COM 107 Exam #2 Study guide
COM 107 Exam #2 Study guide COM 107
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samuel Gozinsky on Monday October 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COM 107 at Syracuse University taught by Prof. Chock in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 247 views. For similar materials see Communications and Society in Communication at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/26/15
COM 107 Exam study guide 2 Media and Politics A What percentage of US adults regularly or sometimes get their campaign news from late night comedy shows a Regularly 12 b Sometimes 19 B According to lecture what types of appeals do political advertisements use Be able to recognize and give examples a Some types of appeals that they use are trust hope and reassurance b Usually there is so much information thrown out that the ads rely heavily on images and audio to help convey the messages c They also attempt to associate the candidate with positive images and movements family etc C What are the effects of political advertisements dependent upon Who is most and least likely to be affected a Effects of political ads are dependent upon 1 Message content do you agree with or are you persuaded by the content of the message 2 Message quality is the ad tacky Is it a good ad 3 Reciever39s predispositions this is the key factor If you are committed to one politician chances are that an ad isn39t going to swing you either way If you are in between you can be swung one way b If you live in a swing state you are more likely to be faced with a huge amount of campaign ads because everyone is trying to pull you one way or the other D What are Negative Campaign Ads and what types of effects can they have According to lecture how can they in uence voter turnout and attitudes towards politics in general What is the potential quotbacklashquot of negative campaigns a Negative campaign ads an ad directed to the failings of an opponent in relation to either character or uses b Effects of negative campaign ads 1 Defusing partisan support split on issues 2 A plague on both houses 3 Undermines the legitimacy of the whole process Makes people think that political efficacy is lower than it really is 4 Low voter turnout 5 Overall this can have a very negative effect on the person making the negative ads 6 The sleeper effect i lnitial negative attitudes about source and message ii Over time source forgotten iii Message remembered E According to lecture why and when do candidates use negative ads a The tighter the campaign the meaner the ads are b They are also used to try to create distance between opponents c They also try to in uence voters by putting opponents in negative light F Why do news programs include political ads in their news coverage a For news programs there is no downside to showing political ads they don39t incur the loss of showing negative ads b Ads are tailored for news c The ght between politicians serves as a good story G How can candidates use social media to promote their campaign a Examplle Bernie tweeting Republican national debate b Gives candidates new way to interact with constituents II Media Industries and Reoulation A Be able to recognize examples of ocaism and concentration of ownership a Media conglomerates conglomerate companies own more than one avenue of media so they could own a tv station and a movie production company which will obviously give them an a way to advertise their movie for free 1 If a movie production company owns a magazine the magazine will obviously give positive reviews and criticism of the movie b Localism 1 An American tradition media is owned by the public c Concentration 1 Corporate ownership and controlled access An example would be Viacom or NBC B Be able to de ne and identify examples of monopoly and oligopoly a Monopoly A single rm dominates production and distribution 1 A good example of monopoly would be Comcast in cable TV today or ATampT in telephone until the 19805 and Microsoft in software until the 19905 b Oligopoly a few rms dominate the industry 1 This is the most common structure 2 A good example is how in the internet industry google amazon apple and facebook dominate C Be able to de ne and identify examples of horizontal integration vertical integration and crossownership a Horizontal integration Ownership integration through the acquiring of companies that are in the same business 1 This can be dangerous because if a media company owns all of the radio stations for example in an area and doesn39t like a certain band they could theoretically wipe out all access and exposure to that band b Vertical integration concentrates ownership because a company acquires other companies in related industries 1 An example of this is owning production and distribution 2 This can be dangerous because they can control who can access and how they can access your information c Crossownership concentration by owning all of the different kinds of media in the same geographical area 1 If you own all of the outlets there is no alternative outlet and you can completely control what media people consume on the basis of you not liking it D Be able to answer the discussion questions for the video Behind the Screens a What are crosspromotions merchandising amp tieins 1 Crosspromotions when companies market each other39s products 2 Merchandising when branded products are supposed to promote a particular movie 3 Tieins a long term agreement for promotion and marketing between companies How does ownership of conglomerates amp connections between companies in uence lmmaking decisions 1 Before companies begin to pursue making a lm they must consider its marketability What kind of theme park ride can we make from this Tshirts Video games How does this affect access to the industry 1 Its very hard to get into the industry because competition is huge media conglomerates that basically own methods of free promotion and advertising so they have an inherent advantage How does this relate to news stories amp lm reviews 1 Media conglomerates can give themselves favorable coverage and reviews through the alternate media channels that they own What is quotsynergyquot 1 Synergy is when many different entities come together and combine their strengths to form one extremely powerful entity We see this with conglomerate companies It is the promotion and sale of a product throughout the various subsidiaries of the media conglomerate They are taking advantage of the many different parts Be able to recognize examples of product placement a A particular brand or product is shown in a movie or TV show This is a form of advertising and promoting that product What is synergy a Synergy is when many different entities come together and combine their strengths to form one extremely powerful entity We see this with conglomerate companies It is the promotion and sale of a product throughout the various subsidiaries of the media conglomerate They are taking advantage of the many different parts What approaches are the lm industry taking to adjust to new technology a Really big screens some movies are worth seeing in the theaters Some lmmakers are taking advantage of technology such as 3D Movies like Jurassic world take advantage of this b Small screens some productions are being produced especially for the smaller screen like mobile phones thye are better in that kind of intimate setting What impact is the need to reach an international market having on lm content amp scripts How important is international box of ce revenue compared to domestic box of ce revenue a It is making the plots and production of lms have a greater international appeal For example in the martian China plays a huge part in the plot b Many blockbuster movies make a lot of their revenue overseas 80 90 of lms don39t make money at the domestic box of ce What are the different ways that movies can make money a They can now sell merchandise based off of their movie that can make them a ton of revenue they can engage in licensing deals and they can produce games and books and whatnot By making the movie and its characters into a brand they can make a lot of money Approximately what percentage of movies make money at the domestic box of ce a About 1020 Approximately what percentage of domestic box of ce revenue is kept by movie theaters What are the differences between the quottraditionalquot and the quotadvertiser integratedquot model of TV production a Traditional 1 Production costs laws prevented networks from owning their own studios so they would have to pay a private production company 2 Licensing network would pay production company to run a show twice 3 Advertising the network would make money by selling advertising space 4 First run syndication this occurs when there is reruns It saves money because all of the initial production costs have been paid for b Advertiserintegrated model 1 Produced and coproduced and independent material There is a quotbiblequot on how to produce 2 Licensing 3 Financing front end costs paid for up front by product placement Is the quotcutting the cordquot market those who don39t watch TV having a major impact on media use a lts making advertising during live TV a lot less valuable and also it makes measuring data from the market a lot harder because people watch online rather than on live TV You should be familiar with mass media regulation acts and policies identi ed in lecture e 1980 sherman antitrust act 1 Broke up monopolies was speci cally designed for railroads 1934 Federal Communications act 1 Airwaves were a public resource 2 They would be broadcast for public interest conveinience and necessity only 3 License was needed from the government to broadcast on a particular bandwith 4 This was the birth of PSA39s 1948 paramount decision 1 Studio system vertical integration 2 Owned studios and distribution networks but was broken up 1970HnSyn 1 TV restrictions on networks 2 Repealed 1995 3 Cant produce and distribute but decision was repealed Telecommunications act of 1996 what you could say and how you could say it What are the differences between and the implications of the Fairness Doctrine and Equal Time Rule a b Fairness doctrine you must provide competing points of view when covering controversial issues Equal time rule Radio tv and cable systems that originate their own programming must treat legally quali ed political candidates equally when it comes to selling or giving away air time We don39t have to give equal coverage to people like deez nuts etc 1 Doesn39t apply to news coverage What was the original intent of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 What was the actual outcome on media ownership a b The original intent of the telecommunications act of 1996 was to deregulate ownership in the media industry but to regulate content Content labels like on video games were required companies were forced to selfregulate content Rating systems were also established 1 MPAA lm 2 ESRB interactive software 3 The FTC started applying pressure to published material like CDs and DVDs Although it intended to deregulate ownership in a good way what actually happened was the lines were so blurred that many rules vanished and it became extremely easy for huge networks to buy out smaller localized stations so companies began to become huge What is the impact of the Net Neutrality rules passed in 2015 on access to content a b Made the internet quotopenquot Companies that provide internet access could no longer prioritize who gets better or higher quality access and content based off how much they pay and certain content couldn39t be displayed more quickly or with higher quality c However it is still ok to prioritize like this with advertisments lll Freedom of speech and content regulation A What do the First Amendment and Fourth Amendment guarantee a The rst amendment prohibits congress or the government from abridging and preventing any type of free speech b The fourth amendment prevents unreasonable searches and seizures warrants are needed 1 This creates an interesting situation because it protects privacy in certain cases but doesn39t always guarantee citizens the right to privacy 2 Ajournalist or someone in the media may publish private or embarrassing facts Figures that are considered quotprivatequot in society and gures that are considered quotpublicquot are treated different ways Media can get in trouble for publishing facts about private gures If you are a public gure and sue for libelslander you must prove that the publisher had intended malice This is not the case with private gures they don39t need to prove that B Which federal agencies are responsible for regulating media content and compliance a MPAA ESRB are rating systems that help regulate content b FTC applies pressure to published materials to comply and be regulated C What role does quotthe publicquot play in regulating media content Be able to recognize examples a Obscenity which is regulated is de ned on a case by case basis by what the public nds offensive D Be able to answer the discussion questions from the The Right to Publish Chpt 11 video a What did the quotPentagon Papersquot story reveal 1 They revealed secret government les that gave information about our involvement in Vietnam which people were not happy about The government had deceived the public about why we were involved and this shed some light on real reasons b What was the Nixon39s administrations39 reaction and why did they view this as a violation of the quotEspionage Actquot 1 They were very upset and felt like it threatened national security by releasing topsecret government documents They threatened to sue c What was the Supreme Court39s decision on the Pentagon Papers 1 They ruled in favor of the paper39s rights to post pieces of the pentagon papers E In the Pentagon Papers case how did the Supreme Court rule on the government39s ability to exercise prior restraint a Prior restraint deals with the governments right to prevent a meida outlet from publishing certain information b The court left the impression that prior restraint is almost never justi ed because the rst amendment protects publications against it but didn39t de ne when there are exceptions and it would be allowed F What types of expression are limited 7 were identi ed a Speech that presents a clear and present danger b Copyright c Fraudulent advertising making false claims about a product could be illegal but there are some ways around it by claiming that the advertising was simply exaggerating d Libel the print version of slander saying false statements about people e Slander vocal version of libel f Child porn creating owning and distributing it are all illegal g Obscenity G W at are the characteristics of quotlibelquot and how do these differ for quotpublicquot and for quotprivatequot citizens a Libel saying false statements about people in the print 1 For quotprivatequot citizens they must prove that the statement was false They must prove that damages actually happened such as a loss ofjob public humiliation harm to reputation or mental angubh 2 Public citizens must prove all of this plus malice H How is privacy protected or not What39s the difference in privacy protections for public and private citizens a Privacy believe it or not is not guaranteed by the 4th amendment That amendment protects privacy of property and prevents trespassing Once you are considered a quotpublicquot gure your privacy rights become a lot more blurred and it is more dif cult to protect yourself b However there are some antipaparazzi laws that protect celeberties from photographers getting too close c There are also measures that protect private citizens like the privacy act of 1974 that protects individuals records from public disclosure unless the individual gives written consent d However courts allow regular citizens to be treated like public gures if they they become part of controversies and subsequent news stories I What are the differences between the authoritarian state libertarian and social responsibility models of expression and speech a Authoritarian model 1 Derived from the idea that the general public which was largely illiterate when this model came about needed guidance from an elite educated ruling class Government criticism and public dissent weren39t tolerated especially if it undermined the quotcommon goodquot 2 This model also went hand in hand with frequent censorship 3 Many authoritarian systems operate in developing countries where journalism joins with the governemtn and business to 4 5 minimize political dissent keep the society stable and foster good economic growth Leaders believe too much freedom would threaten stability We see this in developing countries in asia latin America and Africa b State model 1 2 3 The government controls the press because state leaders believe the press should serve the government and the state Some government criticism is allowed but anything questioning the basis and foundation upon which the state is governed is not allowed They are on the decline but some are still used like china cuba north korea c Libertarian model 1 4 5 Encourages vigorous government criticism and supports the highest degree of individual and press freedoms 2 No restrictions are placed on mass media or individual speech 3 Tolerate literally evertything including porn and encouragement of anarchy In North America many newspapers and magazines operate on this model A lot of faith is placed in citizens ability to distinguish facts and exaggerations d Social responsibility model 1 2 Characterizes the ideals of mainstream journalism in the US Outlined in 1947 by the Hutchins Comission which was formed to examine the increasing in uence of the press 3 Usually privately owned 4 The press functions as a fourth estate which is an unof cial branch of the government that monitors the legislative judicial and executive branches for abusing power Keeps the media independent of the government Press supplies info to citizens so they can make educated decisions More forums for exchanges of ideas better coverage of society s range of economic classes and social groups stronger overviews of our nation39s social values ideals and goals What are VChips and what percentage of families actually use them a Vchips are computer chips that are installed in TV sets that can disable the TV39s ability to receive programming that is deemed violent or sexually explicit What ruling required TV broadcasters to develop a rating system for television What are the concerns about applying quotlabelsquot or ratings to programs a The telecommunications act of 1996 led to that rating system beign developed What is the quotMiller Actquot and how does it de ne obscenity a Came from the Miller V California 1973 case that established three criteria that de ne what obscene material is 1 Does the average person applying modern community standards nd that the material as a whole appals to the prurient interest 2 Does the material depict or describe sexual conduct in a patently offensive way 3 Does the material as a whole lack serious literary artistic political or scienti c value M What are quotcommunity standardsquot and why are they a problem on the Internet a Its hard to gauge what the stanndards of the entire internet community are N What is a Chilling Effect and how has this term been used to defend against speech regulation a This is when speech is held back in fear of penalization by law lV Advertising A How did quotpackagingquot of products allow manufacturers and advertisers to demand more money for the product a When consumers associated quality with a certain brand or package it created value because it was of higher demand so the customer was willing pay higher price for the quality and notoriety B What federal act was passed to monitor patent medicine claims Which contemporary products were originally sold as medicine a Products like coke and kellog39s cereal were touted as medicine b The FDA act 1906 was passed to monitor patent food and drug claims C What is the major difference between megaagencies and boutique agencies a Mega agencies large ad rms that formed by merging several agencies and that maintain regional of ces worldwide 1 They provide a full range of services including advertising and PR 2 Examples include WPP Omnicom Publicis and interpublic b Boutique agencies devote their talents to only a handful of select clients 1 Offer more personal services D What types of campaigns did the War Advertising Council and later the Ad Council promote a They chose to advertise issues that were public issues and affected a lot of people they try to make a difference in society E What is subliminal advertising Be able to identify examples a The hidden or disguised print and visual messages that register in the subconscious and fool people into buying products b quotdrink cocacolaquot ads embedded in a few frames of a movie F What does VALS stand for Be prepared to describe two of the different VALS types and predict the types of products they might purchase a Values and Lifestyles strategy p 387 1 Innovators 2 Thinkers 3 Acheivers Expenences Believers Strivers Makers Survivors Know the difference between advertisers perceptions of a quotmass audiencequot and niche audiences Why and where would advertisers use quotoffensivequot or controversial ads a Mass audiences have a different and wide range of preferences b Niche audiences are more speci c so they are approached a different way How has the Internet increased the ability of advertisers to integrate their products into program websites and to use new and different techniques to reach target audiences a Websites like google yahoo msn can put out sponsored ads based on what people search for b The quotthird screenquot that is smartphones also gives advertisers a good way to target individuals Why do advertisements use familiar images stock characters and stereotypes a Because they are familiar and it will be easier for consumers to associate and recognize brands that go along with familiar images characters and other advertising concepts What is the de nition of a brand What are the bene ts of a brand How did Dove change the direction of its brand a a name term sign symbol or any other feature that identi es one seller s good or service from those of other sellers b Brands create value and help with advertising and product differentiation c Dove changed its image from a product used by older people and senior citizens to a product used by everyone through new ways of advertising What are the 4 P5 of marketing How can you manipulate those quotPsquot Be able to recognize examples a Price what is the reasonable price that the object is sold at b Product the label content and characteristics of the product c Place where is the product sold d Promotion how do we advertise the product What is positioning Be able to recognize examples a We think of things differently because they are positioned differently What are the three steps to creating an ad a Learn everything there is to learn about you product and your consumer b Figure out what you are going to say c Figure out how you are going to say it m ewe
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