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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Lydia Huber

Exam 2 Study Guide PSY 0160-1030

Lydia Huber
GPA 3.3
Psychology of personality

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Took her study guide and seriously added to it, compilation of textbook notes and more from her slides
Psychology of personality
Study Guide
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lydia Huber on Monday October 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 0160-1030 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Staff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Psychology of personality in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.


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Date Created: 10/26/15
Exam 2 Study Guide The second exam will take place in class at 6pm on Tuesday October 27 There will be 30 multiple choice questions 10 matching questions and 2 short answers Please bring a 2 pencil and your People Soft number The exam will cover chapters 4 of the textbook and lectures on 929 106 and 1013 Only material covered in class will be on the exam You will have two hours for the exam though you ll probably nish in about an hour and there will be no lecture afterwards The exam will cover the following terms and concepts 1 Freud s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality Lecture 929 and Chapter 34 a Understand Freud s overall conception of thought and behavior as motivated by drives the mind as an energy system i Structure 1 conscious preconscious unconscious though 2 id ego superego ii Process 1 dynamic energy system that attempts to balance the drives associated with the id to the moral standards of society enforced by superego 2 defense mechanisms iii Development 1 psychosexual development stages early life experiences most important b Freud s views on psychopathology i Psychopathology occurs due to xation in early psychosexual development 1 at any given developmental stage the individual may experience a failure in the development of the instincts a too little or too much grati cation during a stage xation b leads individ to try to obtain the same type of satisfaction appropriate at the earlier stage i Regressions individual seeks to return to an earlier mode of satisfaction c occurs under conditions of stress ii Described oral anal and phallic personality types you do not need to memorize the details associated with particular personality types 1 ORAL a narcissistic taking things into towards and for oneself b no clear recognition of others as separate and valuable entities C others acknowledged only when they are seen as useful when the individ can feed off of them d always asking for something 1 ANAL a bodily processes and interpersonal relations are important b excretion power C anal triad i orderliness and cleanliness ii parsimony and stinginess iii obstinacy d quotcleanliness is next to godliness 2 PHALLIC a successful male i am a man i must deny he has been castrated ii exhibitionist quality is expressive of castration anxiety b female hysterical i excessively identi es w mother and femininity ii uses seductive behavior to maintain interest of father but deny sexual intent iii may attract men with irtatious behavior but deny sexual intent iv naively idealize life partners and romantic love c Freud s views on personality change iii First to outline and advocate a system of psychotherapy iv Psychoanalytic therapy involves bringing the unconscious into consciousness and developing insight v Freud used free association and dream interpretation with patients 1 patients need emotional insight into wishes and con icts 2 therapeutic change coming to grips with emotions and unconscious wishes in a safe environment if xated frees people to resume normal psychological development 4 if defensive redistributes energy so more is available for mature and more gratifying activities 5 if dominated by unconscious and tyranny of the id makes conscious what was unconscious and puts ego in control vi Transference analyst is a quotblank slate onto which the patient projects their neuroses 1 Transference patient s development of attitudes toward analyst based on attitudes toward earlier parental gures 2 patients duplicate in therapy earlier signi cant interactions 00 3 psychoanalysis is distinctive in using it as a dynamic force in behavior change 4 patients become tied to analysts while knowing so little about them as people 5 responses then are almost completely determined by neurotic con icts 6 analyst is a mirror or blank screen onto which the individual projects wishes and anXieties d Critical Evaluation of Freud vii How well does this theory do in terms of meeting the ve goals outlined in chapter one viii Major strengths and limitations 2 Related Psychodynamic Theories Lecture 929 and Chapters 34 a Erik Erickson lX Eight psychosocial stages of development I won t ask you to distinguish between the different stages 1 1 yr basic trust vs mistrust a feelings of inner goodness trust in oneself and others optimism b sense of badness mistrust of self and others pessimism 3 23 yr autonomy vs shame and doubt a exercise of will selfcontrol able to make choices b rigid excessive conscience doubtful selfconscious shame 4 45 yr initiative vs guilt a pleasure n accomplishments activity direction and purpose b guilt over goals contemplated and achievements initiated 5 latency industry and inferiority a able to be absorbed in productive work pride in completed product b sense of inadequacy and inferiority unable to complete work 6 adolescence identity vs role diffusion a con dence of inner sameness and continuity promise of a career b ill at ease in roles no set standards sense of arti ciality 7 early adulthood intimacy vs isolation a mutuality sharing of thoughts work feelings b avoidance of intimacy super cial relations 8 adulthood generatively vs stagnation a ability to lose oneself in work and relationships b loss of interest in work impoverished relations 9 later years integrity vs despair a sense of order and meaning content with self and one s accomplishments b fear of death bitter about life and what one got from it or what did not happen X Extended personality development to lifespan emphasized psychosocial over psychosexual in uences 1 believed that personality developed through a person s entire life 2 placed more emphasis on social rather than sexual stages b Alfred Adler xi Inferiority and compensation xii Less emphasis on sexuality xiii individual psychology places a greater emphasis on social urges and conscious thoughts xiv interested in bodily inferiorities and show people compensate for them as well as how they cope with inferiority as a whole xv quotit is the feeling of inferiority inadequacy insecurity which determines the goal of an individual s existence c Carl Jung xvi Less emphasis on sexuality more forwardlooking xvii lntroversion and Extraversion xviii Personal relationship with Freud xix believed libido wasn t sexual but generalized life energy xxfreud too backward personality development has a forwardmoving directional tendency xxi emphasis on evolutionary foundations of the human mind collective unconscious xxii suggested everyone relates to the world in a primarily extraverted or introverted way though the other direction always remains a part of the person 1 extraversion orientation outward socially engaging active adventurous 2 introversion orientation inward hesitant selective cautious i not a strong impact on scienti c personality psych d Karen Horney xxiii Emphasized importance of socialcultural factors over biological universals xxiv Criticized Freud s characterization of women womb envy xxv More optimistic view of the person xxvi interpersonal relationships are at the core of all personality functioning healthy or pathological xxvii more optimistic view concerning people s capacity for change and self ful llment e Harry Stack Sullivan XXVlll American psychologist XXlX Placed strongest emphasis on importance of interpersonal relationships especially with peers XXX Ideas helped shape Interpersonal Therapy IPT XXXl strongly emphasized role or social interpersonal factors in human development f Bowlby and Ainsworth XXXll Attachment Behavioral System 1 innate and motivates infants to be close to caregivers a proximity of adult attachment gures provides secure base for eXploring environment 10 effects of developmental processes involving attachment are long lasting a internal working models contain abstract beliefs and eXpectations about signi cant others XXXlll The Strange Situation 1 direct observation of parentchild interactions during separation and reuni cation 2 infants classi ed into attachment types XXXlV Attachment types secure anXiousavoidant anxiousambivalent 1 Likely have lasting effects in adulthood 2 Secure sensitive to departure of mother greet mother when reunited easily comforted return to play 3 anXiousavoidant little protest over mother s departure turn look away move away from mom when reunited 4 anxiousambivalent difficulty separating and reuniting ADULTHOOD 5 secure relatively easy to be emotionally close to others 6 anXiousavoidant deal with rejection by distancing prefer not to depend on others 7 anxiousambivalent seek high levels of intimacy and approval low self worth 1 same individual may have more than one attachment style debate regarding continuity of attachment style 3 questions regarding validity of retrospective selfreport J 3 Psychodynamic Personality Assessment Lecture 929 and Chapter 4 a projective tests test that generally involves vague ambiguous stimuli and allows subjects to reveal their personalities in terms of their distinctive repossess i person s interpretation will be revealing of hisher personality ii difficult from psychoanalytic perspective bc relevant material is often unconscious and its mere mention activates defense mechanisms that protect that material from reaching consciousness Also most don t want to reveal threatening aspects of their personality iii Freud s tool free association considered valid but not efficient so he sought other methods iv individual s interpretation will be indicative of how the person typically interprets ambiguous circumstances in his or her daily life b Rorschach Inkblot Test and Thematic Apperception Test i psychoanalytic theory emphasized the compleX organization of personality functioning ii importance of the unconscious and defense mechanisms iii a holistic understanding of personality iv Rorschach 1 2 10 cards 5 black 2 black and red 3 multicolored people look at each card and tell the assessor what they see represented assessor then asks people to eXplain why they felt that a given test item represented what they say it did interpretations content what individ sees a animate vs inanimate objects b humans vs animals c affecting vs hostility d symbolic representations determinants a how was the response or precept formed i does it match on to actual image a location of determinant within image perceptions that match the structure of the inkblot suggest a good level of psych functioning that is well oriented toward reality poorly formed responses that do not suggest unrealistic fantasies or bizarre behavior response used to suggest hypothesis about the individ personality hypotheses are checked against other responses by the individ cards depicting ambiguous scenes on them assessor presents these ambiguous scenes and asks the person to make up a story based on each since scenes are ambig individ personality may be projected onto stimuli defenses can be bypassed 5 responses can be scored systematically according to a scheme developed by test s coauthor Murray or on a more impressionistic basis 6 valid for achievement motivation and motivated behavior motive measures and memory for daily events ii projective tests predict some types of outcomes but not others and there are different ways of scoring them c Rely on subject s interpretation of ambiguous stimuli to assess unconscious motives XXXV Attempt to reduce conscious selfreport bias d Major weakness scoring and interpretation are very subjective XXXVl Contemporary research doesn t support utility of these tests in predicting relevant outcomes iii commonly do not work iv don t work bc problems w interjudge reliability v no guarantee that individ thinking style will manifest itself when confronted w abstract blotches 4 Carl Rogers Phenomenological Theory Lectures 106 1013 and Chapters 56 a View of the person XXXVll Subjectivity of eXperience 1 the reality we observe is really a quotprivate world of eXperiencethe phenomenal field 2 phenomenal eld space of perceptions that makes up our experience a subjective constructions 3 emotions anger disappointment are the reality that is eXperienced 4 perceptions of reality are subjective constructions that re ect our personal needs XXXVlll Feelings of authenticity 1 people are prone to the feeling that one s eXperiences and daily activities do not stem from one s true authentic self a leads to psych distress alienation detachment 1 1 instinctive visceral reactions are potential sources of wisdom 12 individ can realize a state in which their conscious eXperiences and goals are consistent with their inner values XXXlX Positivity of human motivation 1 our most fundamental motivation is toward positive growth 2 view is contrary to a religions that teach we are basically sinful b psychoanalysis which teaches that our basic instincts are sexual and aggressive 13 people can and do act in ways that are destructive but when we are functioning freely we are able to move toward our potentials as positive mature beings xl Phenomenological perspective 1 in psych or other a phenomenological approach is one that investigates people s conscious experiences 2 precursor to psychologists use of the term is the work of 18th cent philosopher Kant 3 Kant distinguished the quotnoumenal world obejcts as they existed in and of themselves independent of the observer from the world of phenomena that is of conscious experiences b Personality structure the self selfconcept xli Includes actualself and idealself 1 individual perceives external objects and experiences and attaches meanings to them 2 total system of perceptions and meanings make up the individ phenomenal eld 3 subset of phenom eld that is recognized by individ as me or quotIquot is the self 4 selfselfconcept represents organized and consistent pattern of perceptions 5 though the self changes this patterned integrated organized quality endures 6 self is available to awareness xlii Measures QSort and Semantic Differential 1 assessor gives patient set of cards each of which contains personality characteristic quotmakes friends easily quothas trouble expressing anger etc and has them sort them most characteristic of me to least characteristic 2 forced distribution most cards in middle and relatively few at either extreme end 3 can be administered more than once to assess both actual self and ideal self to assess discrepancies 4 clients know themselves best wut interesting balance between xed and exible measures 6 semantic differential a individ rates a concept on a number of 7 pt scales de ned by polar adj such as good bad strong weak active passive b concepts such as my selfmy ideal self rated on each of the scales 1 C has xed and exible aspects C Personality process self actualization xliii Major process is selfactualization 1 the fundamental tendency of the organism to actualize maintain and enhance itself and ful ll its potential a organism doesn t seek pleasureavoid pain but to maintain self structure b incl tendency to reduce needs or tension but emphasizes xliv satisfactions derived from activities that enhance the organism Selfconsistency and congruence 8 Discrepancy between self and experience leads to anxiety 9 Through subception we can be aware of an experience that is discrepant with the selfconcept before it reaches conscious awareness and defend against it 10 Two defensive processes distortion and denial 8 Distortion of the meaning of experience which allows the experience into awareness but in a form that makes it consistent with the self denial of the existence of the experience which serves to preserve the selfstructure from threat by denying it conscious expressions 1 1 selfconsistency individ behave int ays that are consistent with their selfconcept 12 emphasized importance of congruence consistency bw self and experience what we feel and how we view ourselves bw self and experience to personality functioning 13 defense is against the loss of a consistent integrated sense of self xlv The need for positive regard 14 Role of unconditional positive regard in development a b infant needs parents love affection and protection c d if child receives positive regard unconditionally no need to deny central to child development parents provide information on what is good experiences if child experiences conditions of worth may then cope by denying or distorting a feature of their true self 15 Conditions of worth may lead to acting in a way not consistent with the true self d Personality development xlvi The importance of parentchild relationships 1 do parents provide and environment that is optimal for psych growth 1O xlvii Internal psychological structures are established 1 do individ experience congruence between self and experience e Rogers views on psychopathology xlviii Psychopathology arises from a selfexperience discrepancy xlix Rogers was less interested in characterizing psychopathology and more interested in nding ways to help people move toward self actualization l believed people have the capacity to grow towards psych maturity li neurotic persons deny awareness of signi cant sensory and emotional experiences lii healthy persons experience a congruence between self and experience liii experiences that are incongruent with selfstructure are subceived reality is denied or distorted which results in selfexperience discrepancy 1 defensive behaviors rationalization fantasy projection f Rogers views on personality change his own greatest interest liv Critical variable in clientcentered therapy is interpersonal relationship between the client and clinician lv Three therapeutic conditions necessary for change 16 Genuinenesscongruence a therapist shares with client genuine feelings good and bad 17 Unconditional positive regard a therapist praises client so she can explore inner self with con dence 18 Empathic understanding a therapist strives to understand the meaning and subjective feeling of the events experienced by the client lvi Rogers used the QSort to assess client s actual and ideal self before during and after clientcentered therapy 19 Students studied therapy outcome and found that correlation between actual and ideal self increased after therapy a Critical Review i What are the strengths and weaknesses of Carl Rogers theory of personality ii What are the enduring contributions of this theory 5 Theoretical Concepts Related to Rogers Humanistic Approach Lectures 1061013 and Chapter 6 a Human Potential Movement and Abraham Maslow lvii Human Potential Movement was considered a quotthird force in psychology contrasted with psychoanalysis and behaviorism 11 20 Emphasized people s capacity to move forward and realize their inherent potential lviii Abraham Maslow 21 Believed everyone possesses an impulse toward growth and ful llment 22 Psychopathology results from frustration of this essential nature a social structures that restrict the individ from realizing hisher potential cause this frustration 23 People are basically good or neutral 24 Known for his Hierarchy of Needs a suggests a view of human motivation that distinguishes between such biological and psychological needs b arranged hierarchically from basic physiological needs to important psych needs c psychology overly concerned with biological needs d physiological safety and security love and belonging selfesteem selfactualization 25 Study of selfactualizing individuals a studies of personality should not be restricted to typical functioning or psychopathology b psychologists should also attend to exceptionally positive high functioning indivd c tell us about human potential i Positive Psychology 1 Classifying human strengths a work by Martin Seligman and co aims to i identify criteria that would cause psychological characteristic to be called a strength ii use these criteria to develop a list of strengths b Strength an enduring characteristic of the person that is bene cial in a variety of life domains wisdom courage love etc 2 Virtues of positive emotions a commonly studied emotions such as fear anxiety anger b broadenandbuild theory positive emotions broaden thought and action tendencies by widening range of i ideas that come to mind ii actions that individ pursue 1 interest leads people to pursue novel activities 2 pride motivates one to continue activities iii positive emotions can further build human competencies and achievements 12 3 Flow a developed by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi describes a feature of conscious experience characterized by i a perceived match between personal skills and environ cha enge ii a high level of focused attention iii involvement in an activity such that time seems to y by and irrelevant thoughts and distractions do not enter into consciousness iva sense of intrinsic enjoyment in the activity v a temporary loss of selfconsciousness such that the self is not aware of functioning or regulating activity 4 exceptional individ possess a accept themselves and others for what they are recognize the needs and desires of others respond to the uniqueness of people and situations form intimate relationships with at least a few special people be spontaneous and creative f resist conformity and assert themselves ii Existentialism philosophical theory or approach that emphasizes the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible agent 1 emphasis on freedom consciousness and selfrefection 2 attempt to understand existence 3 focus on the individ 4 existential crisis feelings of anguish and despair that result when people re ect on their alienation from the world a loss of meaning in life or the inevitability of death a emphasis on conscious experience optimistic and positive view of the person clinical approach scienti c objectivity b less comprehensive than other theories excludes unconscious processes little attention to cultural or situational variation ans 1 Trait Theory Lecture 1013 and Chapter 7 a General background on trait theories i Trait psychological characteristics that are stable over time and across situations 1 consistency trait describes a regularity in behavior distinctiveness ways in which individuals differ from each other summarizes a person s typical behavior and what they are like overall descriptive schema taxonomy predictions of behavior personal environment achievement etc IIIPOOR 13 6 what causes systematic differences 7 emphasis on bio factors ii trait theories emphasize scienti c measurement objective and reliable measures sophisticated data analysis iii View of the person 1 people possess psych qualities that endure across time and place iv Shared assumptions 1 people possess broad predispositions to respond in particular ways a high on trait X strong tendency to behave in particular way and vice versa 2 direct correspondence bw person s performance on trait related actions and their possession of the corresponding trait 3 human behavior and personality can be organized into a hierarchy b Gordon Allport i First quottrait theorist 1 highlighted the healthy and organized aspects of human behavior 2 traits are basic units of personality and are based on the nervous system de ned by frequency intensity and range of situations 3 traits are quotgeneralized and personalized determining tendencies consistent and stable modes of an individual s adjustment to his environment a differentiates traits from temporary states and activities ii Used idiographic research not factor analysis 1 focus is on the potentially unique individ 2 indepth studies of individ are viewed as a path for learning about people 3 contrasts w other trait theorists who generally adopt nomothetic procedures in which large numbers of individ are described in terms of a common universal set of personality traits iii Identi ed three types of traits 1 cardinal eXpress dispositions that are so pervasive that virtually every act is traceable to its in uence 2 central eXpress dispositions that cover a more limited range of situations 3 secondary dispositions traits that are the least conspicuous generalized and consistent 4 recognized importance of the situation in eXplaining inconsistent behaviors 5 felt that both trait and situation concepts are necessary to understand behavior 14 6 traits are necessary to explain consistency whereas situations are necessary to explain variability iv clari ed the trait concept but did little research to est the utility of speci c trait concepts V emphasis on idiographic methods was received poorly by individ who viewed them as unscienti c vi contemporary trait psychs put little stock in idiographic studies c Raymond Cattell i factor analysis a statistical tool for summarizing ways in which a large number of variables are correlated 1 large num of test items are administered to many subjects some items will be correlated with one another others will be cor 2 correlations might re ect in uence of underlying Factor 3 identi es patterns of covariation in test responses but does not answer the question of why the responses covary 4 researcher must interpret the patterns ii Trait theorist who utilized factor analysis to identify 16 source traits 1 Source traits distinguished from surface traits a surface traits represent behavioral tendencies that eXist on the surface and can be observed b source traits are the internal psych structures that are the underlying cause of observe intercorrelations among surface traits 2 ability traits skills that allow individ to function effectively temperament traits involved in emotional life dynamic traits involved in motivational life iii Attempted to use objective empirical data but results did not converge with data from personality questionnaires 1 no direct onetoone mapping of factors was possible ivCreated 16PF inventory v didn t view persons as static entities who behaved the same way in all situations vi states refer to emotions and mood that are partly determined by the immediate situation vii social roles determine certain behaviors mores than do traits viii Acknowledged that traits states and roles all contribute to behavior d Hans Eysenck i Utilized secondary factor analysis to reduce redundancy among traits 1 Traits have normal distributions and hierarchies 2 secondary factor analysis used to identify a simple set of factors that are independent not correlated with each other which are also traits 15 3 4 superfactors highest level of trait hierarchy traits are continuous dimensions with normal distribution ii Superfactors Extraversion Neuroticism Psychoticism 1 2 3 Measured by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire EPQ factor analyses and secondary factor analyses factors are commonly correlatedintercorrelations among factors can themselves be factoranalyzed traits are non correlated allows Eysenck to represent them as independent dimensions any individ can be located Within the 2D space of his model everyone has a greater or lesser amount of extraversion and neuroticism iii Believed that traits have a biological basis 1 DO The lemon juice test a standard amount of lemon juice placed on participant s tongue Extrainteroversion identi ed by questionnaire b introverts and extraverts differ in the amount of saliva they produce in response c may indicate biological basis to individ differences alt 2 and 3d models have been proposed that better t available data his theories of bio bases of personality traits lack consistent support eXistence of a journal devoted to research in eysenckian tradition may have isolated this tradition from the rest of psych maybe more than 2 or 3 factors are needed to describe a personality


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