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Socio Chapter 7 Study Guide

by: ashcash

Socio Chapter 7 Study Guide 1101.0

Marketplace > University of Georgia > Sociology > 1101.0 > Socio Chapter 7 Study Guide
Intro Sociology

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This material contains important points from the textbook on chapter 7. It also contains vocabulary and definitions needed for the test on Wednesday, October 28th, 2015
Intro Sociology
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by ashcash on Monday October 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1101.0 at University of Georgia taught by Krohn in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Intro Sociology in Sociology at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 10/26/15
Chapter 7 Social Strati cation Vocabulary Social Equality A condition in which no differences in wealth power prestige or status based on nonnatural conventions exist pg 237 Dialectic A twodimensional relationship following a pattern in which an original statement or thesis is countered with an antithesis leading to a conclusion that unites the strengths of the original position and the counterarguments pg 241 Equality of Opportunity The idea that everyone has an equal chance to achieve wealth social prestige and power because the rules of the game so to speak are the same for everyone pg 243 Bourgeois Society A society of commerce modern capitalist society for example in which the maximization of profit is the primary business incentive pg 244 Equality of Condition The idea that everyone should have an equal starting point pg 244 Equality of Outcome the idea that each player must end up with the same amount regardless of the fairness of the game pg 245 Free Rider Problem The notion that when more than one person is responsible for getting something done the incentive is for each individual to shirk responsibility and hope others will pull the extra weight pg 246 Estate System A politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility pg 247 Caste System A religionbased system of stratification characterized by no social mobility pg 247 Class System An economically based hierarchal system characterized by cohesive oppositional groups and somewhat loose social mobility pg 249 Proletariat The working class pg 250 Bourgeoisie The capitalist class pg 250 Contradictory Class Locations The idea that people can occupy locations in the class structure that fall between the two pure classes pg 250 Status Hierarchy System A system of stratification based on social prestige pg 251 EliteMass Dichotomy System A system of stratification that has a governing elite a few leaders who broadly hold power in society pg 253 Meritocracy A society where status and mobility are based on individual attributes ability and achievement pg 253 Socioeconomic Status An individual s position in a stratified social order pg 256 Income Money received by a person for work from transfers ie gifts inheritances or government assistance or from returns on investments Wealth A family s or individual s net worth that is total assets minus total debts pg 256 Upper Class A term for the economic elite pg 256 0 Middle Class A term commonly used to describe those individuals with nonmanual jobs that pay significantly more than the poverty linethough this is a highly debated and expansive category particularly in the United States where broad swathes of the population consider themselves middle class pg 258 I Social Mobility The movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society pg 265 0 Structural Mobility Mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy pg 266 0 Exchange Mobility Mobility in which if we hold fixed the changing distribution of jobs individuals trade jobs not onetoone but in a way that ultimately balances out pg 267 I StatusAttainment Model Approach that ranks individuals by socioeconomic status including income and educational attainment and seeks to specify the attributes characteristic of people who end up in more desirable occupations pg 267 Notes 0 How did inequality come about 0 JeanJacques Rousseau s View There are 2 types of inequality Political Inequality aka social inequality and Physical Inequality aka natural inequality I Rousseau believes man is naturally pure Once man decides to obtain private property it brings about con ict like competition aggression and hierarchal organization which ruins social equality I Rousseau acknowledges that there is thsicalnatural inequalitv ie age health bodily ability and strength etc However when we strive for private property we create socialpolitical inequality Inequality authorized by the consent of men This consists of different privileges which some men enjoy to the prejudice of others such that of being richer more honored more powerful or even in a position to exact obedience I For more information about Rousseau s view visit page 238 of the textbook 0 Adam Ferguson s and John Millar s View Inequality is a result of surplus I These two thinkers of the Enlightenment period of the eighteenth century believed that as a society becomes more productive certain individuals begin to save resources I As they store more resources they can eventually trade those resources for wealth or the resources themselves can be seen as a form of wealth This wealth will be stored for the future I This surplus eventually creates a new layer in the structure of society those with surplus and those without The people with surplus will work harder to maintain their riches those without will work harder to obtain a surplus and so on and so forth With more individuals in society working harder to obtainmaintain a surplus society will become more efficient and more stratified 0 Thomas Malthus View Inequality is necessary to keep the population under control An Essay on the Principle of Population as It Affects the Future Improvement of Society was a piece written by Malthus In the essay Malthus described that human population grows geometrically 3x3 while resources grow arithmetically 11 A rising number of people on the planet will eventually use up all the available resources and bring about mass starvation and con ict Malthus believed that humankind will always live in a dire state because population growth always threatens the resource supply Population growth will always create human misery therefore inequality allows the population to naturally thin itself out so greater numbers of us have a chance of surviving Malthus also argued that reducing the levels of inequality would only temporarily ease the condition of the masses Reducing the levels would cause the population to swell even more Malthusian population trap a situation in which population growth leads not to abundance but increased poverty After the population grows people will greatly outnumber the amount of available resources resulting in an even larger number of people suffering O Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel From slavemaster dialectics to democracy Hegel believed society started out with equality that stemmed from slave master dialectic relationships The slave is dependent on the master because the master provides food shelter and protection The master depends on the slave who performs basic duties of survival until the master can no longer function on his own basically the master would not be able to function if left to fend for himself 0 This is a relationship of mutual dependency that would not exist without inequality Slavery exists today in the form of human trafficking often involving females who are kept as domestic workers andor sex workers in cities around the world and underpaid agricultural jobs This type of slavery affects 27 million globally Hegel believed as time goes on more will make the change from slave master dialectics to more democratic and equal societies where free men have the say in how their lives are lived and What are the different kinds of equality O Equality of Opportunity Everyone should have the same chance to achieve wealth success and power Equality of opportunity can be thought of as a Monopoly game All players make choices that can result in big payoffs or huge losses The same would go for society if there were equality of opportunity some people will have more wealth and income than others and some people will enjoy greater social prestige or power than others but the rules of the game are still fair Even though the rules are the same for everyone some may face inequalities that make it harder for them to achieve the same things as others An example of an occurrence in society that goes against equality of opportunity is Jim Crow Laws a set of rigid antiBlack statues that relegated African Americans to the status of secondclass citizens through educational economic and political exclusion O Equality of Condition Every individual should have the same starting point to ensure that prestige power and success are earned If society were like a game of Monopoly we would all start out with nothing Of course life does not happen this way so we would need a system to compare when some people start out with more advantages and others start with close to no advantages An example of equality of condition would be affirmative action Affirmative action is a way to alter the rules of society in order to compensate for inequalities in the relative starting positions 0 Affirmative action is not just for RACIAL MINORITIES It also helps women of all races and allows for fair hiring and admission practices 0 Equality of Outcome Every individual will end up with the same amount of success prestige power and earnings regardless of how hard they work Essentially equality of outcome is meant to benefit society as a whole as opposed to benefitting only certain individuals communist ideology Rather than working harder each individual is encouraged to offer society what they are best at Some argue that this system may introduce laziness and decrease society s need to advance It may also create a large free rider problem see vocabulary section What are the systems of Stratification FIVE types Keep in mind that societies that are purely one type of system do not exist Many societies are a mix of at least two of the systems of stratification Estate System A stratification system based on your positionimportance in 0 politics I This system is characterized by limited social mobility and three levels of importance llclergy nobility and commoners I Commoners are further broken down into peasants and city dwellers I Examples of Estate Systems in history include the 18th century Fuedal System in Europe and Southern United States prior to the Civil War 1861 O Caste System A stratification system based on religion I To explain this type of system let s look at the Varna system This system is characterized by no mobility where you are born is where you will stay Your children grandchildren great grandchildren your parents brothers and sisters husbandwife and everyone directly related to you is a member of that caste I The Varna system has four categories Brahmin Priests Kshatriya warriors Vaishya traders and Shudra workers and Dalits 0 Dalits are the lowest order of the Shudra and are considered the untouchables I Caste Systems determine the type of person you will marry what kind of job you will have what kind of freedoms you are entitled to as part of your categorization I One group can surpass another to obtain a higher position in the hierarchy called sanskritization However this process is not guaranteed 0 Class System A stratification system based on economic position in society I Because there is no specific definition for class one can be in multiple classes at the same time and it is easier to move between classes in this system 0 This does not mean that moving between classes is easy it means that there is more social mobility in the class system when compared to caste and estate systems 0 In a Class system there are two pure classes Proletariats those who sell their labor and receive wages in order to survive and Bourgeoisie the capitalists or those who hire the working class 0 Karl Marx came up with the two terms and Erik Olin Wright theorized that people can belong to both of the pure classes depending on their position at work ie a store manager is a part of the working class and the capitalist class He is selling his labor to capitalists that own the company but he himself is considered a capitalist because he oversees the labor of employees under him 0 Status Hierarchy System A system of stratification based on social prestige I Your status in this system is based on what society as a whole thinks of the particular lifestyle of the community to which you belong I Job title is often used to sort individuals in this kind of status system I To describe this system let s look at two types of jobs I white collar and blue collar jobs I What do physicians lawyers actors and cashiers have in common They are all considered white collar jobs Physicians make much more than cashiers do but they are ranked high in prestige because these jobs require some form of education Blue collar jobs are ranked lower in prestige ie waitressing truck driving childcare working and janitorial positions 0 EliteMass Dichotomy A system of stratification in which a few individuals hold the power in society How stratified is the United States stratified based on socioeconomic status I income wealth occupation and education 0 Upper Class Those at the top of the economic food chain I The upper class make their income through investments as opposed to work I It is estimated that the top 1 of the upper class have an income 225 times greater than that of the median American family I Over and above income levels the upper class is also distinguished by prestige and power which can be used to promote personal agendas and in uence everything from political decisions to consumer trends 0 Middle Class Those with a high material standard of living sexual morality and respect for property I There is no specific definition for the middle class This is as a result of the large leap of many families from working class to living comfortably after WWII I The middle class is best seen as the class in between the upper and lower class I Nearly 90 of United States dwellers consider themselves a part of this class 0 The Poor Defined by the US Department of Health and Human Services as a family of four living on 23550 or less a year I The poor are often labeled as living on day to day basis like the rich because their extremely unstable present prevents them from thinking ahead unlike the upper class who do not have to think ahead 0 There are 2 types of poverty Absolute and Relative will be discussed in the chapter 10 study guide Methods of mobility 0 Social mobility is the movement between different positions within a system of social stratification I Horizontal vs Vertical Mobility Horizontal social mobility means a group or individual transitioning from one social status to another situated more or less on the same rung of the ladder ie a cashier at McDonald s leaving her job and becoming a cashier at ChickfilA I Vertical Social Mobility can either be ascending or descending An example of ascending vertical social mobility is the same cashier getting promoted to the CEO of ChickfilA An example of descending vertical social mobility would be the same CEO getting fired and becoming unemployed Structural Mobility Mobility that occurs from changes in the economy I Changes in job distribution lead to this kind of mobility In this kind of mobility changes in the economy that affect the availability of jobs will lead to changes in structural mobility I ie the after WWII Exchange Mobility Mobility in which if we hold fixed the changing distribution of jobs individuals trade jobs in a way that ultimately balances out I After WWII as more veterans completed college more workers were able to transition from blue collar to white collar jobs StatusAttainment Model Ranking of individuals by socioeconomic status including income and educational attainment and seeks to specify the attributes characteristic of people who end up in more desirable occupations


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