PSYC 101 Exam 2 Review
PSYC 101 Exam 2 Review PSYC 101
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Potter on Friday March 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 101 at Towson University taught by Barbara Wilson in Spring 2013. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro Psychology in Psychlogy at Towson University.
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Date Created: 03/25/16
Development- how and why people change across the human life span▯ 3 Main processes: ▯ • Physical- biological changes ▯ • Cognitive- thought, intelligence, languages ▯ • Socioemotional - relationships, emotions▯ Later experience vs Early experience - your childhood affects your future in one way or another▯ Early experience (ﬁxed)▯ Later experience (adaptable)▯ Nature vs Nurture▯ Nature- biological ▯ Nurture- environmental ▯ Prenatal Development▯ Conception- marks the beginning of the germinal stage▯ ▯ Stages: ▯ Germinal (1-2 weeks) = Zygote▯ Embryonic (3-8 weeks) = Embryo,▯ Fetal (2-9 months) = Fetus▯ Jean Piaget- Theory of Cognitive Development: children actively construct their cognitive world.▯ Sequence of development▯ *Sensorimotor (birth - 2 yrs) Object permanence ▯ *Preoperational (2-7yrs) Egocentrism▯ *Concret operational (7-11) Conservation▯ *Formal operational (11-15) Abstract and idealistic thought▯ Adolescent egocentrism ▯ Early adulthood▯ Middle adulthood▯ Late adulthood▯ Accommodation = Restructuring▯ ▯ ex. Red means stop & green means go▯ Assimilation = Incorporating ▯ ▯ ex. Red santa, now red doesn't just mean stop▯ Erikson- Psychosocial Development- 8 turning points with 2 outcomes, positive or negative▯ 1. Trust vs Mistrust (infancy) ▯ Are you getting fed on time? you trust your parents to be there▯ 2. Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt (Toddlerhood) ▯ Autonomy = Proud they can do it by themselves. ▯ Shame and Doubt= feel like they let you down. ▯ Hard time making commitment later in life no sense of security.▯ ex. toilet training▯ 3. Initiative vs Guilt (Early childhood) (Preschool)▯ Taking initiative, doing something and feeling proud. need to develop more purposeful behavior ▯ 4. Industry vs Inferiority (middle and late childhood) (6-11) ▯ Being held back. learning social/ academic demands. Mastering knowledge and intellectual skills. Danger is they can feel incompetent or unproductive ▯ 5. Identity vs Role confusion▯ 6. Intimacy vs Isolation▯ 7. Generativity vs Stagnation ▯ 8. Integrity vs Despair▯ Parenting styles▯ Authoritarian- very strict▯ Authoritative- ﬁrm but open, allows child to be part of making some rules, Not overbearing, most ideal▯ Neglectful- Very disengaged▯ Indulgent- too permissive, let them do what they want whenever▯ Kohlberg- Moral Development▯ Pre-conventional- pleasure seeking and avoiding punishment ▯ Conventional- law & order thinking, very concrete, everything is black and white no grey▯ Post-Conventional- what is right might not be the best idea▯ Temperamen:thow a child responds ▯ Attention▯ Divided- multi-tasking▯ Selective- focusing on one things while ignoring others▯ Sight/Eye ▯ Iris- colored parts of they eye. a muscle that contracts and relaxes▯ Cornea- Clear, curved membrane in front of the eye covering the pupil and iris. It focuses the light on the iris ▯ Lens- located behind the pupil and iris. It ﬁne tunes the focus by ﬂexing the curvature ▯ Sclera- White outer part of the eye. It shapes and protects the eye▯ Retina- a light sensitive surface in the back of the eye. houses light receptor cells▯ Photoreceptors (light receptor cell): Rods (light) & Cones (color) ▯ Light- Electromagnetic energy▯ Sounds/Ear▯ ▯ Outer ear- localization of sound ▯ ▯ Middle ear- hammer, anvil, stirrup : all amplify and transmit incoming sound ▯ ▯ Cochlea- stimulates hair cells to move and generate nerve impulses▯ ▯ Eardrum- vibrates in response to sound waves basilar membrane▯ Touch- Mechanical▯ Skin-protects you against temperature and pressure▯ Other senses- chemical, kinesthetic, vestibular▯ Chemical- taste and smell▯ Kinesthetic- movement, location, orientation, posture▯ Vestibular- balance and acceleration, semicircular canals ▯ Papillae- receptor cells for taste, located in round bumps▯ 5 basic categories of taste- sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami (savory)▯ Olfactory epithelium- holds receptor cells for smell, mucous coated membrane at the top of the ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ nasal cavity ▯ Cerebral senses & Perceptual senses- hand eye coordination tasks, changes to the Central ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Nervous System (CNS) functioning ▯ ▯ ex. Driving ▯ Sensation = receiving ▯ States of Consciousness ▯ Higher level consciousness- Controlled processes ▯ Automatic processes - require little attention. you need less awareness for automatic processes▯ ▯ ex. driving▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Altered states of consciousness ▯ Drug ▯ • • Sleep▯ • Trauma - become less aware and drift to another world. survival mechanism ▯ Unconscious (Freud) - no awareness ▯ ▯ ex. dreaming but no memory of it▯ Perception = Interpretation ▯ Circadian Rhythms- 24 hour cycles, daily. ▯ ▯ ex. sleep/wake, body temp▯ Desynchronizing- throwing off the clock▯ ▯ ex. jet lag, changing shift at work, insomnia ▯ Stages of sleep▯ Stage 2- sleep spindles ▯ Sleep Disorders▯ sleep apnea- sleeper stops breathing ▯ nightmare- frightening dream that awakens sleeper from REM ▯ night terror- horrifying fear state occurs in NON REM and you don’t remember▯ Insomnia- inability to fall or stay asleep▯ Narcolepsy- sudden overpowering urge to sleep, always sleeping▯ Tolerance - a greater amount is needed to get the same affect▯ Physical Dependence- an unpleasant withdrawal without a drug ▯ Depressants- slow down mental and physical activity ▯ tranquilizers- reduce anxiety▯ hallucinogens - perceptual changes
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