Midterm Study guide
Midterm Study guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chloe Hakim on Monday October 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
SOC 3 MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE scantron form 288 0 Robert Scott s main argument 0 O O Blindness is a social construction You might not need eyes to see He wondered if maybe the organization s low expectations for what blind people could do was in some way limiting the blind people the organizations sought to help How they functioned was a process of learning The only real absolute physical limitation of blindness is about an inability to perceive things in the distance 0 Daniel Kish s conceptualization of his blindness O 0 Daniel uses the clicking of his tongue to move around freely echolocation sonic representation of what s around him He believed that if our culture recognized the capacity of blind people to see then more blind people would learn to see 0 Main argument in Silver making road dangers invisible 0 Driving a sportsutility vehicle and talking on a cell phone while driving can pose perhaps a greater road hazard than drunk driving and yet receive much less public and policymaking attention Behavior same in both cases but with different consequences Sport utility vehicles and pickup trucks can by virtue of their weight high clearance and structural rigidity do far more damage in an accident than conventional automobiles can 0 Objectivist outlook problems with this perspective 0 Definition conditions that somehow harm society negative consequences for individuals social world or our physical world Called this because couched in terms of OBJECTIVELY measureable conditions gives only facts Problems I Conditions that might be harmful aren t always identi ed as a social problem Examples Sexism Heightism I Conditions identified as social problems for different reasons Example Obesity I Wide range of social problems means this outlook remains vague so it can speak to everything 0 Subjectivist Approach problems with this perspective 0 Subj ectivist Approach I De nes social problems in terms of people s subjective sense that something is or isn t a problem I It s a personal view or opinion I Not an objective quality of a social condition but the subjective reactions to that condition that matter I Social problems as a process of responding to social conditions 0 Problems I Disagreement can exist about what should be considered a social problem I Disagreement can exist between individuals outside a society and members of a society Social construction de nition 0 The process by which people continually assign create or construct meaning in the world Claim 0 An argument that a particular troubling condition needs to be addressed Troubling Condition 0 Conditions that become subjects of claims Claimsmakers 0 People who seek to convince others that there is a troubling condition about which something must be done Six stages of social problems process model Civil Rights Movement and the social problems process model 1 Claimsmaking a People make claims that there is a social problem with certain characteristics causes and solutions Activists and demonstrators who protested against racial segregation 2 Media coverage a Media report on claimsmakers so that news of the claims reaches a broad audience Newspaper and television reporters broadcast the con ict to a broad audience 3 Public reaction a Public opinion focuses on the social problem identified by the claimsmakers More people become concerned and support campaign 4 Policymaking a Lawmakers and others with the power to set policies create new ways to address the problem Congress passes the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 5 Social problems work a Agencies implement the new policies including calls for further changes Under new federal laws states and localities are forced to end formal policies of racial segregation 6 Policy outcomes a There are various responses to the new arrangements People call for more changes to reduce racism campaigns to promote the rights of other groups Studying issues as social problems vs conditions Voting Rights Act of 1965 Supreme Court changes statebased responses to changes 0 Voting Rights Act of 1965 Prohibited racial and language discrimination in voting Provides special protections Targeted specific states in the south with history of discrimination o 2013 Supreme Court Ruling Invalidated part of the Voting Rights Act which prevented states from changing election laws without federal approval 0 Contested Issues in 9 states most in South I Voter ID laws 39 Cutbacks in early voting 39 Cutbacks in election day registration 0 Broken windows theory 0 Maj or crimes are the result of a lot of little things that went unchecked Broken windows theory you police at the little things to get to the big things 0 Black Lives Matter social movement 0 A movement against racist police violence 0 Eric garner a black man died from being put in a choke hold by white police officer Garner did not cause any harm 0 Resources 0 The power status contacts education money that actors involved have and bring to in uence every stage of social problems process 0 Rhetoric o A troubling condition can be understood in various ways and be reconstructed to fit the concerns of actors involved at that stage 0 Feedback 0 The phenomenon in which a particular cause produces an effect that in turn affects the cause 0 Components of basic structure of claims 0 Grounds The portion of a claim that argues that a troubling condition exists 1 Typifying example 2 Name 3 Statistic o Warrants The part of a claim that specifies what should be done what action should be taken to address a troubling condition 0 Conclusion The portion of a claim that justifies doing something about a troubling condition Resources Rhetoric and Social Problems Model 0 Counterclaims 0 An argument that directly opposes a particular claim 0 Difference between domain expansion and piggybacking 0 Domain expansion redefining a troubling condition to encompass a broader array of cases o Piggybacking To link a new troubling condition to an already established problem Position issue definition and examples 0 A troubling condition about which people disagree I eg abortion Valance issue definition and examples 0 A troubling condition about which there is general agreement I e g child abuse child pornography Insider vs outsider claimsmakers o Outsider People who lack easy access to publicity and to people in positions of power I eg Activists MLK Student Protesters o Insider Claimsmakers who have easy access to publicity and people in positions of power I Lobbyists Interest Groups NRA NAACP Maj or political contributors e g Koch brothers government officials Social movement 0 Calling for change Countermovement o Resisting Change Framing 0 Developing a way of looking at the world that others will adopt The way in which claimsmakers construct claims about a troubling condition Types of frames 0 Diagnostic frame grounds A social movement s depiction of the nature of a problem 0 Motivational frame warrants A social movement s description of what needs to be done about a particular troubling condition 0 Prognostic frame conclusions A social movement s justi cation for taking actlon IFrame disputes o A disagreement between groups of activists about how to frame a particular troubling condition Ownership definition examples of 0 Having one s construction of a troubling condition become widely accepted Constituents 0 People who support a social movement Beneficiaries 0 People who stand to bene t from a social movement s success Conscience constituents 0 People who contribute money or even join demonstrations because they believe in particular cause although they do not expect to be direct beneficiaries of the cause Population sampling problems L 0 Problems I Screening calls answering machines caller ID I Refusal to participate I No landline only cell phone costs more to contact Survey instrument problems L o Wording of a question 0 Funders of polls claimsmakers Who have agendas o Oversimplified questionsresult Population L 0 Definition All those described by statistics Representative sample L o A sample that accurately re ects the diversity of the population I For US population of 3 million 0 Poll sample of 1000 Will be accurate 3 about 95 of the time 0 Poll sample of 10000 Will be accurate 1 about 95 of the time Sample L o A subgroup used as a basis for statistical generalizations about a population Sample survey L o A poll administered to a sample in order to generalize about opinions or other characteristics of a population Focus groups L o A set of people that researchers select to discuss certain topics in order to earn What the public is thinking 0 Helps make more sense of your vieW I Popular Wisdom I Personal experiences I Media discourse K Street in DC L o Thoroughfare Where lots of lobbying firms are located 0 Popular destination for protests Lobbyists L 0 People who do for their job just that They make sure something stays on agenda take politicians to dinner etc o Professionals responsible for knowing the ins and outs of the legislative process who maintain networks of contacts with legislators and their staff members and who understand how to effectively package claims to attract legislators interest and support Policy streams problem recognition policy proposal political stream L 0 problem recognition stream the set of claims that policymakers hear about a troubling condition 0 policy proposal stream a set of policy proposals that policymakers hear for addressing a troubling condition 0 political stream the current political situation recognized by policymakers in which a troubling condition might be addressed 0 when the 3 streams come together policy elements may result casual storiesaccidental intentional target populations purposes instrumental symbolic other Also know 0 national rif e association 0 In kingdon s stream of policymaking I problem recognition stream policy proposal stream political stream 9 Con uence when streams merge opportunities are greatest for social policy change Insider claimsmakers L o Claimsmakers who have easy access to publicity and people in positions of power Polity definition and examples of L 0 Groups and indiViduals who have easy access to policymakers those already well connected to policymakers L Bias definition and examples of L o A tendency for media workers personal beliefs and views on an issue to interfere with balanced and impartial coverage L Primary and secondary claims L 0 Primary one of the initial claims usually presented by activists or experts that begin the social problems process 0 Secondary the media s transformation of a primary claim Carrying capacity definition L o The number of issues that can receive attention in an arena News work L o The job of locating and presenting news at a larger public Impact of public opinion 0 Public opinion polls can help claimsmakers determine if their claims are effective or not 0 Policymakers often follow poll results elected officials might respond to widespread concern about troubling condition Policymakers 0 People who are able to establish a social policy of some kinds I Study of policymaking 9 study of legislative bodies 0 Make laws 0 Allocate funds to implement laws 0 Issue guidelines to official agencies to administer laws 0 Appellate courts rule on constitutionality of laws 0 Nongovernmental institutions make policy too 0 Policies also made by nongovernmental bodiesinstitutions Corporations churches professions charities Policy domains the part of the political system that focuses on a particular troubling condition The network of people Who share an interest in particular policy issue Claimsmakers compete for media attention 0 Media agenda Claimsmakers compete for legislators attention 0 Legislators agenda 0 The role of lobbyists
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