Celebration of Knowledge 2
Celebration of Knowledge 2 PSCI 220S-01
Popular in Intro to Comparative Government
Popular in Political Science
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Autumn Fraser on Monday October 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSCI 220S-01 at University of Montana taught by Eric Hines in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Intro to Comparative Government in Political Science at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Characteristic of SemiPresidential system Two executives President fixed terms and prime minister subject of legislature President duties set forth policy PM duties translate policy ideas into legislature Works more smoothly if president and and PM are from the same party Cohabitation when from separate parties Aim is to use the best of pure systems not highly prone to gridlock or too strong of a president Characteristics of Parliamentary Characteristics of Presidential System Separate head of State and head of government Head of government is Prime Minister holds most power can callfor electionsand drive legislationpolicy Head of state isceremonial PMcabinets come from legislature legislature electsand removes PM Vote of no confidence in legislature canforce PM to resign In absence of majority multi pa rty coalition or minority gov forms PM can dissolve parliament and callfor new early elections Government is made of cabinet m inistersapproved by parliament When government isfailing and it is decided it istime to dissolve and have new electionsa CARETAKERGOV stays on to mnlun IIYQ h2ltirfmrfinnlt2rn him 1392an ram nf Executivelegislative branches are distinctive and separate Legislature is an independent decision making body members are elected in separate elections One single executive Presidentlegislators serve xed terms Compare and contrast the methods of political control used in autocratic regimes Coercion use of fear killing torturing Uses surveillance to discourage opposition CooptionSelectively provides bene ts to key groups to buy off opposition through corporatismclientelism Corp creating or sanctioning number of organization to represent interests Replaces indi orgs with handful of people to speak for various parts of society Clientism state coopts members of public by providing bene ts in return for public support Personality veneration of leader through personality built on personal charismamedia reinforcement Compare pluralism and corporatism Pluralism model is based in having many groups participating with a lot of direct access to the government while corporatism model is based in having few groups organized so that hierarchs have contact with gov hared to reach gov directly Compare revolution and terrorism as forms of political violence Revolutions transform social orderregimesoverthrow gov involving mass participation of civiliansinterest groups and violence while terrorism is violence against civilians by nonstate actors to change a regime or policy who violence is aimed specifically at is different in how a goal is reached Define Advanced Democracies country with institutionalized democracy and high level of economic developement Define civil society and outline the benefits it provides to democracy Organization outside of the state that help people define and advance their own interests Includes interest groups social movements and patron client linkage Good because They facilitate political awareness and therefore participation Increases knowledge of voters who can hold government accountable Builds social capital trust and shared values Define political violence and explain the factors that contribute to it Politically motivated violence carried out by nonstate actors with the objective of change including change in state institutions Factors Institutions say everyone has grievances anyone can organize and depending on the opportunities or lack thereof of peaceful orgs how grievances are expressed varies Ideas The idea of state legitimacy reduces violence but radical and reactionary attitudesideas spark violence Individuals rebel leaders with distinct personalities cause violence Describe the dictator39s dilemma Authoritarian ruler39s use of repression and fear to maintain power creates uncertainty about how much real support the ruler has which leads to the ruler spending more resources than is rational to coopt position Describe the difference between ope nlist and closedlist proportional representation open list voters vote on preferred party and candidate closed voters vote on preferred party candidate is then chosen by the party Describe the different organizational forms of political parties Cad remade up ofthe elite minimal and local those with wealth and con nections created resou rces for the party MassLarge homogeneous membership with the leader being accountable to it39s members members and ancillary organization provide resources Catch all Heterogeneous membership members are organized in branches and marginalized in decision making interest groups and individuals create resources Explain changes in citizens39 political aspirations in advanced democracies Focused much less on idea of progress measured by material goods technological change and scientific innovation More centered on quality oflife issues involving improving environmental health liesure personal equality and diversity Also more skeptical ofthe state Explain how religion and political violence are sometimes linked Explain the connections between inequality and democracy The more democratic a state is the less inequality there should be because of redistribution of representation And extreme inequality undermines democratic political structures reversing democracy or preventing it Explain the difference between plurality majoritarian and proportional electoral systems PluralityCandidate who receives the most votes whether in the majority or not wins Winner takes all People don t want to vote for small parties Majoritarian Winner is elected by majority These two are Single Member District systems only one rep for each constituency Lots ofvotes wasted because there is only one winnerquot Proportional voters choose between parties rather than individuals seats are awarded proportionally according to results of vote Use Multimember districtsmore than one legislative seat is awarded each district Explain the erosion of sovereignty in advance states The process of integration and devolution that occurs in advanced states creates the erosion of sovereignty Integration is when states pool their sovereignty which decreases their individual power to gain political economic or social benefits Devolution is an attempt to increase local participation giving the duties of national gov to local authorities Explain the five different types of authoritarian regimes One party in which one party is in control of the government such as the Communist or Nationalist forms Theocracy based on religion or rule ofa divine will Military in which force is used to control the people and military is in charge of government Personalist is when a dictator s power is based in a devotion to them by the people because of some odd idea that they are godlike Kind of cultish Semi Authoritarian Shares democratic and authoritarian features of ruling Explain the role of participation within authoritarian systems Create institutions that superficially resemble elections parties and interests groups that are mobilized by the regime and not by individual groups to overcome the DD and coopt the society instead of only using coercion tactics Participation includes forced participation to create a facade of a supportive civil society have predetermined multiparty elections and create political parties that would not rival the government List the functions of political parties in a democracy Coordination within government Coordination within society Coordination between government and society Contesting elections Recruitment Representation List the traditional three institutional quotbranchesquot of democratic states Legislate policy Legislative Branch Execute policy Executive Branch Adjudicate policy outcomes Judicial Branch Outline major economic change in advanced democracies quotPostindustrialismquotCentered around an informationbased economy Things shifted from traditional industries like manufacturing to dependence on the service sector like finance insurance ect Welfare statealthough advanced democracies have been based upon providing large amounts of social expenditures these benefits are expensive Public is willing to pay higher taxes but libs say this is taking away private income and profit demographics are changing in the way that more people are dying than being born and immigration is either at a low or high in certain democracies meaning the distribution of these benefits will be hindered and a solution must be found to continue to have welfare be a key part of democracies Outline the major effects electoral systems have on democracy and its development 1 Strategic voting and turnout 2 Incentives in new democracy 3 Representation of women 4 Condition of ethnic conflict 5 Number of parties Depending on the structure and how government allows citizens to vote what issues are being raised and who will be represented whohow many people vote differ Use the concept of a cleavage to explain why certain parties exist in certain countries Cleavages are the divisions within a society around which political parties are organized Cleavages change as voters interests change Depending on the voters interests how how their interests differ different parties are created around those cleavages Use the concept of patronclient networks to explain how authoritarian regimes maintain control The regime will providejobs goods and benefits to certain groups or individuals in order to have them show their support or be the only resource that could provide those groups or society with what they need forcing them to be supportive
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