Geology Final Study Guide
Geology Final Study Guide 160
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lindsey Irizarry on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 160 at San Francisco State University taught by Leora Nanus in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 140 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Environmental Science in Geology at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Geo FINAL What are littoral processes Transport amp deposition of sediment in shore zone longshore current longshore driftlittoral drift beach drift Longshore drift consists of the transportation of sediments clay silt sand and shingle along a coast at an angle to the shoreline particles on the beach moved along as beach drift shifting back amp forth between H20 amp land w each swash amp backwash of surf What are typical features that make up a beach Coast Dune Cliff Beachshore back shore shoreline littoral zone Where and how are waves generated Waves friction between moving air wind amp the ocean surface generates undulations of H20 at flat sea swells transfers energy amp generates undulations waves What is a longshore current longshore currentlittoral current depends on wind direction amp resultant wave direction generated in surf zone arrive at an angle What are erosional coastal features What kind of landforms do you expect there What are the differences between these landforms Wavecut platform cliffs eroded landward sea arch sea cave sea stacks irregular isolated eroded cliff pieces sea cliff notched cliff collapsing cliff What are depositional coastal features barrier spit bay barrier beach tombolo lagoon tidal inlet What is a spit a barrier island Barrier Island long narrow ridge of sand just offshore running parallel to coast barrier spit material deposited in a long ridge extending out from a coast How does the beach at Ocean Beach change over the year Why the dune size is decreasing wind human activity What is an example of human modification of coastal environments parkingcement What are inputs to the coastal system Solar energy Atmospheric Winds Climatic Regimes Coastal Rock Human Activities How does glacial ice form What is firn sowy moving mass of dense ice formed by gradual thickening compaction amp refreezing of snow amp H20 over time partialy compacted granular snow that is the intermediate stage between snow and glacial ice Firn is found under the snow that accumulates at the head of a glacier GLACIAL ICE little air space FIRN compact granular snow to iceSnow input wlots air space How does a glacier behave like a river How is it different glaciers are not stationary move slowly under pressure of their own weight amp pull of gravity What is involved in the glacial mass balance What is the significance of the equilibrium line 0 Open system 0 Input accumulation zone 0 Output ablation zone 0 Line marks middle equilibrium line where accumulation gain balances ablation loss Where are the zone of accumulation and ablation ablation a glaciers lower end is wastedreduce through several processes melting on surface internally amp at base ice removal by deflation wind the calving of ice blocks and sublimation How do glaciers move What is a crevasse Internal deformation plasticlike movement Upper portions of glaciers are brittle may fracture to form large cracks What are 2 types of glaciers mountain glacier amp continental glaciers What is an ice sheet Where are they found Ice Sheets 0 Shape not dictated by landscape 0 Isostatically depressed land 0 gt 3000m thick 0 Found in polar regions Important alpine landforms to know Cirque Arete Horn Lateral Moraine Hanging valley Uvalley Tarn Erratic cirque Originate in a mountain snowfield that is confined in a bowlshaped recess arete knife edge ridges horn pyramidal peak when several cirque glaciers gouge an individual mountain summit from all sides tarn small mountain lake in cirque basin Important glacial continental landforms Moraines Medial Terminal Esker Drumlin Kame Kettle lake moraine debris from valley walls plucked abraded amp deposited terminal deposited at low elevation end of glacier as ice retreats medial middle of lateral sides of glaciers deposits of till amp end form when 2 laterals join kettle lake depressions formed underneath a glacier by ig block ice left during retreat esker narrow ridge of coarse sand gravel along channel drumlin till deposit streamline direction of continental ice movement kame small hill of poorly sorted sand gravel deposits on ice Which of the above are depositional which are erosional depositional kettle lakes moraines esker kame erosional drumlin Glacial erosion Plucking abrasion plucking high pressure melting low pressure refreezing if rocks are fracturedwater flows into cracksrefreezes amp plucks rocks out abrasion Glacial polish Striations once embedded enable the glacier to scour and sandpaper the landscape as it moves Periglacial Environments Where are they located What is permafrost What is an example of a frost action landform cold climate exist along margins of past amp present glaciers Permafrost permanent frost soil or rock temp below 2 degrees C Active layer zone of seasonal frozen ground between subsurface permafrost amp ground surface frost action landform heave amp thrust cracking shattering Ice ages and the pleistocene What is an ice age What is the difference between a glacial and interglacial period lce age extended period of cold climate includes both glacial amp interglacial periods glacias cold periods glaciation take90000yrs sea levels lower interglacials brief warm periods deglaciationquot 10000yr sea levels higher 3 ice ages Pleistocene Late Paleozoic Precambrian What is paleoclimatology deciphering past climates before students took record What is climate change refers to a statistically significant variation in either the mean state ofthe climate or in its variability persisting for an extended period What are the causes of climate change may due to natural internal processes external forces persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere How have humans altered the atmosphere What are greenhouse gases progress global warming greenhouse gases trapping more heat in lower atmosphere C02 CH4CFC39s What are the potential effects of climate change changes of rainfall amp soil moisture affects frequency intensity amp distribution of natural hazard How can we measure change amount of sunlight received solar energy reflected amp absorbed heat retention by atmosphere What is global change whole system understanding ofthe natural amp human induced changes in the Earth39s surface amp subsurface environment What is a desert Where are arid landscapes located What are 3 factors that influence arid climates DefinitionAn area with littleno vegetation Characterized by aridity Dry regions cover 30 of Ea rth s land surface 2 regions subtropics middlelatitudes 3 factors erosion transportation amp deposition What is an eolian process How is wind similar or different than water The actions of wind in deserts are known as Eolian processes important agent of denudation and deposition in deserts Air is a fluid Like water air flow can be described by streamlines that are affected by velocity depth and viscosity 0 Unlike water wind has an 39unlimited channel How is sand transported How is particle transport in wind similar to transport in water What is deflation Desert blowout Transportation of sediment by wind Mechanisms of transport 0 Bedload Saltation skipping and bouncing along the surface the work of wind 0 Suspended load Deflation desert pavement blowout depressions depression cause by deflation What is abrasion Ventifacts Abrasiongrinding of rock surfaces with quotsandblastingquot action by particles captured in the air Ventifacts are rocks that have been abraded pitted etched grooved or polished by winddriven sand or ice crystals What is desert pavement surfaces of concentrated pebbles and gravel What are the two types of wind deposits 1 Dunes wind sculpted accumulation of sand 2 loess How do you determine wind direction from dune morphology What are the different types of dunes Barchan Star Longitudinal Parabolic Transverse What is a loess deposit outwash deposits of fine grained silts amp clays blown by wind amp redeposited in unstratified evenly mixed deposits windblown dust and silt blanket the land This layer of fine mineralrich material is called loess What is the role of water in arid climates What is a playa lake Practically all streambeds are dry most of the time Desert streams are ephemeral Arroyo western United States 0 Desert rainfall Rain often occurs as heavy showers Playa lake quotdry lakes formed in basins of internal drainage What is desertification The phenomenon of desert expansion along the margins of semiarid and arid lands transforming a vegetated landscape to one that is barren amp susceptible to wind erosion What is the Dust Bowl The multiyear period of severe wind erosion and soil loss occurred in the Great Plains during the 19305 Define ecology biogeography and ecosystem Ecology study of relationships between organism and their environment Biogeography The study of the distribution of plants and animals the diverse spatial patterns they create and the physical and biological processes that produce Earth39s species richness Ecosystem A selfregulating association of living plants and animals and their nonliving physical environment Why are plants important 0 Plants turn sunlight into food 0 Plants and animals became common by 450 million years ago humans about 2 million 0 About 270000 species of plants exist and most are vascular with conducting cells Explain photosynthesis and respiration What is net primary productivity 0 Photosynthesis equation Carbon Dioxide Water Solar Energy 9 Carbohydrate sugar Oxygen o Respiration equation Carbohydrate sugar Oxygen 9 Carbon Dioxide Water Heat Energy 0 Net photosynthesis is the difference between photosynthetic production and respiration loss Net Photosynthesis Photosynthetic Rate Respiration Rate NPP The net photosynthesis for an entire plant community Highest tropical seasonal forest What roles are played in an ecosystem by producers and consumers What is a food web give an example Bioticliving 1 Producers plants 2 Consumers animals depend on producers for their carbon 1 Primary consumers 2 Secondary consumer 3 Tertiary consumers 0 Detritovores and Decomposers break down organic materials food web complex network of interconnected food chains with multidirectional branches Antarctic Ocean Food Web Energy flow through the system is called food chain Discuss the carbon and nitrogen cycles why are they important Carbon cycle fixed through photosynthesis amp begins its passage thru ecosystem operations respiration by living organisms the burning of forests amp grasslands amp combustion of fossil fuels release carbon to atmosphere Plants use carbon dioxide and sunlight to make their own food and grow The carbon becomes part of the plant Plants that die and are buried may turn into fossil fuels made of carbon like coal and oil over millions of years When humans burn fossil fuels most of the carbon quickly enters the atmosphere as carbon dioxide need carbon cycle for warmth they both create oxygen atmosphere is reservoir of gaseous nitrogen atmospheric nitrogen gas is chemically fixed by bacteria to produce ammonia lightening and forest fires produce nitrates fossil fuel combustion forms nitrogen compounds that are washed from the atmosphere by precip plants absorb nitrogen compounds and produce organic material nitrogen is important in the make up of organic molecules proteins thus essential to living processes What is a limiting factor How does it function to control the spatial distribution of plant and animal species limiting factor The one physical or chemical factor that most inhibits biotic function most ecosystems Precipitation is a main limiting factor limits where plants and animals can survive List 5 factors that control the spatial distribution of vegetaton Five major factors 0 Climate temperature and precipitation Topography elevation slope Soils nutrients minerals Biotic Influences dispersal mechanisms Disturbance natural or anthropogenic What is biodiversity and why is it important Biodiversity refers to the variation of life 1 Species Richness 2 Species abundance 3 Genetic diversity 4 Ecosystem diversity What are the stages of ecological succession in terrestrial ecosystems What are some examples How are wildfires important for ecological succession Ecological succession when new communities replace older communities of plants and animals 2 Types 0 Primary succession in an area of new surfaces ex an area of bare rock or disturbed site with no previous community 0 Secondary succession some aspects of a previously functioning community are present If a forest fire destroyed the vegetation in an area but left some vestiges of the previously functioning community and the soil intact What is a biome Biomelarge stable terrestrial ecosystem characterized by its dominant plant type amp vegetation structure plant type is based on native speciesnative to region not based on invasive speciesthose introduced by humans What is the basis for grouping plant communities into biomes Plant distributions are responsive to environmental conditions amp reflect variation in climatic amp other abiotic factors How do earth s physical systems impact vegetation form and distribution energy patterns atmospheric composition temp amp winds precipitation quantity quality amp seasonal timing soilsnutrients chemical pathways geomorphic processes What is an ecotone Ecotone a transition zone between two ecosystems at any scale What is the potential impact of invasive species on biotic communities the native plants wont survive invasive need more treatment not meant to survive there What are the characteristics of Earth s 10 major terrestrial biomes and where are they located Discuss each of them typical climate and types of plants found there Tropical Rain Forest leaf canopy thick amp continuous broadleaf evergreen trees tropical climate always warm water balance surpluses all year Tropical Seasonal Forest amp Scrub tropica monsoon forest tropical deciduous forest scrubwoodland amp thorn forest transitiona between rain forest amp grasslands broadleaf climate tropical monsoon tropical savanna precipitation 130200cm temp variable always warm gt 18C water balance seasonal surpluses amp deficits Tropical Savannah arge expanse of grassland interrupted by trees amp shrubs tropical grassland thorn woodland transitiona between tropical forest amp deserts precipitation occurs lt 6 months of the year rest is dry fires occur annually Midlatitude Broadleaf amp Mixed Forest temperate broadleaf midlatitude broadleaf temperate needleaf southern amp eastern evergreen pines demonstrate fire association climatehumid subtropical warm summer humid continental temp temperate w cold season H20 balance seasonal pattern w summer maximum no irrigation needed Boreal amp Montane Forest boreal forest other montane forests amp highlands needleleaf conifers mostly evergreen pine spruce fir Russian larch a deciduous needleleaf climate humid subtropical warm summer humid continental H20 balance seasonal pattern w summer maximum no irrigation needed Temperate Rain Forest West coast forest coastal redwoods narrow margin of lush evergreen amp deciduous trees on windward slopes climate marine west coast precip 150500cm temp mild summer amp mild winter for latitude water balance large surpluses amp runoff exploitation of forests logging recreation pressures mountain pine beetlekilling pinespruce trees Mediterranean Shrubland Shrubs Australian eucalyptus forest short shrubs drought adapted tending to grassy woodlands amp chapparal climate Mediterranean dry summer precip 25 65cm temp hot dry summers cool winters water balance summer deficit winter surplus Midlatitude Grasslands shrub tailgrass prairies amp shortgrass steppes most modified by human activity short amp tall grass quotbreadbasketsquot regions produce grain soybeans amp livestock climate humid subtropical precip 25 75cm water balance soil moisture utilization amp recharge balanced Warm amp Cold Deserts amp SemiDesert subtropica desert amp scrubland bare ground graduating into xerophytic plants including succulents climate arid desert precip lt 2cm highest temps on Earth water balance chronic deficits irregular precip midlatitude desert scrubland steppe cold desert vegetation includes short grass amp dry shrubs climate semiarid steppe precip 225cm Artic amp Alpine Tundra Treeless dwarf shrubs stunted sedges mosses lichens amp short grasses climate tundra subartic very cold temp warmest months gt10C only 23 months above freezing water balance not applicable most of the year poor drainage in summer Discuss strategies for ecosystem management and biodiversity conservation Conservation biogeography sub discipline applies biogeographic principles theories amp analyses to solve problems in biodiversity conservation Anthropogenic Biomes result from ongoing human interaction w ecosystems linked to landuse practices such as agriculture forestry
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