Study Guide Exam 3
Study Guide Exam 3 Geo 102
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor sandeno on Monday October 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Geo 102 at Illinois State University taught by Bill Shields in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Principles of Geology in Geology at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
Geology Notes to Study for Test 3 109 Forces that act upon the earth are caused by plate tectonics the deformation Goes back to original shape once the stress is released line that goes both directions angle and direction it goes into the earth where dips are broken and offset is between two sides Can bring up other minerals that are deep in the earth 1 up and down 2 side to side Stays in the same place Moves from original place converging boundary The hanging wall goes over the footwall Move past each other left to right series of faults Both sides move to the north but the Paci c side moves faster 1014 Shear found at a transform fault boundary and moves in opposite directions Adding stress causes deformation Earthquakes are explained by stresses below the elastic limit point Five structures 1 Anticlines folds in the shape of a capital A The limbs of the fold dip into the earth away from the center The oldest rock is in the center Converging Series of folds not just one Occurs because of compressive series Not always parallel to the ground 2 Syncline similar to anticline but upside down The fold is downward The limbs go into the ground towards the center The youngest rock is in the center Older rocks are on the sides Series of folds not just one Occur because of compressive series Not always parallel to ground Anticlines and synclines occur above the elastic limit point 3 Monocline One dipping limb It is at on both sides They are caused by basement block faulting Sometimes blocks of granite sink down when there are breaks in the rock Peru Monocline Caused by basementblock faulting Renamed spilt rock monocline It s in Illinois Dome Oldest rock in the center Circlular Causes magma lt fractures the rock at the surface and exposes older rock All the layers dip away from the center into the ground Black Hills a dome oldest rock is in the center Basins Youngest rock in the center Circular The limbs dip into the ground It sinks down deeper and sediments wash into it and keep causing it to go deeper Strike and dip symbols shows that it goes towards the outside dome Cause by intrusions Strike and dip symbol pointing towards the middle Limbs are dipping 1016 Anticlines and synclines compression Basins the sinking of the ground due to crustal thinning Monoclines Basement block faulting Domes Intrusions has closure looks kind of like a circle Normal faults tension Reverse faults compression Strike and dip compressions If the strike and dip symbol points away from the center then it is an anUcHne If A is up top on the left and b is on the bottom right but the tops are even then b ends up being the footwall A is the hanging wall because it hangs on top of the other wall since it is towards the top Strike and dips point towards the youngest rock Hanging wall moves up compression reverse fault Strike slip shear right lateral stand on one side looking at the other side and see which way the opposite one moves When two blocks are sliding past each other Anticlines synclines basins domes monoclines ductile deformation Earthquakes associated with the san andres faults are elastic deformation know this using the chart for the test What makes earth unique water is in liquid solid and gas lllinois gets 90100 percent of their water from surface waterrivers lakes and stuff on top of the land In Illinois we take between 1019 billion gallons of water out of the surface everyday 972 percent of all water is in the oceans You can t drink ocean water but you can make the water drinkable by taking out the salt A lot of our water is also in the glaciers It is 21 percent of our water Less than 1 percent is ground water Oceans and glaciers is 99 percent of our water we drink Why is the water cycle important essential for life transportation drinking water irrigation industrial processing Most of it is used for irrigation Laminar ow particles ow in a straightline path parallel to the stream channel deposits material Turbulent Flow water moves in erratic fashions characterized by swirling whirlpoollike eddies erodes material Controlled by velocity of ow and roughness of the channel bottom Discharge the amount volume of water passing a certain point in a given amount of time The more discharge the more pollutants can be in the water 1019 alluvium lls ood planes Stored in bars and they are temporary storage areas until the next ood event Bars usually form on the inside of the turns The outside of the turn moves faster to keep up with the inside Cut bank The outside where the bank gets cut away Meander a oopike bend One of the eight natural forms of the earth Ox Bow Lake a lake that ends up connecting as a circle with the river connecting from two sides Delta s They form when you slow down the water and a river empties into a bigger body of water Alluvial fan This forms on land at the base of a mountain Dendritic the pattern of river drainage you would see in Illinois Loose material at the surface Goes into a lot of directions Loose unconsolidated at the surface Radial central high point Rectangular fractured in parallel sets of cracks Water exploits the fractures This means fractured bed rocks at the surface When a stream is rst born is during uplift and then erodes the surface Old Age Stage Very good ood plane where you will see ox bow lakes Flood planes can be occupied by the river at any time Floodplain Ossociated with old age streams Main Channel has hills on both sides with natural levees on the sides It widens and slows down Yazoo Tributaries Drain and nd their way to the main channel The fault under New Orleans is sinking and sliding out into the ocean Along the gulf we are losing one acre of land every 20 minutes Ground water not a river of water A region in the subsurface that s saturated with water Subsurface Water table seperates zones Zone of aeration lled with air Zone of saturation lled with water Under the zone of aeration All water Flows in one direction It ows down Porosity the volume of open space in rock or soil 1021 Porosity Something with lots of tiny holes Permeability if water can go through it Aquifer groundwater transmitted freely a region in the subsurface needs to be porous hold water and have enough water to be useful with good water Aquitard retards ow Aquiclude excludes ow Layers that exclude the ow of water Same as aquitard Uncon ned aquifer the water level changes in seasons Water table is the top Con ned Aquifer A layer of sandstone is trapped because it has an aquifer in the middle of it Is overlain by a con ning layer Artesian wells ow under pressure Ef uent Stream Gains Water ln uent Stream Losses water 1023 Longtitude North and South Latitude East and West They both make a grid system United States Public Land Survey Land Of ce Grid System drew north south east and west lines North and south meridian east and west base line A section of land is about 1 square mile 7 12 minutes is how a topographic map is measured Changes 7 12 minutes of longtitude and 7 12 minutes of latitude but the only place it will be square is at the equator Sexagesimal Base 60 still used now It is used for measuring time and angles Topographic maps published by the geographic survey Foot scales mile scales and kilometer scales are used to measure maps Contour lines lines of equal elevation V contour lines upstream Closed contour lines hills Countour lines never cross 1026 Review for the exam Stages of stream valley development When a stream is rst born the running water carves a channel in a v shape There are waterfalls eddies and rapids this is a youth When meanders occur and the valley gets deeper and the waterfalls whirpools and rapids all go away it is the second stage Old age back swamps are seen here Strain and Stress Chart Anticlines and sinclines occur above elastic limit point but below the fracture point They are folds Both caused by compression Basins and domes have closure Basin has youngest rock in the center and strike and dip points towards the center Domes have the oldest in the middle and strike and dip points away from the center No earthquakes associated with basins and domes Folding away from the center anticline Oldest rock in the middle Folding towards center sincline Youngest rock in the middle Normal faults occur at stresses above the fracture point All faulting is brittle all folding is ductile Earthquakes are not associated with domes reverse faults are in the same place as anticlines and sinclines All earthquakes happen in elastic deformation Strikeslip faults brittle Domes ductile Domes are caused with stresses above the elastic limit point and below the fracture point P waves occur below the elastic limit point Do S waves too Look at slide 31 in the folding powerpoint All faults are named by the relative motion between sides It is either up and down dip slip Or side to side strike slip Normal fault foot wall is higher and hanging wall is on top but lower Caused by tensional stress Con ned and uncon ned aquifers Uncon ned The water table can move up and down and is not con ned to one elevation Con ned is trapped and pressurized between two aquifers Called an artesan well Found in con ned aquifers Zone of aeration area not saturated with water above the water Zone of saturation saturated with water Laminar ow and turbulent ow Turbulent whirlpools and waterfalls Shadow Zones Solid Liquid solid liquid solid Layers of earth according to seismic data Some energy is re ected and some is refracted for S waves We know the outside of the earth must be liquid or the 5 wave would have went through When p waves pass through a layer they get bent The inner core is solid and it is metal Ricter measures how much shakingenergy is released Marcelli measures the amount of damage from an earthquake Cone of depression it is a temporary lowering of a water table by a pumping well Can change the direction contaminents ow Moves apart diverging
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