Exam 3 101 [DIVR] [K] General Anthropology
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alanna Wight on Monday October 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 101 [DIVR] [K] General Anthropology at Washington State University taught by Erin Thornton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see General Anthropology 101 in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
STUDY GUIDE EXAM 3 ANTH 101 Video quotAlien from Earth Homo floresiensis Review video questions handout Documentary can be viewed online via You Tu be but I will not redistribute video questions Origins of Food Production Read Ch 5 True or false For the majority of human existence we were huntergatherers foragers True True or false Huntergatherers have always only been found in more marginal environments such as the arctic tropical rainforests Australian Outback etc False What is the Mesolithic Period how do we define it What cultural changes occurred during this period end of the Pleistocene to agriculture period preagriculture quotpreadapted Cultural changes Population increases increased sedentism first villages Subsistence Diversification aquaticmarine resources plant processing storage Technology microliths composite tools ground stone Who were the Natufians Were they a true agriculturalists Are they classified as a Mesolithic or Neolithic society How did they quotset the stage for the advent of food production 1250010500 BP They were the first Mesolithic society to domesticate plants and animals leading to the establishment of settled villages based on the cultivation of cereals including wheat barley and millet and the raising of cattle sheep goats and pigs Not true agriculturalists They stored food in storage pits example seen in El Wad Israel What is the Neolithic When did it first transition from the Mesolithic to the Neolithic occur Where did this transition first occur Neolithic economies based on food production Horticulture Pastoralism 10000 BP Middle East Identify the various centers of plant amp animal domestication ie where food production emerged independently in the past Eastern North America Mesoamerica Andes Amazon subsaharan Africa Fertie Crescent China Papua New Guinea What is the world s oldest domesticated animal Sheep goats and dogs were first domesticated animals roughly 11000 years ago Know the earliest plants and animals domesticated in the Fertile CrescentMiddle East wheat einkorn barley flax cows goats sheep and pigs What plants and animals were domesticated in the Americas Know plants and animals specifically domesticated in South America and Mesoamerica Animals Dog sheep and goats cow pig Plants Wheat rye barley and peas Mesoamerica maize beans squash and dogs South America potato and llama alpaca guinea pig What were the consequences positive amp negative of food production in terms of technology healthdemography the environment amp social organization Technology grinding stones stones pottery pits silos etc sickes hoes axes Health amp Demography popuation increase lower infant mortality rate more disease no increase in average life span Environment deforestation soil erosion overgrazing first major destruction Social Organization greater sedentism socia specialization amp rank more socialeconomic inequality Emergence of Cities and States Read Ch 6 What is a city What is a state What are the key attributes of urban state systems centralized political systems amp social classes institutionalized How do anthropologists use the term civilization cities urban Monumental agriculture stateleve organization What problems accompany cities amp states overpopuation and diseases spreading easily How old are the world s oldest cities and where did they develop Jericho Jordan 10000 BP 8000 BC Catalhoyuk Turkey 9000 BP Teotihuaca n Mexico Peak 450 AD What is the earliest written script in the world When amp where was it developed Cuneiform script is one of the earliest systems of writing distinguished by its wedgeshaped marks on clay tablets made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus Mesopotamia specifically ancient Sumer around and Mesoamerica Why do we think many early scripts were invented What did they record in their earliest forms To communicate and recorded an alphabet and art Did all ancient civilizations have a written script What is one notable exception and what did they use instead Not all ancient civilizations had a written script The inca had no script They used quipu which was a system of knotted strings used for keeping records Where did the 6 major early state systems in the world develop Which one was the earliest Mesopotamia 4000 BC Nile Valley 3000 BC Indus Valley 2600 BC China 2000 BC Peru 2000 BC Mesoamerica 1200 BC Race amp Human Variation Read Ch 7 Genetic vs developmental vs physiological adaptation Genetic adaptation genetic change via natural selection time period generations Developmental adaptation permanent phenotypic change via interaction between genes amp environmental during development time period lifespan Physiological adaptation an individual has a systemic response to an external stimulus with the intent to remain in its homeostasis time period short term Skin color why does it vary What are the adaptive advantages and disadvantages of light and dark skin tones Why do we occasionally see latitudinal mismatches Skin color varies on density of melanin in melanocytes Adaptive advantages and disadvantages of light and dark skin tones Dark Skin SPF 10 advantage uv protection disadvantage vitamin d absorption is low ex Rickets Light Skin higher SPF advantage more vitamin d disadvantage sun breaks down folate skin cancer Occasionally see latitudinal mismatches because Recent arrivals and from diet like the Arctic people Humans migrate or move from their orgin What are the 3 major arguments vs the application of the biological concept of race to divide the human species in to discrete subspecies ie races 1 Arbitrary divisions on small number of visible traits 2 No traits confined to a particular race 3 Majority of genetic variation exists within each race What is melanin A dark brown to black pigment occurring in the hair skin and iris of the eye in people and animals It is responsible for tanning of skin exposed to sunlight Bergmann s Rule amp Allen s Rule Bergmann39s Rule As body size increases amount of surface area increases less rapidly than volume amp allows heat conservation in cold climates Allen39s Rule Shorter extremities in colder climates amp longer extremities mean greater surface area and heat dissipation Lactose tolerance amp intolerance how is this an example of natural selection How is culture involved in this example of selection Natural selection would have people carrying the lactose tolerance mutation Culture factors can affect whether a new human mutation becomes common in a population Clines what does this mean and what is its significance in terms of understanding human diversity adaptation and racial classifications A cline is a gradual change of a character or feature phenotype in a species over a geographical area often as a result of environmental heterogeneity Besides natural selection what other evolutionary forces have shaped human genetic and phenotypic diversity Genetic adaptation Developmental adaptation and Physiological adaptation What is the thrifty genotype only discussed in text not lecture A genotype thought to characterize all humans until about 6000 years ago Allen amp Cheer 1996 It was a human genotype that permitted efficient storage of fat to draw on in times of food shortage and conservation of glucose and nitrogen Linguistics Read Ch 9 What is language A system of communication using symbolic sounds gestures or marks that are put together according to certain rules resulting in meanings intelligible to all who share that language Why do anthropologists study language and why is it important to preserve languages Knowledge of language is essential to a full understanding of what culture is about and how it operates What are the characteristics of human language socia tool must be learned the relationship between the sounds and their meaning arbitrary and dual language has rules allows humans to be creative Is it fair to say that language is a distinguishing feature of Homo sapiens Why or why not How does the language abilities of nonhuman primates compare to human language abilities Yes linguists have defined language as uniquely human However humans are more focused on the use of oral sounds Sounds are less important to nonhuman primates than is body language Why are nonhuman primates incapable of verbal language similar that used by humans Verbal languages are complex symbolic systems and a kind of language organ within the mind that is part of the genetic makeup ofjust humans Describe nonhuman primate communication systems How complex are they Nonhuman primates emphasize the use of body language Nonhumans primates can also communicate through howls whistles barks and other sounds when needed What are the four main branchessubfields of linguistic anthropology Be able to give examples of each Descriptive linguistics Studies the structure of language Ethnolinguistics Studies how languages and cultures are related Historical linguistics Studies how languages change on a linear scope and how the come to be on the time line Sociolinguistics Studies language in different social modes or contexts What is the SapirWhorf hypothesis A hypothesis by Edward Sapir in 1929 and developed by Benjamin Whorf that the structure of a language determines a native speaker39s perception and categorization of experience What nonverbal ways do we communicate What is kinesics What is paralanguage By gesture or body language Kinesics the study of non verbal signals in body language including facial expressions and bodily postures and motions Paralanguage voice effects that accompany language and convey meaning These include vocalizations such as giggling groaning or sighing as well as voice qualities such as pitch and tempo What is a dialect Varying forms of a language that reflect particular regions occupations or social classes and that are similar enough to be mutually intelligible How many languages exist in the world today 6000 What is sociolinguistics can you think of an example The study of the relationship between language and the society through examining how society through examining how social categories age gender ethnicity religion occupation and class influence the use and significance of distinctive styles of speech Example a sociolinguist might figure out through study of social attitudes that a particular use of language would not be considered appropriate language in a business or professional setting What is code switching can you think of an example The practice of changing from one mode of speech to another as a situation demands whether from one language to another or from one dialect of a language to another Example a conversation among two people that are bilingual and know the same languages
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