Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide French 41
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Doberneck on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to French 41 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Chirila in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see French Cinema and Culture in French at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
French Cinema and Culture Midterm Study Guide Film Info Week 1 La grande illusion by Jean Renoir 1937 Main actors Jean Gabin Lt Marechal Dita Parlo Elsa Pierre Fresnay Captain Boeldieu Erich Von Stroheim Captain von Fauffenstein Lecture Notes What is the grand illusion The title allows people to interpret the lm as they see it Renoir says the lm isn39t about war but rather human relationships o It opens with happy music and conversation with French soldiers planning military strategy then switches suddenly to a German canteen that is very similar to the French one with minor changes such as music and d cor This shows that the differences between the French and the Germans were ultimately very little and super cial Renoir39s long scenes and depth staging allow the viewer to focus on various things 0 This makes his scenes endlessly rewatchable The escape techniques seen in the lm are used in many lms later Rope made out of sheets 0 Underground tunnel Hiding escape under oorboards During the scene where the French POWs are performing they learn France has over taken a key city and start all singing the French national anthem There is a similar scene in Casablanca In it the Nazis are all singing their country39s song when the hero of the movie has everyone start singing the French national anthem There are similarities and differences with these two scenes Both display French national pride but the rst is done out ofjoy and happiness for their country while the other can be seen as a competition for the Germans The Great War disrupted France s progress 0 The war left 7 of the population dead 50 of roads were destroyed and hundreds of thousands of people were unemployed Postwar French were very passive about issues and reconciliation with Germany seemed like a possibility The great depression occurring at this time as well led to increased support for communism The prison camps show the nationalism of the time period 0 Class society and race relations are all shown Lt Marechal and a German soldier are able to have a conversation and the German helps Marechal cut his meat Renoir tries to include speci c details to show that class and race don39t always matter For example Marechal and Elsa fall in love even though their countries hate each other Rosenthal is Jewish and wouldn39t be liked at the time No one states that he is Jewish but his name gives it away His family worked its way up to aristocracy and when he receives a big package of food from home he doesn39t hesitate to share with all other prisoners This goes against the stereotype that Jewish people are stingy and cheap It is clear that Marechal is working class because he knows more middle class songs and talks about how his grandparents have cows 0 There is also a theme about the absurdity of borders This is seen with how easily Rosenthal and Marechal are able to cross into Switzerland and aren39t shot at once they ve crossed the border As Marechal and Rosenthal get fed up with the journey they immediately revert to racist comments 0 Critics of the lm accuse Rosenthal of being portrayed negatively as a stereotypical Jew meaning he was arrogant rich and always complaining In the end however they use more endearing insults This shows how far the viewers and characters have grown and developed Week 2 Un long dimanche de fiangailles by Jean Pierre J eunet 2004 Audrey Tautou Mathilde Gaspard Ulliel Manech Dominique Pinon Sylvain Chantal Neuwirth Benedicte Lecture Notes Jean Pierre jeunet One of the most famous screen writers 0 Films include delicatessen the city of lost children le fabulex destin d Amelie poulain Films were based in fantasy worlds and Amelie changed from darker movies to more light hearted ones 0 A very long engagement was able to showcase actual events that happened during the Great War which were often censored in France because of how it showed the negative non gentle manlike occurrences of the war 0 A woman39s search for her anc whom she believes might still be alive even though of cially he was killed in the line of duty Matilde searches to nd out what truly happens to 5 French soldiers who were tied up and left to die in an area between French and German territory What perspective does the lm give us of war 0 Does it show honor to brave soldiers Does it show any meaning of the war Is the violence overdone Are the backdrops credible as though it is France in 1920 The Sunday missing from the English translation is either the Sunday that all the soldiers were sent into the no man s land the Sunday of their engagement or it39s a metaphor for the time off or being happy with each other There were very few war lms that show something different than what this one shows that war is absolute hell and affects not only the soldiers but their families as well The movie Life Is Beautiful by Robert Bernini is a living and light lm even though it is during the holocaust A very long engagement distinctions Portrays one of the 5 soldiers as being a working class socialist Notre dame kills a superior of cer and get away with it Mutinous soldiers are often not talked about when learning about the Great War 0 The white widow refers to girls who were engaged to soldiers who died Mutiny in the French army 0 Of cial archives show that about 3500 French soldiers were convicted of mutinies Soldiers were more collectively against the war than shown in the lm Some historians believe that executions Erie hidden by listing cause of death as quotdue to accidentquot or quotdied of woundsquot Mutiny spread to Russian Italy and many other countries War lm 0 Not really a lm about war Set up as a mystery and follows Mathilde a sweet farm girl who simply wants to nd out the truth about her anc As Mathilde and past soldiers go through a eld if wind owers it is revealed that this area was la bingo creeps ice The soldier doesn39t recognize the area at all The scene is cast in a yellow tint while the war scenes were cast in 5 blue brown tint This makes a distinction between those who were soldiers and went through hell and those who never experienced it Quirkiness Mathilde limos and plays tuba A atulent dog 0 An unusual postman Bartender with wooden hand Cinematography Visual powerhouse with a mix of comedy tragedy and romance Preparation was key to the success of the lm Jeunet was adamant that when lming they should focus on showing as much in the frame as possible 0 No darkness somethings always needs to be seen Wide angle lenses are used for close ups although most directors don39t do that 0 They went through all the lenses to nd the correct ine for the main actresses face Fluid camera movements the camera is usually on the move during scenes Prefer soft lighting 0 No sunshine in the trenches the slq was supposed to feel like it was pressing down on the soldiers Built a screen to block the sun and ensure continuity in lighting 0 always sunshine at Mathildes house Bonnell stresses that he is not trying to make things look like reality the colors of the shots show that it39s more of a fantasy world rather than an exact depm on The color brown ties the two parts the trenches and Mathilde together The difference is if it39s a warm brown or a cold brown With split screens they made sure to contrast the colors of the two scenes Editing techniques 0 The only quick shots are during the war scene to make the viewer feel like they are in the war bring bombarded with the fear 0 Most of the movie has a very slow pace so longer shots are used 0 Example is during the scene in the marketplace that just follows Mathilde through the walkways with all the chaos going on around her Elodie Gordes Her storyline where she nds true love with her husbands best friend takes the movie to a new emotional level Jeunet is criticized because it seems like he put more passion into this love story and gave it too much screen time compared to the main story between Manech and Mathilde Conclusions Directorial style and subject matter don39t match Week 3 Le dernier metro Francois Truffaut 1980 Catherine Deneuve Marion Steiner Gerard Depardieu Bernard Granger Jean Poiret J eanLoup Cottins Andrea Ferreol Arlette Guillaume Lecture Notes It is presented as a lm about the Second World War War is not a topic that the French want to discuss It is easier for them to talk about the Great War and their heroism Myths about WW 0 Heroic outpouring of patriotism 0 Extremely dif cult life in occupied Paris 0 Resistance coordinated from London by de Gaulle 0 General cowardice and culpability Invasion of France 0 Period of time where there wasn39t any actual ghting but Germany wasn39t doing good things Known as the phony war from September 1939 to May 1940 In May of 1940 Germany launches an invasion of France Between 26 May and 4 June 200000 British and 140000 French soldiers were exacted to England France fell on June 14 French was put under an armistice and kept trying to evacuate as many citizens as possible Divided into occupied and free zones Occupied France 0 Known as a dark period in France 0 Jews and people who resisted were sent to concentration camps French culture was suppressed Social life for the upper classes resumed as usual with fashion shows theatre opera horse racing The sorrow and the pity 1969 0 Challenges how we see the Nazis and the French involvementopposition during world war 2 Shatters the myth that the French were uni ed in the resistance against the Nazis through interviews with people of all social classes Truffaut said he wanted to make a love story about the lm yet didn39t think he would be able to make one that could measure up to a documentary like the sorrow and the pity The last metro 1980 o The script is in uenced but events that stuck out to the directors who were children during the time of the occupation Had it been created a few years earlier it would39ve been criticized for being too sympathetic of all the characters 0 Once Mao died it was revealed how horrible communism truly was BC genocide and antiSemitism So once the lm was introduced it was better accepted due to the world political events in 1979 Addresses intolerance forJewish people as well as homosexuals Lucas Steiner Hides in the basement of his theater but almost in denial about the dangers Wants to focus on writing and directing Feigns oblivion Ashli tithe chemistry between his wife and her co star Bernard granger Underground political activity Gives up acting to join the resistance Cynical article who doesn39t believe art can bring about change Marion Steiner Mysterious and subtle A trapped character Multifaceted Appears as a restrained actress in a Play but shows passion in her personal life The last part that shows her holding both men39s hands makes a connection between real life and art Themes to explore Play within the lm Female characters 0 Image of the mother 0 Oedipal complex MarionBernard Male characters 0 The hidden father the Jewish dentist Life imitating art art intimidating life Art as refuge Love triangle Decep on Symbols of spatial transgressions the hats in the restaurant the drawn stockings on nardine and martinis limbs the aggressive handshake between Marion and the German of cer Screen memory Cinematic innovations Use of mise en scene preference of sequence shots on montage Shooting from outside through window Freeze frame Unpolished shooting using hand held camera minimal use of lighting deliberate errors in cinematic language A new approach to cinematic story plot and narrative Rede ning the relationship between life and cinema between documentary and ction Unique use of voice of Relationship between content and form Extensive use of inter textuality Mixture of genres Week 4 Au revoir les enfants Louis Malle 1987 Gaspard Manesse J ulien Quentin Raphael Fejto Jean BonnetKippelstein Francine Racette Mme Quentin Stanislas Carre de Malberg Francois Quentin Philippe MorierGenoud Pere Jean Lecture Notes Louis Malle Feature lm maker Documentarist Debut in 1956 Associated with new wave characteristics such as natural light shooting on location and using odd nonactors He attended a catholic boarding school in Paris during the war 0 Film studies Codirector on Jacques cousteaus quotthe silent worldquot in 1956 0 First time underwater cameras were used Elevator to the gallows o Directed by Louis Malle and madeJeanne Moreau famous Au revoir les enfants Inspired by Malles own life 0 He believed that even though the events took place half a century earlier that people would be able to still emphasize and connect with it 0 Set in 1944 Cinematographer Director of photography 0 In charge of lming shots Chose the camera lens and lters Orchestrated the composition of the image Dictates the light of the shot Editor Chooses the arrangement or Order of the shot Poster analysis Young teenagers friendship between them 0 Certain element of fear Pierre Nora A division between history and memory has occurred as we have turned to a quotpaper memoryquot to represent what we can no longer remember in our lived expe ence Caused a change from collective to individual memories each class has an individual idea of what happened 0 Idea of uni ed resistance was shattered as collective memory faded Films depicting France during WWII since the 197039s have caused a lot of division among the French because there are many different experiences from this time and no collective memory to go to A subculture re ecting the larger culture 0 The boys curse ght abuse smoke are insensitive cruel and malicious The boys use terms they used from their elders to insult one another Pans over the boys sleeping reminds us that they are children when one boy cries out 0 They almost seem like orphans 0 Europe is a dismembered family during this time o Julien takes every moment he can to hug his mother Bonnet looks atJulien39s mom as though he is an orphan wanting to adopt a foster family The boys loneliness and lust is seen through their obsession with the piano teacher and the Arabian nights book Julien sleeps Ina wet bed The director doesn39t tell us what it is so we wonder if it39s urine or semen This is related to how he is becoming a man but not quite We learn that it was urine Julien wakes up one night and sees bonnet praying over two lit candles o This leads Julien to be more curious about bonnet o Julien uses paradoxes in relationships He loves his mom yet says he hates her He betrays bonnets privacy but snooping though his stuff yet protects him and wants to help Cementing of friendship Scavenger hunt ends up with the two boys getting lost Anticlimactic scenesboar and Nazi patrol o The scene is set for something intense to happen the boys were lost bonnet asked if there were wolves in the woods it39s getting dark 0 The boar doesn39t charge them it just walks away 0 The Nazi soldiers at rst act like they39re going to arrest the boys but kindly take them back The restaurant scene 0 The real quotwolvesquot are seen when the of cers come in and demand that a well respected butJewish man leave the restaurant 0 Some people say to let him stay others say to send all the Jews to Moscow Spectrum of characters FatherJoseph went from Saint to traitor 0 Real life inspiration fatherJean headmaster of Petit College de Avon Joseph 0 Crippled abused red unfairly 0 Changes sides Jean is appalled thatJoseph is now working for the Germans Stereotypes Jews as culturally superior o Bonnet is better at piano essay writing math etc Yale Film Studies Analysis Guide Basic Terms 0 Auteur French for author used to indicate the director or other person whose personality in uenced the film It allowed critics to evaluate American genre cinema 0 Diegesis objects events spaces and the characters that inhabit them including things actions and attitudes not explicitly presented in the film but expressed by the audience 0 Editing the joining together of clips of film into a single filmstrip 0 Flashback Flashforward A jump back or forwards in diegetic time Results in the order of events in the plot no longer matching the order of events in the story 0 Focus The degree to which light rays coming from any particular part of an object pass through the lens and reconverge at the same point in the frame of the film negative creating sharp outlines and distinct textures that match the original object It creates variations in depth because you can have shallow deep or raking focus Genres Types of film recognized by audiences andor producers Distinguished by narrative or stylistic conventions Miseenscene Everything put in the scene meaning the setting decor lighting costumes and acting Storyplot all the audience infers about the events that occur in the diegesis on the basis of what they are shown by the plot which is the events directly presented in the film The story is usually more complex than the plot Scenesequence A scene is a segment of a narrative film that usually takes place in a single time and place often with the same characters Sequence usually refers to a longer segment of film that doesn t follow the rules of space and time of a single scene such as a montage Shot A single stream of images uninterrupted by editing Mise En Scene Decor the objects contained in and the setting of a scene It can be used to amplify character emotion of the dominant mood of a film Rear Projection used to combine foreground action with a background shot earlier For example most car rides are shot using this method due to restrictions of shooting in a studio and safety Three Point Lighting standard lighting scheme for classical narrative cinema Includes a backlight to pick out the subject from the background a bright key light that highlights the object and a fill light from the opposite side to reduce shadows Most common lighting High Key Lighting a lighting scheme in whih the fill light is raised to the same level as the key light that then produces very bright images with few shadows Used a lot in comedies Low Key Lighting a lighting scheme that uses very little fill light to create strong contrasts and shadows Often used in suspense genres Deep space when significant items of an image are placed near to and distant from the camera Used to integrate characters in their natural surroundings and to show distance more accurately Frontality staging of elements often humans so that they face the camera Often avoided because it breaks the viewers illusion of looking into a different world Matte Shot a process shot in which two images are combined into a single image using an optical printer They can be used to add elements to a realistic scene or to create fantasy spaces It is a common technique for studio films because of safety or cost of shooting in the actual location Offscreen space space that exists in the diegesis but isn t visible in the frame It s significant when there is an event happening in offscreen space that the viewer can t see 0 Shallow Space when images are staged with very little depth Often loses realistic appeal but enhances pictorial qualities 0 Costume refers to the clothes characters wear can signify a character or make clear distinctions between characters Acting 0 Typage the selection of actors on the basis that their facial or bodily features readily convey the truth of the character the actor plays Cinematography Color used to create aesthetic patterns and to establish character or emotion in narrative cinema Contrast The ratio of dark to light in an image If the difference between the light and dark areas is large the image is said to be quothigh contrastquot If the difference is small it is referred to as quotlow contrastquot Deep Focus involves staging an event on film such that significant elements occupy widely separated planes in the image Unlike deep space deep focus requires that elements at very different depths of the image both be in focus Shallow Focus A restricted depth of field which keeps only one plane in sharp focus the opposite of deep focus Used to direct the viewer39s attention to one element of a scene Shallow focus is very common in closeup Depth of Field The distance through which elements in an image are in sharp focus Exposure A camera lens has an aperture that controls how much light passes through the lens and onto the film If the aperture is widened more light comes through and the resultant image will become more exposed If an image is so pale that the detail begins to disappear it can be described as quotoverexposedquot Conversely a narrow aperture that allows through less light will produce a darker image than normal known as quotunderexposedquot Exposure can be manipulated to guide an audience39s response to a scene Racking Focus the practice of changing the focus of a lens such that an element in one plane of the image goes out of focus and an element at another plane in the image comes into focus Racking focus is usually done quite quickly in a way the technique tries to mirnick a brief eeting glance that can be used to quicken the tempo or increase suspense Rate A typical sound film is shot at a frame rate of 24 frames per second If the number of frames exposed in each second is increased the action will seem to move more slowly than normal when it is played back Conversely the fewer the number of frames exposed each second the more rapid the resulting action appears to be Telephoto Shot An image shot with an extremely long lens The effect of using a long lens is to compress the apparent depth of an image so that elements that are relatively close or far away from the camera seem to lie at approximately the same distance Zoom Shot uses a lens with several elements that allows the filmmaker to change the focal length of the lens while the shot is in progress Angle of Framing can be used to indicate the relation between a character and the camera39s point of view Aspect Ratio The ratio of the horizontal to the vertical sides of an image Level of Framing used to signify sympathy for characters who occupy particular levels in the image or just to create pleasurable compositions Camera level is obviously used to a greater advantage when the difference in height bewteen objects or characters is greater Canted Framing a view in which the frame is not level either the right or left side is lower than the other causing objects in the scene to appear slanted out of an upright positonCanted framings are used to create an impression of chaos and instability Following Shot A shot with framing that shifts to keep a moving figure onscreen A following shot combines a camera movement like panning tracking tilting or craning with the specific function of directing our attention to a character or object as hesheit moves inside the frame Reframing Short panning or tilting movements to adjust for the figures39 movements keeping them onscreen or centered Pointof view Shot A shot taken with the camera placed approximately where the character39s eyes would be showing what the character would see usually cut in before or after a shot of the character looking Wide Angle Lens A lens of short focal length that affects a scene39s perspective by distorting straight lines near the edges of the frame and by exaggerating the distance between foreground and background planes Crane Shot change in framing rendered by having the camera above the ground and moving through the air in any direction Handheld camerasteady cam The use of the camera operator39s body as a camera support either holding it by hand or using a gyroscopic stabilizer and a harness Pan A camera movement with the camera body turning to the right or left On the screen it produces a mobile framing which scans the space horizontally A pan directly and immediately connects two places or characters thus making us aware of their proximity Tilt A camera movement with the camera body swiveling upward or downward on a stationary support It produces a mobile framing that scans the space vertically Tracking shot mobile framing that travels through space forward backward or laterally Whip pan An extremely fast movement of the camera from side to side which brie y causes the image to blur into a set of indistinct horizontal streaks 0 Extreme longshot framing in which the scale of the object shown is very small a building landscape or crowd of people will fill the screen Usually the first or last shots of a sequence that can also function as establishing shots 0 Longshot framing in which the scale of the object shown is small It makes for a relatively stable shot that can accommodate movement without reframing 0 Medium longshot Framing such than an object four or five feet high would fill most of the screen vertically 0 Medium closeup A framing in which the scale of the object shown is fairly large a human figure seen from the chest up would fill most of the screen 0 Closeup framing in which the scale of the object shown is relatively large In a closeup a person39s head or some other similarly sized object would fill the frame 0 Extreme closeup framing in which the scale of the object shown is very large most commonly a small object or a part of the body usually shot with a zoom lens Editing 0 Cheat cut In the continuity editing system a cut which purports to show continuous time and space from shot to shot but which actually mismatches the position of figures or objects in the scene 0 CROSSCUTTING aka PARALLEL EDITING Editing that alternates shots of two or more lines of action occurring in different places usually simultaneously 0 CUTIN CUT AWAY An instantaneous shift from a distant framing to a closer view of some portion of the same space and vice versa 0 Dissolve transition between two shots during which the first image gradually disappears while the second image gradually appears for a moment the two images blend in superimposition o Iris round moving mask that can close down to end a scene irisout or emphasize a detail or it can open to begin a scene irisin or to reveal more space around a detail 0 Jump Cut elliptical cut that appears to be an interruption of a single shot Either the figures seem to change instantly against a constant background or the background changes instantly while the figures remain constant 0 Establishing Shot A shot usually involving a distant framing that shows the spatial relations among the important figures objects and setting in a scene Usually the first few shots in a scene are establishing shots as they introduces us to a location and the space relationships inside it 0 Shotreverse shot two or more shots edited together that alternate characters typically in a conversation situation 0 Superimposition The exposure of more than one image on the same film strip Unlike a dissolve a superimposition does not signify a transition from one scene to another Sound Wipe A transition betwen shots in which a line passes across the screen eliminating the first shot as it goes and replacing it with the next one A very dynamic and noticeable transition it is usually employed in action or adventure films Eyeline Match A cut obeying the axis of action principle in which the first shot shows a person off in one direction and the second shows a nearby space containing what he or she sees Graphic Match Two successive shots joined so as to create a strong similarity of compositional elements e g color shape Used in trasparent continuity styles to smooth the transition between two shots Match on Action A cut which splices two different views of the same action together at the same moment in the movement making it seem to continue uninterrupted Long Take A shot that continues for an unusually lengthy time before the transition to the next shot Overlapping editing Cuts that repeat part or all of an action thus expanding its viewing time and plot duration Rhythm The perceived rate and regularity of sounds series of shots and movements within the shots Rhythmic factors include beat or pulse accent or stress and tempo or pace Rhythm is one of the essential features of a film for it decisively contributes to its mood and overall impression on the spectator Continuity Editing system of cutting to maintain continuous and clear narrative action Continuity editing relies upon matching screen direction position and temporal relations from shot to shot Montage 1 A synonym for editing 2 An approach to editing developed by the Soviet filmmakers of the 1920s such as Pudovkin Vertov and Eisenstein it emphasizes dynamic often discontinuous relationships between shots and the juxtaposition of images to create ideas not present in either shot by itself Elliptical Editing Shot transitions that omit parts of an event causing an ellipses in plot and story duration Sound bridge can lead in or out of a scene They can occur at the beginning of one scene when the sound from the previous scene carries over brie y before the sound from the new scene begins Alternatively they can occur at the end of a scene when the sound from the next scene is heard before the image appears on the screen Sound ash Sound from one diegetic time is heard over images from a later time Diegeticnondiegetic Any voice musical passage or sound effect presented as originating froma source within the film39s world is diegetic If it originates outside the film as most background music then it is nondiegetic Direct sound When using direct sound the music noise and speech of the profilmic event at the moment of filming is recorded in the film Nonsimultaneous Diegetic sound that comes from a source in time either earlier or later than the images it accompanies Offscreen sound Simultaneous sound from a source assumed to be in the space of the scene but outside what is visible onscreen Postsynchronizaton dubbing The process of adding sound to images after they have been shot and assembled This can include dubbing of voices as well as inserting diegetic music or sound effects Sound perspective The sense of a sound39s position in space yielded by volume timbre pitch and in stereophonic reproduction systems binaural information Used to create a more realistic sense of space with events happening that is coming from closer or further away Synchronous sound Sound that is matched temporally with the movements occuring in the images as when dialogue corresponds to lip movements Voice over When a voice often that of a character in the film is heard while we see an image of a space and time in which that character is not actually speaking The voice over is often used to give a sense of a character39s subjectivity or to narrate an event told in ashback Quality aural properties of a sound its timbre volume reverb sustain etc have a major effect on a film39s aesthetic A film can register the space in which a sound is produced its sound signature or it can be otherwise manipulated for dramatic purposes
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