MLIT EXAM 2 STUDY REVIEW
MLIT EXAM 2 STUDY REVIEW MLIT1003 005
Popular in Basic Course in the Arts: Music Lecture
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brinkley Castro on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MLIT1003 005 at University of Arkansas taught by Nikola Radan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 391 views. For similar materials see Basic Course in the Arts: Music Lecture in Music at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
MLIT EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Romanticism in Music 0 Characteristics of Romantic Style Individuality of Style I Unprecedented emphasis on selfexpression and individuality of style I Many romantics created music that sounds unique and re ects their personalities Expressive Aims and Subjects I Romantics explored a universe of feeling I Love is glorify I All aspects of nature attracted romantic musicians I Subjects drawn from middle ages and Shakespeare s plays Nationalism and Exoticism I Musical nationalism composers deliberately created music with a specific national identity using the folk songs dances legends and history of their homelands I Fascination with colorful materials from foreign lands a trend known as musical exoticism I Musical exoticism was in keeping with romantics attraction to things remote picturesque and mysterious Program Music I The great age of program music instrumental music associated with story poem idea or scene I The nonmusical element is usually specified by a title or by descriptive comments called a program Expressive Tone Color I Romantic composers reveled in rich and sensuous sound using tone color to obtain variety of mood and atmosphere I The romantic orchestra was larger and more varied in tone color than the classical orchestra Colorful Harmony I Prominent exploitation of chromatic harmony I Dissonant or unstable chords were used more freely I Wide variety of keys and rapid modulations I Feeling of tonal gravity tends to be less strong Expanded Range of Dynamics Pitch and Tempo I Romantic music includes sharp contrasts and wide range of dynamics I The range of pitch was expended as composers reached for extremely high or low sounds Form Miniature and Monumental I Musical miniatures and in monumental compositions I A theme may occur in different movement I Thematic transformation when a melody returns in a later movement or section of romantic work its character may be transformed by changes in dynamics orchestration or rhythm Romantic Piano Music Piano home use favorite instrument of virtuosos Technical improvements Castiron frame and thicker strings in piano Steinway Romantic Composers Schubert Chopin Liszt Felix Mendelssohn Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel Robert and Clara Schumann Brahms Piano and Chopin Style Centered on the piano Smaller forms nocturnes preludes impromptus waltzes mazurkas etudes Larger forms ballades polonaises fantasies sonatas piano concertos PoIonaiseprocessional dance for the Polish nobility Chopin heroic polonaises evoke the ancient splendor of the Polish people Music Nationalism Nationalism in uenced romantic music as composers deliberately gave their works a distinctive national identity Nationalist composers wrote operas and program music inspired by the history legends and landscapes of their native land Characteristics I Inclusion of folk dance I Reference to folklore or peasant life I Programs national hero historic event scenic beauty of land I Censorship Powerful symbolism Composers I Louis Moreau Gottschalk I Edward MacDowell I John Philip Sousa The Russian Five I Often based on ancient church modes rather than on major or minor scales I Tend to be irregular in meter A measure may content 5 beats I Founders Mily Balakirev Alexander Borodin Cesar Cui Nikolai RimsyKorsakov Modest Mussorgsky Mikhail Glinka is the father of Russian Music Modest Mussorgsky Pictures at an Exhibition 1874 The Art Song The Art Song a composition for solo voice and piano Composers I Schubert I Schuman I Brahms Poets I Johann Wolfgang Goethe I Heinrich Heine The German word Lied song is commonly used for a song with German text Romantic poets express longing mood which is inspired by A lost of love I Nature a legend I Other times and places I Supernatural Composers can use strophic form repeating the same music for each stanza of the poem Composers might use throughcomposed form writing new music for each stanza A three stanza poem is frequently set as follows I A stanza 1 I B stanza 2 I A stanza 3 This is called a modified strophic form Romantic art songs are sometimes grouped in a set or song cycle Franz Schubert 17971828 I Socially shy I Home and salon concerts I Regional frame I Classical and Romantic character I Piano works exhibit a new lyricism I The Erlking 1815 Song is a deep male voice with soft piano in the background Ballad of the supernatural Obsessive triplets in piano Four characters narrator father son Erlking king of elves Son dies at the end Heartbreaking recitative that allows every word to make its impact Program Music Program music instrumental music associated with a story poem idea or scene The aim of most program music is expression more than description The nonprogram music is called absolute music Four main types I Concert overture I Incidental music Mendelssohn A Midsummer Night s Dream I Program symphony Berlioz Symphoniefantastique IV I Symphonic poem tone poem Smetana The Moldau A program symphony is a composition in several movements A concert overture has one movement usually in sonata form I Mendelssohn s Hebrides Overture I Tchaikovsky s Overture 1812 and Romeo and uliet Overture A symphonic poem is also a onemovement composition Hector Berlioz 18031869 French composer and conductor Beethoven and Shakespeare Harriet Smithson Prix de Rome Fantastic Symphony 1830 I Five movements ideefixe I Passions II A Ball 111 Scene in the Fields IV March to the Scaffold V Dream of a Witches Sabbath I The Berlioz theme or main melody which unifies the symphony appears in every of the five movements and he called it ideefixe fixed idea Opera The Elements of Opera Opera drama that is sung to orchestral accompaniment In an opera characters and plot are revealed through song rather than the speech used in ordinary drama In opera the music is the drama and the ow of the music carries the plot forward The libretto or text of the opera is usually written by the librettist or dramatist and set to music by the composer An opera has from one to five acts subdivided into scenes A single act presents a variety of vocal and orchestral contrast The aria is a song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment Opera composers often lead into an aria with a recitative a vocal line that imitates the rhythms and pitch uctuations of speech When three or more singers are involved in the main song or aria the composition is called an ensemble An opera chorus generates atmosphere and makes comments on the action Their sound creates a kind of tonal background for the soloists The prompter gives cues and reminds the singers of words or pitches if they momentarily forget Most operas open with a purely orchestral composition called an overture The overture is a short musical statement that involves the audience in the overall dramatic mood Orchestral introductions to acts in the opera other than the first are always called preludes Intermezzo were musical interludes inserted in between acts of the spoken play Opera in the Baroque Era A group of nobles poets and composers began to meet regularly in Florence around 1575 and prepared the grounds for developing a new vocal musical form by fusing theater and music This group was known as the Camerata Italian for fellowship or society The Camerata wanted to create a new vocal style modeled on the music of ancient Greek tragedy The Camerata wanted the vocal line to follow the rhythms and pitch uctuations of speech The new vocal style became known as recitative It was sung by a soloist with only a simple chordal accompaniment Therefore the music was homophonic in texture Monteverdi Opera Orpheus and Eurydice KNOW THIS I Characters Orpheus son of the god Apollo his wife Eurydice I Eurydice dies after being bit by a poisonous snake I Apollo pities Orpheus and brings him up to heaven Purcell Opera Dido and Aeneas KNOW THIS I Characters Dido queen of Carthage Aeneas king of the defeated Trojans Aeneas is ordered by the gods to seek a site for building a new city lands in Carthage and falls in love with Dido a sorceress and two witches plot Dido s downfall false messenger tells Aeneas that gods command him to leave immediately Dido kills herself and the opera concluded with the mourning of the chorus Opera in the Classical Period 0pera Seria serious opera started with a librettist named Pietro Metastasio 16981782 eanacques Rousseau 17121778 I Cowriter of the French encyclopedia 0pera Buffa comic opera comes from comedia deI arte WA Mozart Don Giovanni KNOW THIS I Characters Don Giovanni Donna Anna a young noblewoman The Commendatore Anna s father Don Ottavio Anna s fiance The Don attempts to rape Donna Anna her father challenges him to a duel Don Giovanni kills the Commendatore Anna and Don Ottavio swear revenge Don Giovanni is ordered to repent but refuses and is dragged down to hell Romantic Period Opera BeI canto Beautiful songvoice is the Italian opera music style that became popular at the beginning of the 19th century Bel canto rules I Opera is the highest manifestation of the art of song I Its primary purpose is to delight and move the listener with music that is tuneful unsentimental spontaneous and in every sense of the word popular Giuseppe Verdi I Changed the nature and content of Italian opera I His evolution was towards refinement of dramatic aim literary truth and technique I By the end of his career he had brought Italian opera to a level of dramatic and technical excellence never since surpassed I Nabucco 1842 Nebuchadnezzar follows the plight of the Jews as they are assaulted conquered and subsequently exiled from their homeland by the Babylonian King Nebuchadnezzar Giuseppe VerdiAida KNOW THIS I Aida was written to celebrate the opening if the Suez Canal I Characters Aida is Ethiopian princess turned slave a prisoner of war in Egypt Radames is a great beloved Egyptian general Amneris is an Egyptian princess I The plot revolves around a love triangle At the top of the triangle is Radames He and Aida are secretly in love with each other Amneris a jealous Egyptian princess with a serious angermanagement issue also loves Radames and therein lies the dramatic rub I Radames is tricked into reveling a battle plan to Aida Amneris eavesdrops on their conversation and reports Radames indiscretion Accused of treason Radames is tried convicted and sentenced to die by suffocation by the allpowerful priesthood of Ptah I The final scene of the opera the so called Tomb Scenequot sees Radames ensconced and sealed in his tomb beneath the temple of Ptah Richard Wagner Tristan and Isolde KNOW THIS I Characters Isolde an Irish princess Tristan a knight and a nephew of King Mark of Cornwall Sothern England Brangane Isolde s maid I While campaigning in Ireland an army led by Tristan devastated Isolde s land and killed her husband Tristan is wounded in a battle and not knowing who he is Isolde nurses him back to health Tristan tells her that his name is Tontres I Isolde whose driveway doesn39t quite rich the road never does figure out who this guy is until he recovered and takes her as a prisoner He puts her on his ship and sail for Cornwall where Isolda will be married Tristan s uncle old King Mark Innovations I The role of the orchestra Performs a role of analogues to that of the chorus in a Greek drama The music played by the orchestra is as important to the narrative and is as expressively significant as what s being sung onstage The orchestra plays a role unto itself By allowing the orchestra to play music built from the leitmotifs it becomes the alter ego the unconscious truth behind the words of the characters I Leitmotif A musical theme or motive associated with a particular person thing or idea in the drama These leitmotifs will be repeated altered fragmented and developed often in the voice but most often in the orchestra with each permutation offering up some new subtle twist of meaning Impressionism Claude Monet Impression painting Sunrise Painting Styles French Impressionist Painting I Used broad brush strokes and vibrant colors I Focused on light color and atmosphere I Favorite subject was light re ecting on water Claude Debussy French impressionist composer Debussy was fascinated by Asian music in particular the percussion orchestra or gamelan music of Indonesia In uences I The French language with its blurred edges and infinity of nuance I Romanticism Debussy grew up during the 19th century and the overwhelming bulk of his music is programmatic I Romantic literature extolling expression and descriptive images in particular the symbolist poets Mallarme Verlaine and Rimbaud I French impressionist painting Innovations I Debussy elevated timber instrumental tone color the actual sound of the music to a level equal to that of rhythm pitch and harmony I The use of nonWestern and nontraditional pitch collections Expanded harmonic vocabulary and practice Used 5note chords instead of traditional 3 Made use of pentatonic and wholetone scales I The use of traditional structures in nontraditional ways Obscured harmony tempo meter amp rhythm
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