Dendro Central Hardwood Study Guide
Dendro Central Hardwood Study Guide 336
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Monday October 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 336 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Donald J. Leopold in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Dendrology in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Dendrology Exam 2 Study Guide CENTRAL HARDWOOD FOREST SPECIES Salix nigra black willow Schaceae underside of S nigra is not white leaves are thin very bright green and stipules are persistent cassic pioneer species very fast growing and shortlived 4050 years matures at a young edge largest Salix species native to US often seen with American and wood is very soft nondurable Little economic value tree can withstand fair amount of ooding reproduces by found in oodplains aso reproduces via stem is very easily sheared off root system needs constant moisture aso occupies no other species that compete with them grows on bare mineral soil shade intolerant little branch overlap and canopy Uses Woodstock packing material biomass production see Willow project in ESF diecious ridges interlace slightly Populus deltoides eastern cottonwood Schaceae fastest growing tree in North America can grow by 1quotyear One of the tallest hardwoods in North America simiar growth habit habitat and seed ecology to seeds are very small short lived 3weeks and very abundant needs soil for growth amost identically ecologically to 5 nigra aso grows on dunes eaves have coarse teeth all along margin very open canopy shade intolerant pioneer species of alluvial soils reproduces well by broken plant parts big producers not a favorite by allergics aso produces lots of hence the name bark is initially smooth develops white diamonds start of furrows on bark and nally develops thick interlacing ridges and furrows Uses woodstock packing material biomass production stellate pith starshaped in cross section jugans nigra black walnut juglulandaceae shade intolerant open canopy shortlived fastgrowing very large when mature site prefers deep rich moist well drained soils has round fruit doesn t split open at maturity delicious amp very tough to crack open often missing terminal lea et pith is chambered light interlacing bark ridges with furrows in between chocolate brown colored most valuable hardwood in North America 50k75000 for furniture bowls cabinets gunstocks dyes allelopathy can harm other plants in region using quotjuglonequot chemical present in all parts of tree seen in and affects tomato potato and pine families inhibits growth jugans cinerea butternut juglulandaceae intolerant short lived pioneer species bark has ashy color very widespread less site sensitive than nigra found on stream banks amp welldrained gravelly soils hammered by fungus under inspection of Federal government to be registered as endangered species fruits are very resinous nut has very buttery texture shels of fruits can be ground up and used for sandpaper wood is lighter and softer than 1 nigra Carya ovata shagbark hickory Juglandaceae M0deratey shade tolerant but becomes lessso or intermediate when older Slowgrowing but one of the fastest growing hickories midsuccession species needs gap in canopy to reach overstory has very canopy when out in the open bark is initially smooth but gets much shaggier with age openings make good sites for bats wood is very hard heavy prefers sites but can also grow on dryer sites Carya cordiformis bitternut hickory Juglandaceae most abundant and uniformly distributed of the hickories simiar geographic range to moderately shade tolerant at rst but becomes as it ages not drought tolerant also not very heat or coldtolerant toerant of moist soils and gravey river bottoms but doesn t like poorly drained soils ikes sites fruit has winged edge bitter tasting l likely not dispersed wildly by wildlife bark is tight interlacing deep furrows naked sulfu ryellow buds Ostrya virginiana eastern hophornbeam Betulaceae very tolerant can grow on rocky soil growing subcanopy subclimax species absent from most of Adirondacks Mts Florida and Mississippi oodplain areas no known pest problems for tree mae owers pendant female ones are erect and found above males shreddy bark very narrow ridges and furrows that go straight up and down bark has entices has quothardquot wood used for specialty items What are some of the key differences between quotred oaksquot and quotwhite oaksquot Note all oaks have steIate pith Quercus alba white oak Fagaceae not as cold hardy as massive one of the biggest in eastern deciduous forests toerant when young but with age is a climax species on dryer sites but on better quality sites is replaced by mesic species can be found on variety of soils except for soils nutrient de ciency very wide open canopy acorns are a big part of many birds diets emerging leaves are velvety in springtime big pollinator in midMay rectanguar ridges on bottom of tree 1020ft and upper part has more broad plates most important quotwhite oakquot for timber used for barrel production wine bourbon industry barres are charred to various degrees of intense heat which results in variations of taste aso used for palates shipping wood has quotblond colorquot Quercus macrocarpa bur oak Fagaceae moderatey shade tolerant slowgrowing longlived species of xeric very dry itte moisture sites taproots are dry resistant fire resistant thick bark bark is corky which protects cambium range isn t as extensive NorthSouth as but extends farther westward than most other Central Hardwood species prairie component among short and tall grasses in Midwest Kentucky stands are typically more scattered out West very thick wavy surfaces possibly for maintaining water balance Very stout form coarse texture arge bud cap is highly fringed very good sprouter No oaks root sprout bark pattern is uniformly ridged with subtle interlocking huge mushroomshaped crown can grow up to 72 in diameter Quercus rubra College symbol northern red oak Fagaceae moderatey shade tolerant but becomes intermediate over time fairly fast growing more than other eastern oaks extends into Adirondacks Canada and Southern Appalachian Mts not seen down South much Uniform shape onlv red oak valued for its timber Uses furniture slack cooperage lumber trim typicaly lives for 200years shorter lived than 0 aba see chart site sensitive also seen alongside j nigra Not drought or salt tolerant ikes moist lower slopes pioneer of mesic sites Dense canopy bark is long rectangular ridges quot quot straight bole buds have slight pubescence on tip quotSpring vesselsquot produced under best growing conditions plugged Pests larval stage defoliate leaves and can kill off tree Quercus velutina black oak Fagaceae very short lived 100years very shade intolerant trunk is often seen curved always growing very thin on dryer sites most of the red oaks not site sensitive often found on dry sandy or rocky ridges persistent taproot found in nearly all upland forests eaves are distinct variable sun amp shade leaves surface of leaves are shiny acorn cap has loose scales darker bark ridges broken up bright yellow bitter tasting bark on the inside but isn t scaly used for tanning leather Quercus palustris pin oak Fagaceae intoerant moderately fastgrowing not longlived pioneer species of wet sites likes very wet areas of Midwest and further South ca y soil wetands can be dominated by O palustris toerates nutrientpoor dry andor ooded soils Very form little economic value big wildlife value acorns used by birds and mammals abundant reproduction allows it to persist as subclimax species doesn t like sites limestone bed lron isn t readily available nutrient source will actually cause leaf to change form acorns have very shallow cap distinct striations twigs are more slender have ner texture Shallow furrows persistent branchind Ulmus americana American elm Ulmaceae intermediate tolerance fastgrowing very aggressive colonizer of disturbed landscapes can be found on nearly all soil types Fruit samara produces massive amounts of seeds starts reproducing at early age big sprouter bark is interlacing but if you cut into it you see layers of red and white becomes more scaly with age and type of growth site wood is very used for rocking chairs bark good living habitat for bats shortterm buttressing at base wetland feature very famous species was the most commonly planted tree in the world 2 introduced diseases wiping it out fungus origins in China some trees are resistant to disease mycoplasmalike organism branches smell like wintergreen no known resistant strain vascuar diseases plug up the plant vessels can t deliver water throughout the plant ltree will be dead in 3years fungus vectored by bark beetles tree now reduced to understory shrub Celtis occidentalis hackberry Ulmaceae moderatey shade tolerant moderate growth form and moderately long lived very abundant in upstate NY realy likes soils can also deal with ooded sites bonedry sites and everything in between used for tobacco sticks but not a high economic value Fruit is taste like dates very distinctive bark aso has at base Uses very dense good for fuel bowls Pests contains mitelike creatures nonlethal and deforms tree but not lethal Magnolia acuminata cucumbertree Magnoliaceae shade intolerant fastgrowing pioneer most coldhardy of the magnolias native to the US best growth seen on cove sites likes Appalachian area but not found much farther North than Oswego immature fruits resemble just don t taste them very bitter I bark has noninterlacing ridges up to 56 in diameter often seen with Liriodendron tulipifera yellowpoplar Magnoliaceae seen in Onondaga and Oswego counties very fastgrowing and very shade intolerant pioneer species of disturbed sites responds well to large clearings dominates after disturbance larger species may produce their own gap when tree dies off it creates huge gap which can allow for new seeds to start growing as long as something disturbs and turns over soil Tuipshaped leaves One of the most abundant hardwoods in Eastern US has replaced status 25 often seen in landscape good for large houses parks likes narrow valleys deep moist soils l coves site sensitive for mesiccove sites aso one of the tallest trees in Eastern US can grow up to 9 in diameter owers have duckbill shaped terminal buds primarily pollinated by bees aggregate of samaras only about 10 are viable big buried seed bank species will persist in soil for up to 30 years before real visible growth branches shed readily not knots ong clear and straight boe means good for soft wood good for carving Sassafras albidum sassafras Lauraceae shade intolerant fastgrowing short to moderate lifespan found in moist woods pioneer species on dry sites old elds important medicinal tree from 16005 to 18005 as a proific rootsucker and basalstump sprouter found as individuals or in small clone of dominants not found North of Central NY eaves are variable 3 different forms Bluegreen on top white on bottom form is very variable up North or down South diecious tree Redorange inner bark smels like Fruit Loops when broken grows up to 3 in diameter found in wet and dry sites tolerates extremes very well often seen with Plantaunus occidentalis American sycamore Plantanacea moderatey shade tolerant very fast growing longlived range is all the way down to Mexico usuay seen near oodplains and other poorly drained sites but can be found just about anywhere most massive hardwood in Eastern US in terms of diameter often associated with P deltoides semidense crown petioe encloses bud owers are multiple of acheans lots of pollen dioeciouswinddispersed bark is very characteristic camocolor tremendous basalsprouter multiple stems found at once used for biomass production strip mines for reclamation wood has high heat value Anthracnose fungus can be deadly to tree especially in the Midwest London planetree Pantanus orientals other varietv is immune Prunus serotina black cherry Roseacea very wide range only absent from MS river likes highquality soils cherry fruits bloom late September good forjamjelly ony cherry tree with timber signi cance smal dots glands seen at base of leaf stem just below leaf moderatey shade tolerant gap species moderately long lived fastgrowing proific basal sprouter sefprunes makes for good timber often seen rusty hairs on underside packed with owers high wildlife value bees birds mammals can get decimated by deer double dormancy before germinating have characteristic lenticels when younger for gas exchange then has bark as quotburnt corn akesquot Pest Gleditsia triacanthos honeylocust Fabaceae fast growing short to moderate lifespan sometimes serves as pioneer species on dry sites can also be found in alluvial sites toerates extremes very wet very dry conditions but very shade intolerant has legumes Widely naturalized along east coast natural range is more westward has replaced U americana in forests as a result of Dutch elm disease not a Nitrogen xer ea ets are and 0aded with painful 3branch thorns in Nature used by Cherokees to catch gut and eat frogs has been bred to be thornless roots are thorned belowground Variety G inermis is thornless widely planted as ornamental replacement for U americana very rectangular open crown l produces little shade tree is diecious only Females have long leathery legumes with pods can be a raking problem disperse by very rot resistant good for fuel patelike bark no serious pest problems very durable in urban environments overpanted l being set up for same fate as U americana Robinia pseudoacacia black locust Fabaceae intoerant fastgrowing early on short lived big root sprouter Smaller legume in pairs all along the branches ony pinnately compound found in S Appalachians to the Ozarks widely dispersed 0ne of the most popular street trees in Europe is a invasive to and deer population a big problem here very critical restoration species strip mines in KY and WV good facilitator of very tough wood not site sensitive found on all soil types save for really dry or really wet distinct narrow upward crown aso good urban planter tight but wider ridges gives bark a coarselooking texture excelent for rewood biomass Acer rubrum red maple Aceraceae intoerant to intermediate fast growing lives only 150yearsnot longlived best of the maple for timber in this region found in Florida up to Canada can be seen in every type of possible forest in given range l very abundant in frequency and stand type very common in swamps excelent ornamental more open canopy A sacchrum is even less tolerant best choice for landscaping purposes because it tolerates lesser conditions for sites diecious males produce plenty of pollen fruits mature in early summer JuneJuly small samara variable bark initially has beech appearance to it has lighter gray color very narrow ridges will ip up on bottom and top as it ages tremendous sprouter in wetlands Acer saccharinum silver maple Aceraceae wetland oodplain species naturally 25 of street trees can live there but tolerates it doesn t do well long term has very thick extensive root system that is found close to the surface better choice is freeman maple m05t deepy cut of maple trees has white underside yellow fall color trees are typically diecious rst to bloom has largest of germinate immediately in big numbers very fast growing very shade intolerant has open canopy short to moderate lifespan often lt100years bark is scalier larger tree than A rubrum horticultural varieties that are even deeper cutAcerX freemani red x silver DBH 5 Acer negundo boxelder Aceraceae ecoogically important species seen in Mexcio all the way to Rockies even naturalized in Russia pinnatey compound very common urban tree in eastern US very ugly owers that produce lots of pollen early in spring late March not a good street tree intoerant fast growing short lived pioneer to subclimax species on stream banks bottomlands produces gobs of seeds that germinate everywhere no timber value except for the occasional bowl dense thickets sprouter rregular bark slightly interlacing large form rots quickly and falls apart like Tilia americana American basswood Tiliaceae used for making found extensively North and West but not so much down South shade tolerant longlived fast growing prefers alkaline soils likes limestone beds of NYS good lawn park tree hardwood is good for carving very solid bark is initially smooth has linear ridges contains sapsucker damage proli c sprouter can have multiple stems growing off from 1 site Nyssa sylvatica black tupeloblackgum NyssaceaeCornaceae range extends down to Mexico wood is hollow inside used for stump sprouts amp root sprouter often has dense thickets bark is very variable can be rectangular alligatorhide octagonal diaphragm pith solid with distinct partitioning great landscape plant salt sensitive slowgrowing drought tolerant no serious pest diseases or pathogens branches protrude perpendicular to trunk pyramidal growth form fruit is dark toerates extremes Cornus orida owering dogwood Cornaceae sowgrowing very shade tolerant not drought tolerant tree for its entire life younger wood used for specialty items subgobose ower buds found at end of twig ugy owers but 4 beautiful white bracts Cornus alternifoia alternate dogwood ast stand seen up North is OnondagaSyracuse leaves have arcuate venation fruit is loved by wildlife very distinct alligatorhide bark becomes scalier as it gets older devastating tree causing a canker and breaking of the main stem Chinese dogwood C orida X C kousa is immune to Diospyros virginiana quotfruit of the godsquot common persimmon Ebenaceae native to NYS Long Island but no natural populations left can be found on dry sites but does better on moist sites persists on alluvialclay soil sites via abundant regeneration prolific sprouter of American hardwoods great looking wood very rich and hard used for making wooden unduate margins with elliptical to ovate shape leaves are leathery no insect or disease problems very shade tolerant slow growing pioneer species canopy is tight just packed with leaves fruit is not good while green but very delicious when orange and ripe the size of PingPong balls berry eshy covering with multiple seeds Aligator hide bark but isn t variable trees are diecious can get quite large but is more of a noncommercial small stature weed on upland sites Fraxinus americana white ash Oleaceae used for 90 of common species very like A saccharum will only grow in fertile sites with continuous moisture supply moderatey fastgrowing moderately shade tolerant distinct open crown not as dense as A saccharum trees are diecious cod strati cation needed for samara germination samaras actualy collected and stored by people because of W00d has been cut up rapidly and price has dramatically dropped because of decimating the ashes along Eastern US introduced from China pathogen also remove a lot of ash white ash is 1 out of every 3 trees invading in old elds very abundant because of bark has interlacing ridges cork color when you cut into it twigs have Ushaped leaf scars great rewood Pinus rigida pitch pine Pinaceae Not manv conifers in Central Hardwood Forest dominant on sites 3 needle pine cones are 24quot long and heavily armed tree is welladapted resistant to often in pure stands open canopy extremey shade intolerant subclimax species on epicormic shoots found all along the bole one of the few pines that sprouts long lived about 500years Can be shrublike or creeper along ground lgrows out not up juniperus virginiana eastern redcedar Pinaceae very widespread ony conifer found in all portions of Central Hardwood forest found on worst sites sandy sites grows in very alkaline or very acidic nutrient poor Awllike foliage seen in younger trees replaced by more scalelike as it ages Fruit is conelike berry smells like gin when crushed great for wildlife cover and food source for many different birds and deer form is oblong sow growing pioneer species very shade intolerant long living lives 500years bark is aromatic and durable has narrow shreddy ridges Pests alternate host of telial stage doesn t kill the tree but 5e verey deforms it and can ruin nearby apple trees
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