Exam 2 StudyGuide
Exam 2 StudyGuide COMM 2331 - 0010
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Popular in Communication Studies
This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Dahlin on Monday October 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 2331 - 0010 at Ohio State University taught by Erik Nisbet in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 182 views. For similar materials see Strategic Communication Principles in Communication Studies at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
STRAT COMM STUDY GUIDE EXAM 2 l Problem Recognition occurs when the consumer perceives a need and becomes motivated to solve problem Information Search after problem recognition consumers begin to search for information needed to make purchase decision Alternative Evaluation consumer compares various brandsproductsservices Purchase Decision consumers form purchase intention predisposition to buy certain brand by matching purchase motivation with brand attributesattitudes PostPurchase Evaluation consumer compares level of performance w expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied F Sources of problem recognition 0 Out of stockl used existing supply of product amp must replenish simpleroutine purchase decision resolved by choosing familiar brand that consumer feels loyal to Dissatisfactionl not satisfied wcurrent situation or productservice ad offers solution to this New NeedsWantsl changes in consumers lives can lead to new needswants ex changes in financial situation employment status lifestyle Related ProductsPurchasesl ex buying Ipod and them wanting to purchase accessories for it such as a dock car attachment cord or case MarketerInduced Problem Recognitionljmarketers encourage consumers not to be content w their current state situation designed to create insecurities that consumers can resolve through using products foot sprays creating perceptions that wardrobes are out of style taking advantage of noveltyseeking behavior or consumers tendency to try new things New ProductsElinnovative products introduced and brought to consumers attention Hierarchy of Needs theory postulating 5 basic levels of needs arranged based on importance 1 Physiological basic primary needs needed to sustain life food shelter clothing sex Safety need for securityprotection safety from physical harm Social Needs sense of belonging love affection acceptance Esteem need to feel accomplishmentrecognition status respect from others Selfactualization need for selffulfillment desire to realize one s own potential 9593 0 Psychoanalytic Theory ProblemsContributions 0 Pros reveals hidden feelings drives and fears highlights symbolic factors shifts attention from what to how why O Cons qualitative results from very small samplesnot generalizable to population varyingsubjective interpretation difficultimpossible to verify or validate 0 Some believe that as competition for advertisers dollars has increased the amountexplicitness of sexual content on TV has increased as well as many programscommercials now push limits as to what is acceptable 0 Perception is an individual process that depends on internal factors such as beliefs experiences needs moods and expectations 0 A consumer s personality needs motives expectations and experiences play a role in explaining why people focus attention on some things and ignore others 0 Cognitive Dissonance 0 When we have con icting beliefs or con ict bt belief and behavior 0 Distressing feeling that we want to avoid so we seek opinions that are consistent with our existing beliefs and avoid opinions that are not 0 Selective Perceptionljoccurs as consumers choose whether or not to make themselves available to information ex leaving room during commercial break or changing channel 0 Selective attentionljconsumer chooses to focus attention on certain stimuli while excluding others 0 Selective comprehensionlinterpreting information on basis of their own attitudes beliefs motives experiences 0 Selective retentionElconsumers do not remember all the information they see hear or read advertisers use mnemonics such as symbols rhymes associations images to combat this 0 Evaluative Criterial dimensionsattributes of a productservice that are used to compare different alternatives can be objective or subjective 0 EX buying car includes objective attributes price warranty fuel economy and subjective factors image styling performance 0 Consumers tend to think about productservice in terms of consequencesterms 0 Functional consequences concrete outcomes of productservice usage that are tangible and directly experienced by consumers 0 Psychosocial consequences abstract outcomes that are more intangible subjective and personal such as how product makes you feel or how you think others will view you for purchasingusing it 0 Attitudeljlearned predispositions to respond to an object represents individual s overall feelings toward or evaluation of product 0 MultiAttribute Modelljviews an attitude object productbrand as possessing a number of attributes that provide the basis on which consumers form their attitudes 0 MemoryBased MultiAttribute Model O Attitude toward an object brand is function of A the accessibilitysaliency of available beliefs or considerations in one s memory and B how much weightapplicability each accessible beliefconsideration is given 0 When prompted to make an evaluation individuals recall all accessible positivenegative considerations in memory X the weight each is given F 0 Affectreferral decision ruleljconsumers make selection on basis of overall impressionsummary evaluation of various alternatives under consideration 0 Markets try to utilize affectreferral decision rule by creating strong brand images Nationwide is on your side or Allstate You re in Good Hands 0 Consumer compares level of performance w expectations and is either satisfied or dissatisfied 0 Important bc in uences likelihood of future purchases Cognitive DissonanceElfeeling of psychological tension or post purchase doubt that a consumer experiences after making a difficult purchase choice more likely to occur in important decision where consumer has to choose among close alternatives 0 Promotionadvertising provides reassurance Behavioral Learning Theory emphasizes role of external environmental stimuli in causing behavior minimizes significance of internal psychological processes classicalOperant conditioning Operant conditioning individual must actively operate or act on some aspect of environment for learning to occur 0 Sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning bc individual s response is instrumental in getting positive reinforcement reward or negative reinforcement punishment Behavior that is reinforced strengthens bond bt stimulus amp response 0 Behavior consumer uses productservicepositive or negative consequences occur from use of product leading to reward or punishmentElincrease or decrease in probability of repeat behavior purchase 0 Learning occurs most rapidly under continuous reinforcement schedule every response is rewarded but behavior is likely to cease when reinforcement stops 0 Learning occurs more slowly but lasts longer under partial or intermittent reinforcementonly some of individual s responses are rewarded O ShapingElreinforcement of successive acts that lead to desired behavior pattern 0 CulturelZlcomplexity of learned meanings values norms and customs shared by members of a society 0 American culture continually goes through many changes that have direct implications for advertising marketers must monitor changes Subculturesljsmaller groupssegments whose beliefsnorms set them apart from larger cultural mainstream 0 May be based on age geographic religious racial or ethnic differences 0 Important to marketers bc of their size growth purchasing power and distinct purchasing patterns Social ClassElrelatively homogeneous divisions in a society into which people sharing similar lifestyles values norms interests and behaviors can be grouped 0 Usually based on occupational status educational attainment and income 0 Reference GroupsD group Whose presumed perspectives or values are being used by an individual as the basis for hisher judgments opinions and actions 0 3 typesassociative aspirational dissociative 0 Situational Determinantsljthe specific usage situation purchase situation and communications situation 0 Creating Messages encode meaning 0 Encoding source selects words symbols pictures etc to represent message that Will be delivered to receivers V Putting thoughts ideas or information into symbolic form V Encode message in way that Will be understood by receiver using familiar words 0 Message contains informationmeaning the source hopes to convey V Can be verbalnonverbal oralwritten symbolic V Effectiveness determined by impressionimage ad creates V Markets make decisions regarding content structure and design of messages 0 Interpretation of Messages decode meaning 0 Decoding process of transforming the sender s message back into thought V Heavily in uenced by receiver s eld of experience experiences perceptions attitudes and values heshe brings to the communication situation 0 E ective communicationreceiver must understandcorrectly interpret What the source is trying to communicate V Must be common ground bt 2 parties 0 Transmission channel 0 Channel method by Which communication traveles from sourcesender to receiver 0 Nonpersonal channels those that carry a message WO direct interpersonal contact bt sender and receiver V Mass media or mass communications message sent to many individuals at one time V 2 major types print or broadcast 0 Personal channels involve direct communication bt 2 or more persons and can occur through interpersonal contact facetoface or via other methods emailsocial media V EX salespeople V Major advantage message can be tailored to individualaudience amp sender receives direct feedback V Wordofmouth members of one s social networks such as friends neighbors associates coworkers family members Buzz marketingljgenerating wordofmouth discussions by using systematicorganized efforts to encourage people to speak favorably about companybrandorganization 0 Elicit a response 0 AIDA hierarchy of effects innovation adoption information processing 0 KAB response models 0 Dynamic feedback process 0 Feedback part of the receiver s response that is communicated back to the sender O Allows the sender to monitor how intended message is being decodedreceived 0 Ex customer inquiries store visits coupon redemptions reply cards 0 Message focuses in on an object symbolsign 0 Meaning is incorporated through symbol of brand s ad 0 AIDA model depicts stages a salesperson must take a customer through in the personal selling process 0 Hierarchy of effects model process of advertising consumer passes from initial awareness of productservice to actual purchase 0 Purchase funnel metaphor consumer starts at top of funnel with of brands in mind and methodically reduces number until they emerge with brand they choose to purchase 0 Innovation adoption model stages consumer passes through in process of adopting new product 0 Best way to evaluate product is through actual use 0 Early adopters play critical role in successfailure of new product 0 Information processing model process consumer must pass to be in uenced by advertising 0 Important part of modelretenti0n receiver s ability to retain information so that they can use it later riot temtm H W HEM anti in mm 7 95 th HLHJW Commonalities across models 0 They all have a response process consisting of cognitive stage a ective stage behavioral stage I Cognitive stage represents what receiver knowsperceives about particular productbrand I A ective stage refers to the receiver s feelings or affect level like or dislike for a particular brand desire preference conviction I Behavioral stage refers to consumer s action toward brand trial purchase adoption or rejection 0 All have similar ordering cognitive stageaffective stageljbehavioral stage 0 Response sequence does not always operate this way Learning Model KEIAEIB KnowledgelettitudesDBehaviors promotion supplies information which can lead to a type of attitude formationchange which in uences a behavior Af nity Model ADKDB AttitudesDKnowledgeElBehaviors situations where product is doing well and campaigns designed to get those who already have purchased the brand to do it again loyal customers 0 Building off preexisting positive attitude to promote a brand extension ex marketing Ipads to Iphone users Rational Model KDB IA KnowledgeElBehaviorAttitude you gain information about a product and from this knowledge gain you make a purchase you form an attitude about product AFTER you begin to use it 0 Occurs when there is low involvement minimal differences among alternatives and massmedia advertising Grudging Acceptance Model BDKDA BehaviorDKnowledgelAttitude when people are forced to buy something don t want to do it but need to do it ex insurance industry campaigns focus on behavior aspect 0 Dissonance Model BAK BehaviorAttitudeElKnowledge O Dofeellearn sequence 0 Behaviors lead to attitudes which then serve as a basis from which to gain knowledge 0 Occurs when consumers must choose bt close alternatives that are complexmay have unknown attributes 0 Focus of promotion reducing dissonance after purchase by providing supportive information to reinforce choices and ensure purchase pattern will continue 0 Elaboration extent to which a person carefully thinks about issuerelevant arguments contained in a persuasive communication 0 Attitude formationchange depends on amount of elaboration or processing of relevant informationarguments in a message 0 2 routesCentral amp Peripheral 0 Which route the consumer takes depends on motivation and ability 0 Motivation depends on factors such as involvement personal relevance and individuals needs and arousal levels 0 Ability depends on individual s knowledge intellectual capacity and opportunity to process the message 0 Central route receiver is very active involved participant in communication process ability amp motivation are high V Consumer pays close attention to message content and scrutinizes message arguments analyze quality of argument V High level of cognitive response activity V Attitude change is enduring and resists efforts to change it 0 Peripheral route receiver relies on peripheral cues that may be related to main arguments V Receiver is lacking motivationability to process information V Not likely to engage in detailed cognitive processing V EX consumer thinks endorser is likeable attractive or an expert or if consumer likes the way the ad is made musicimagery 0 High involvement in target audienceljad should contain strong arguments that are difficult to refutecounterargue 0 Low involvement in target audience pe pheral cues are more important than detailed message arguments 0 Effectiveness of celebrity endorser has significant effects for low involvement but does not have effect on highinvolvement 0 Cognitive Response Approach assessment of cognitive responses the thoughts that occur to people while reading Viewing andor hearing communication 0 3 main categories of thoughts productmessage sourceoriented and ad execution thoughts 0 Product Message Thoughts includes counterarguments amp support arguments about position taken in message 0 SourceOriented Thoughts cognitive responses directed at source of communication lsource derogations negative thoughts about spokespersonorganization or source bolsters favorable thoughts towards source 0 Ad Execution Thoughts individual s thoughts about the ad itself reactions to ad execution factors such as creativity of ad quality of Visual effects colors voice tone 0 Elaboration involves generating one s own thoughts about the central idea or object of the message goes beyond just comprehending paying attention to message 0 High ability amp High Motivation Central Processing any other combinationperipheral processing 0 The distinction bt central and peripheral processing is NOT how much information you process rather it is what you process 0 Central Route pertains to arguments while peripheral pertains to cues 0 Central Route Success people must want to pay attention be able to grasp material and there must be convincing arguments difficult to strike this balance 0 COMPLICATIONS 0 The ELM is not necessarily purely central or peripheral routes 0 During high elaboration the central process is more likely to dominate and during low elaboration the peripheral process is most likely to dominate There are tradeoffs along the continuum O The ELM is not stating that message factors are purely central and all other input variables are peripheral O The source can act as a cue that sparks central route persuasion in a low potential elaboration situation you may not be initially interested in the topic but you begin to centrally process the message when you see someone attractive 0 Sources can also act as arguments of sorts ex attractive model 0 Message elements can in uence how we process ex in a low elaboration situation one might think that the message with the most arguments is the best the one with 10 opposed to 5 0 Each input variable arguments vs cues has the ability to play multiple roles O O The ELM only discusses which route tends to dominate in persuasion process but oftentimes both routes are at work Effectiveness Perslulesien Plrueess l Circulatien reach l 39 Expceurefpreeenteticn Listener ree len VIEWEF recnglnltlnn Attention I l 39 Recall checklists Cemnrehensinn I Brend attitudes purchase Intent Message BEEZEIJEEHEEI R yielding l 39 Recall ever time Retenticn I Inventery 39l 39 P cenenmer Eenel g Scanner de 39 l I Purchase behevier I 0 Communication goes both ways promoters can get feedback from the consumers 0 Source person involved in communicating marketing message 0 3 basic categories of source attributes credibility attractiveness power 0 Source Credibility extent to which recipients see source as having relevant knowledge skill experience and trusts the source to give unbiased objective information 0 InternalizationElwhen receiver adopts opinion of credible communicator since he she believes information from this source is accurate 0 Trustworthiness source must be believable advertisers use tricks to increase perception that their sources are trustworthy hidden cameras overheard conversation 0 Corporate Leaders often used as spokespeople bc they are viewed as the ultimate expression of company s commitment to quality amp customer service and they can also help create identitypersonality O Credible sources more effective when audience is not in favor of advocated position in message and less effective when the audience has a neutral position 0 Source Attractiveness includes similarity familiarity and likeability O Similarityleresemblance bt source and receiver of message which can create feelings of empathy for consumers shared needs goals interests lifestyles FamiliaritylZlknowledge of source through exposure O Likeabilityljaffection for the source use of celebrities athletes musicians popular public figures 0 Leads to persuasion through identification receiver is motivated to seek some type of relationship w source and adopt similar beliefs attitudes preferences or behavior 0 High and low credibility sources equally effective when arguing for a position opposing their own best interest 0 Credible sources are less important when audience has neutral position 0 Sleeper effect Persuasiveness of message increases over time for low credibility sources causes consumers to remember infomessage but not source I 39 h r4 lru39 quot Jlk lr T 39 39nrj39pru 3 l Iinanimatzmgidanmg t lir39rlitdilziilityr Internalization Attractivenests Identificatin Fewer Manama 0 Internalization receiver adopts the position advocated by the source because it is perceived as accurate and makes it part of his or her belief system 0 Identification an individual is motivated to seek some type of relationship with the source and thus adopts similar beliefs attitudes or behaviors 0 Compliance receiver accepts the position advocated by the source to receive rewards or avoid punishment 0 Source Power a source has power when heshe can actually administer rewards and punishments to the receiver 0 Perceived Controllj source must be perceived as being able to administer positivenegative sanctions to the receiver 0 Perceived C0ncern receiver must think source cares about whether or not receiver conforms O Perceived Scrutinyl receiver s estimate of the source s ability to observe conformity 0 Primacy effect information presented first is most effective 0 Works when there is low interest or the audience is opposed to the message 0 Recency effect last arguments presented are most effective 0 Works best when audience is highly interested or predisposed to communicator s position 0 Openended conclusion for highly educated person or egoinvolving issues message recipients may want to draw own conclusions 0 Closed conclusion research suggest explicit conclusions are more easily understood 0 Onesided message mentions only positive attributesbenefits 0 Most effective with loweducated audience or when audience already holds favorable opinion 0 Most advertisers use these 0 Twosided message presents both good and bad points 0 Most effective when audience holds opposing opinion or is highly educated 0 Can enhance credibility of source seen as less biasedmore objective 0 Inoculation when a communicator makes a refutational appeal twosided message in which they refute opposing viewpoint it inoculates or protects the audience from the competitor s counterclaims and makes them resistant to the opposing message 0 Fear Appeals used to evoke emotional response and arouse individuals to take steps to remove the threat 0 More effective when message recipient is selfconfident and prefers to cope with dangers rather than avoid them 0 More effective among nonusers of product than users 0 Message recipients may tune out message that uses too much fear but at times high levels of fear can lead to behavior change 0 More likely to process through a central route than a peripheral route 0 Stronger attitude change and less dependent on predispositions 0 Four threat factors in order for it to be effective 0 Perceived severity of threat 0 Susceptibility perceived probability threat will occur 0 Response e icacy perceived abilitypotential of proposed solution to address threat or risk 0 Selfe icacy perceived ability of target to carry out successfully proposed solution 0 Humor Appeals often the best known and best remembered of all advertising messages 0 Pros I Attract and hold consumer s attention and aid retention of message I Enhance effectiveness by putting consumers in positive mood increasing their liking of ad and feeling toward productservice I Can distract receiver from counterarguing message I More effective with lowinvolvement feeling products I Can result in wearoutEltendency of TVradio commercial to lose effectiveness when it is seenheard repeatedly I Does not aid source credibility I May harm recallcomprehension I Does not aid persuasion in general 20 What makes media self vs externally paced and what are some examples Under which conditions do you choose to use one or the other I SelfPaced Media newspapers magazines direct mail Internet 0 Readers process ad at their own rate and can study it as long as they desire 0 Better for long complex messages 0 ExternallyPaced Media Radio TV 0 Transmission rate is controlled by medium 0 Better for getting attention I Often used in combination 0 The interpretation of an advertising message can be in uenced by the context or environment in which they are delivered 0 medium is the message medium presents image that is independent of the message it contains 0 media environment is key for example consumers tend to react more positively to commercials seen during a happy TV program opposed to a sad one 0 Channels often have a significant amount of clutter amount of advertising in a medium 0 This is an increasing concern to advertisers since there are so many messages in various media competing for consumer s attention 0 Information received from personal channels is generally more persuasive than information from mass media 0 Importance of wordofmouth messages becoming more prevalent w growth of social media 0 Hard Sell informational message that is designed to touch the mind and create a response based on logic 0 Soft Sell uses emotional appeals or images to create a response based on attitudes moods and feelings 0 Types of Rational Appeals 0 Feature focus on dominant traits of the product 0 Competitive makes comparisons to other brands 0 Price makes price offer the dominant point 0 News news announcement about the product 0 Popularity stresses the brand s popularity 0 Personal StatesFeelings safety security fear loveaffection happiness nostalgia sentiment excitement sorrow 0 SocialBased Feelings recognition status respect involvement embarrassment affiliation rejection acceptance approval 0 Transformational ad create feelings images meanings and beliefs about the product service that may be activated when the consumers use it transforming their interpretation of the usage experience 0 Makes experience of using product richer warmer more excitingenjoyable O Connects experience of ad so tightly with experience of using brand that consumers cannot remember ad wo recalling experience generated by ad 0 Ex Corona and Find Your Beach establishing brand as beer to drink when relaxing on whitesand tropical beach 0 Teaser ads designed to build excitement curiosity interest etc about product or brand by talking about but not showing it 0 Often used for new moviesT V shows and major product launches 0 Can generate interest in new products 0 Reminder ads objective is building brand awareness and keeping brand name in front of consumers 0 Well known brandsmarket leaders use to maintain topof mind awareness among consumers in their target markets 0 Ex online adsrepeated exposure to banner advertising can enhance familiarity with and generate positive feelings toward brand mere exposure e ect Components of Selling Strategy 0 Creating unique selling proposition 0 Creating a brand image 0 Finding the inherent drama 0 Positioning Unique Selling Proposition 1 Each ad must make proposition to consumers and promise a benefit 2 Proposition must be one that the competition cannot or does not offer 3 Proposition must be strong enough to move the mass millions and pull new customers to the brand Lecture Dramaljtelling story with productservice as star 0 Similar to sliceoflife but adds more excitement and suspense in telling story SliceoflifeElbased on problemsolution approach 0 Often used for packagedgoods products 0 Ads remind consumers of problems of personal nature such as dandruff bad breath body odor laundry problems 0 Advertisers believer these ads are effective bc consumers can relate to situations but they are often criticized for being unrealisticirritating Demonstrationljdesigned to illustrate the key advantages of product service by showing it in actual use or in some staged situation 0 Effective for convincing consumers of product s utilityquality SpokespersonPersonality SymbolEIdeveloping central character or personality symbol that can deliver the advertising message and lead the audience to identify with product service 0 Ex Flo from Progressive A ac Duck Straightselllstraightforward presentation of information 0 Execution includes informationalrational appeals O Commonly used in print adsT V advertising for highinvolvement consumer products Testimoniala person praises productservice on the basis of hisher own experiences with it 0 Very effective when audience can identify with spokesperson 0 Ex weightloss companies or skincare companies often use testimonials Language Syntax Structure O Positively worded statements more easy to comprehend than negatively worded statements research has proven XX vs research has not proven XX 0 Active sentence structure is evaluated more favorably than passive sentence structure 0 Central route complex sentences 0 Language Lexical Diversity Vocab O TypeToken Ratio TTR number of different words used relative to totally number of words 0 Recipients like greater diversityleads to judgments of the source s credibility advanced vocab seen as more intelligent 0 However this varies by recipient characteristics need for cognition and likelihood of elaboration scenarios 0 Small changes in design can lead to dramatic results Quiz Questions 0 Noah thinks that if he buys the latest fashion magazine maybe he can look and feel like the supermodel on the cover This is an example of source attractiveness o A twosided message is more appropriate than a onesided message when you target audience that has an unfavorable attitude toward your brand 0 A direct source is a spokesperson that delivers a message to endorse a product or service Suzie is trying to decide what brand of soda to purchase The most accessible considerations are taste and calories She does not like the taste of Diet Mountain Dew but it is low in calories and the amount of calories is more important consideration to her taste Thus she has a favorable attitude toward Diet Mountain Dew This is an example of the elaboration likelihood model 0 Advertising designed to build excitement curiosity interest etc about a product or brand by talking about but not showing it is known as teaser advertising 0 In the ELM when there is high ability and high motivation the processing that is engaged in is central processing If you want to create a primacy effect for a message the information to be recalled should be featured at the beginning A selling premise that highlights the speci c bene t of a brand that the competition cannot offer and pulls customers to the product is called the unique selling proposition The process of putting thoughts ideas or information together into a message is called encoding When exposure to an ad leads to a recipient generating product source or ad execution thoughts that then impacts attitudes both toward the brand and the ad itself This is called the cognitive response model Honda creates an ad to reinforce to their customers that buying a Honda was the right decision This ad is based on the dissonance persuasion model Example of nonpersonal communication channel Magazine In the ELM the route which brings attitude changes based on cognitive responses is the central route Consumer behavior can be de ned as the process and activities people engage in when searching for selecting purchasing using evaluating and disposing of productsservices so as to satisfy their needs and desires According to Abraham Maslow s hierarchy of needs the most basic level of needs is physiological needs Classic conditioning says that learning is an associative process that builds relationships bt a conditional stimulus amp a response Most relevant internal psychological process associated with postpurchase evaluation Learning Amy the marketing director for Apple takes out a print ad to advertise the newest iPhone She opts for a fullpage ad in a magazine known as Techno Info According to the basic model of communication Techno Info is the channel Source attractiveness is comprised of similarity familiarity and likability According to lecture an advantage to using humor in advertising is humor may reduce counterarguing
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