PSY 350 Lecture Notes for Exam 3
PSY 350 Lecture Notes for Exam 3 PSY 350
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Natzke on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 350 at Arizona State University taught by Varnum in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Prosocial behavior 1 Altruism any action intended to benefit another Evolutionary perspectives o Inclusive fitness helping those with our genes so they can be passed on I Similarity I Familiarity o Reciprocal aid cooperation between nonrelatives advantages the individual and group 0 Group selection I Intragroup cooperation predicts success in intergroup competition 0 Sexual selection I Agreeableness I Appearing helpful I Generosity Proximal causes of helping 0 Social norms I Reciprocity we should help others who help us Universal Powerful Underpins in uence techniques 0 Doorintheface 0 Free samples I Social responsibility Stronger affects when 0 Norm is salient 0 People are selfaware 0 Others model helping o In rural areas 0 Goals I Gaining statusapproval I Managing selfimage I Managing emotionsmoods Prosocial behavior 0 Gaining status I Generosity 9 social rewards I People are more generous in public I Potlatch rich person throws big party 0 Managing selfimage I Altruism enhances selfesteem I Self verification I Labeling effects I Personal norms I Religious amp ethical codes 0 Managing emotions I Arousalcostreward model I Mood management hypothesis managing our emotional well being motivates us to help Sadness can increase helping 0 Sad people more sensitive to costbenefits of helping 0 Sad people help only if they believe it will improve mood I Empathyaltruism hypothesis Pure altruism may exist sometimes Empathic concern 9 helping 0 Has high personal cost 0 Doesn t 9 social approval 0 Doesn t bolster selfconcept 0 Doesn t relieve sadness Prosocial Behavior 2 Bystander effect failure of people to help in an emergency situation around a crowd 0 Why I Emergencies are ambiguous I Ignorance of the crowd pluralistic ignorance People are less likely to react to an emergency if others in a group do not react Diffusion or responsibility Fear of physical danger Lack of perceived expertise skills 0 Less likely when shared social identity with victim is salient 0 Larger groups are more likely to help is the group is composed of friends rather than strangers 0 Reducing bystander effect I Make clear it s an emergency I Identify an individual I Ask for specific help 0 Not seeking help I Men seek less help than women I Helpseeking drops off at 2 points age 78 and age 60 I Asking for help 9 decreased self esteem I East Asians less likely to seek social support or professional support for mental health Aggression Thanatos selfdestructive insitct hypothesized by Freud 0 Counter to natural selection Aggression functional goals 0 Cope with annoyance o Gain rewards o Gain maintain status 0 Protect self group members FrustrationAggression Hypothesis 0 Original model I If someone s aggressive they must be frustrated I If someone s frustrated they must engage in aggression Original vs reformulated 0 Original model I If someone s aggressive they must be frustrated I If someone s frustrated they must engage in aggression Arousal o Excitation transfer theory arousal may be mistaken for arousal o Arousal followed by annoyance 9 greater aggression Type A vs type B personality 0 Type A associated with chronic irritability 0 Type B laid back Chronic irritability Unpleasant situations 0 Pain 0 Heat 0 Poverty 0 Formulated model I Frustration 9 emotional aggression not instrumental aggression I Frustration only 9 aggression if 9 negative feelings I Any event that 9 negative feelings can Excitation transfer theory Cognitive neoassociation theory 0 Unpleasant situations 9 fear 9 aggression Does aggression reduce frustration o Catharsis Freud s theory that venting reduces frustration and further aggression 0 Studies show venting actually leads to more aggression I Women are more prone to indirect aggression than men men more prone to direct aggression I Presence of weapons increases aggression Social learning theory 0 Bandura s Bobo Doll study I Increased attraction to guns in kids I Kids modeled aggression even if not rewarded for it Media violence 0 Correlational and experimental evidence 0 Violent videogames 9 more aggression and desensitization to others 0 Violent videogames aggression cigarettes cancer Person factores psychopaths more motivated to aggress for personal gain High empathy 9 less aggression for personal gain Intoxication 9 less empathy 9 greater aggression Aggression pt 2 Goals 0 GainingMaintaining status I Culture of honor responding to insult with behavioral aggression Insult more likely to lead to homicide in American south More approving of honor related violence South more likely to support corporal punishment amp death penalty High selfesteem 9 more aggression Aggression more likely among men if 0 Success pathways are blocked 0 Around other men competing for mates I Women attracted to status not violence 0 Reducing aggression I Teach alternative ways to accomplish goals I Teach alternative ways to handle frustration I Punish aggressive behavior I Remove threats from environment I Relaxing I Distraction I Reduce availability of firearms Malemale aggression 0 Competition attracting mates Frontiers and aggression o Maleskewed sex ration 9 increased homicide rates 0 Increased Violence in frontier states 0 Testosterone
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