Midterm 2 Study Guide
Midterm 2 Study Guide ANTHROP 3300
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Monday October 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTHROP 3300 at Ohio State University taught by Debra Guatelli-Steinberg in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Human Origins in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
MIDTERM 2 STUDY SHEET FOR ANTHROPOLOGY 3300 exam covers material since first midterm Note This is not meant to be and is not a comprehensive list of topics but one which highlights major points and should help you study o Climatic and Geologic changes during Middle Late Miocene woodlands grasslands spread 0 some suspensorybrachiating species 0 species with thick enamel robust jaws anticipates early hominins o Gigantopith ecus 75mya in India and China 0 huge jaws teeth 0 possibly a bamboo eater Dryopith ecus 148mya in Europe 0 chimpsized brain 0 Brachiator long ngers and long arms 0 Ouranopithecus Greek Ape 10 7mya 0 thick enameled form 0 quotgorilla like face o Dawkin s view of who our last common ancestor with the African apes was discussionreading 0 Molecular clock divergence chimps vs humans and new estimates of the divergence Raymond Dart Taung Child Robert Broom other major discoveries Raymond Dart 1924 Taung child in South Africa 0 australopithecus africanus bipedalism is the de ning feature of hominins because it came rst 0 19305 and 405 Robert Broom gracile and robust forms of australopithecus africanus found in South Africa 0 Spine and pelvis screamed bipedalism Multiple anatomical adaptations for bipedalism The skull 0 location of foramen magnum under the skull centrally located 0 head balanced on top of the spine The Spine 0 center of gravity balance point is in the hip joint of humans 0 standing chimps COG far forward of hip joint 0 humans lumbar curve shifts hips forward thoracic curve brings head of COG apes have 3 lumbar vertebrate whereas humans have 5 Pelvis pubis illium ischium 0 relative to apes human ilia shorter broader and wrap around 0 shortening of ilium bring COG closer to the hip joint 0 broadening and wrapping of ilia maintaining stability 0 gluteus medius and minimus maintain lateral stability 0 gluteus maXimus prevents the body from pitching forward when walking Legs 0 long heavy legs 0 femur has a valgus angle goes away from the body keeps feet underneath the pelvis 0 locking knees allows full extension of the knee when walking without having a lot of muscle involvement making it energy efficient The foot 0 convergentadducted big toe enlarged calcaneusheel bone 0 metatarsalsbones of big toe are very robust arched feet plantar fascia maintains the arch shock absorption propulsion o Facultative vs Habitual vs Obligate bipedalism Late Miocene possible hominins who were they and what is the evidence that suggests they were bipedal Orrorin tugenensis millenium man 0 6mya basalt dated using Ar Ar very precise Kenya s Tugen Hills femur some teeth mandible bit forested environment 0 curved nger bones femur obturator externus groove created by muscle attachment distribution of bone in femoral neck looks similar to hominin Ardipithecus kadabba ardi ground 0 kadabba ancestor 58mya52mya middle awash Ethiopia 0 only evidence of bipedalism is in a part of a toe 0 possibly ancestral to ardipithecus ramidus Sahelanthropus tchadensis faunal dating 67mya reconstructed cranium could make it questionable skeptical think the foramen magnum is facing down 0 cranial capacity 380cc very small brain 0 small canines environment wooded Ardipithecus ramidus where when anatomical features and their signi cance announced 1994 large sample found in 2009 alluvial plain 109 fossils represent 36 hominin individuals many other vertebrates fossils there that are allowing people to reconstruct the environment ramidusroot ArAr dating squished between two layers of volcanic ash Bipedalism 44mya lived in woodland habitat bipedalism didn t have to evolve in a savannah C3 resources Ardi was eating C3 resources found in dental enamel enamel of intermediate thickness humans have very thick enamel male female canines equivalent in size What does the ARDI skeleton suggest about the origins of bipedalism facultative biped arboreal quadruped when in the trees top of pelvis is rotated short more like a humans anterior inferior iliac spine is present not in chimps place of attachment to extend knee and the one to keep trunk upright passively has a long ischium like chimps not like humans climber no traces of knuckle walking wrist exible and can bend hand back knuckle walking evolved independently in gorillas and chimps not a vertical climber midfoot stiff even though big toe is divergent very small brain 3003 50cc How does bipedalism differ in ARDI vs LUCY vs in modern humans Ardi has a divergent big toe Lucy s is convergent Lucy has an arch in her foot Ardi does not Ardi s shoulders are more hunched Ardi s arm length is longer Ardi s rib cage is bigger Ardi s pelvis is more chimp like they both have curved fingers both have short legs relative to arms both bipeds O Hypotheses regarding the origins of hominin bipedalism esp Dawkins readings and class discussion Pliocene hominins IF given in lecture you should know time frames geographic locations paleoenvironments anatomical features of Ardipithecus ramidus see above Australopith ecus anamensis 4239 MYA Kenya Fragmentary lots of teeth and jaws and a knee joint knee joint tibia with spongy bone wide joint surface 0 extend and lock knee features 0 lower tibia straight feature of human tibias 0 probably not a knucklewalker exible wrist and not stiff elbow joint 0 teeth tip of canine is wearing down from the top very human no honing complex pretty square jaw chimp like molars are bigger than chimps 0 very close morphology to A afarensis 0 dental arcade rectangular thick enamel and expanded molars Australopith ecus afarensis 3930 MYA 0 some stasis going on for the almost million years 0 Laetoli Tanzania 0 Hadar Ethiopia gt200 fossils environments open Laetoli forested Hadar Laetoli Footprints 3 individuals 0 Lucy 32mya 0 best known A afarensis C cap average 415cc small brain EQ 22 chimp 20 human 58 prognathic diastema between incisor and canine 0 dental arcade rectangular 0 large molars and thick enamel rst premolar not fully bicuspid 0 short sexually dimorphic bipedal adaptations muscle attachments femoral angle 0 long arms int index 88 0 long curved nger bones 0 more cranially directed shoulder joint 0 world s oldest baby Dikika found in Ethiopia 4km from Lucy adult endocranial volume lower than expected even for a 3 year old chimp 0 slow brain growth cranially directed shoulder joint 0 curved nger and toe bones Laetoli footprints 36mya arches convergent big toe heel strike narrower pelvic inlet greater iliac are longer femoral necks Lovejoy biomechanical ef ciency of gluteus medius Kenyanthropus platyops 3533mya Kenya 0 at faced man of Kenyaquot grassland woodland bipedal foramen magnum position 0 smaller molars than Au afarensis Australopith ecus garhi 25mya Ethiopia 0 means surprise latest australopithecus found cheekbones are out 0 very pro gnathic huge molars teeth curved found animals bones with cut marks 0 long femur more human like 0 very odd compilation of traits Australopith ecus africanus 3020mya South Africa Taung child Makapansgat 30mya site Sterkfontein 25mya site 0 gt600 fossils Taung 252mya site 0 Taung child is the only fossil found here think it was taken here by an eagle craniodental features 0 cc average 450cc EQ 25 0 Prognathic 0 fully bicuspid lower first premolar 0 no diastema 0 dental arcade is less rectangular 0 clearly bipedal M1 emergence brain size related 0 rst molar bigger brain weight later eruption 0 takes longer to grow those big brains so delayed development 0 count growth lines to get age at death when Ml erupting Australopithecus sediba Debate re degree to which A afarensis was bipedal How much time did A afarensis spend in the trees 0 looking at anatomy shows that Lucy walked with bent knees not very adaptable to habitual bipedalism The problem phylogenetic inertia tendency of traits to resist evolutionary change 0 had ancestral baggage but maybe didn t use those traits 0 Recent study bent kneebent hip Not according to this study 0 recreated humans walking with bent knees footprints more similar to habitual bipedalism Problems 0 heightweight of research subjects Phylogenetic inertia tendency of traits to resist evolutionary change 0 had ancestral baggage but maybe didn t use those traits o Unique features of A afarensis pelvis narrower pelvie inlet greater iliae are Dikika child what it tells us brain growth rates world s oldest baby Dikika found in Ethiopia 4km from Luey adult endoeranial volume lower than expected even for a 3 year old ehimp 0 slow brain growth o Stone tools Earliest stone tools 0 33mya 0 well before homo 700800k years before 0 A afarensis Dikika 34mya stones found but not very strong evidence 0 not sure who made them Gona Ethiopia 0 stone tools at 26mya still well before homo look like Olduwan tools o First molar emergence and length of childhood growth periods in early hominins Ml emergenee brain size related 0 rst molar bigger brain weight later eruption 0 takes longer to grow those big brains so delayed development 0 count growth lines to get age at death when Ml erupting Cladistic analysis by Strait and Grine who s related to whom in the PlioPleistocene
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