group biramous appendages appendage that has 2 parts Ex lobster claw o include lobster crab shrimp barnacles 4 Hexapods o have 6 legs o almost entirely composed of insects o live everywhere terrestrial freshwater air o legs arranged in 3 pairs o most have wings o 3 basic body parts define orders of insects mouthparts legs wings How do you tell different types of insects apartMouthparts legs amp wings H Deuterostomes 3 slides Phylum Echinodermata spiny skin What specific animals are classified in Phylum Echinodermata Seastars sand dollars sea urchins What are the general characteristics of echinoderms have a true coelum which is a from now on that started with molluscs slow moving or sessile radially symmetrical as adults bilateral during larval stage Indicates that they came from a bilateral ancestor comparative embryology Spiny skin extensions of endoskeleton under thin skin have a Water Vascular System a network of waterfilled canals that end in tube feet little suction cups Used for feeding locomotion or respiration DOES NOT INCLUDE ANIMALS THAT EXCRETE EXTERNAL SKELETON How do larvae differ from adults The larvae are bilateral and the adults are radial Where do those spines and bumps come from They are extensions of the endoskeleton under thin skin What is unique about the water vascular systemIts used not only for feeding but also for movement and respiration Phylum Chordata What are the four distinguishing features of organisms in Phylum Chordata Describe them Give the general characteristics of tunicates and lancelets 1 Dorsal hollow nerve chord spinal chord in us 2 Notochord stiff but flexible Supportive longitudinal rod that runs between the digestive system and nerve cord backbone in us 3 Pharyngeal Slits may be used for feeding andor respiration Usually we only find them in the embryonic stage Gills 4 Muscular Postanal Tail Big questions Can you recognize illustrations of different types of invertebrates Can you compare and contrast groups of invertebrates Can you group organisms not only by their phyla but also by their characteristics INVERTEBRATES I II PHYLUM PORIFERA Sponges EUMETAZOANS PHYLUM CNIDARIA o SpeciesSubgroups hydra sea anemone coral sea wasp jellyfish BILATERIANS PROTOSTOMES PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES Flatworms SpeciesSubgroups Planaria Flukes blood flukes Tapeworms PHYLUM NEMATODA Roundworms SpeciesSubgroupshookworms heartworms PHYLUM MOLLUSCA i Gastropods Subgroups snails slugs ii Bivalves Subgroups clams mussels scallops oysters iii Cephalopods Subgroups squid octopus PHYLUM ANNELIDA Subgroups earthworms leeches polychaetes PHYLUM ARTHROPODA i Myriapods Subgroups millipedes centipedes ii Chelicerates Subgroups horseshoe crabs arachnids iii Crustaceans Subgroups lobster crab shrimp barnacle iv Hexapods Subgroups insects Order Coleoptera DEUTEROSTOMES PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA Subgroups Sea stars sand dollars sea urchins PHYLUM CHORDATA i Tunicates ii Lancelets No the tissues Sponges Radial symm ry v v Cnidarians rf Ancestral colonial protist n 51 Hm Echinoderms F1 quot A Chordates i K itlg ees Flatworms Bilateral symmetry Molluscs Annelids v Arthropods 1 Nematodes V 4152010 55500 PM


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