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Exam 2 Study Materials

by: Aimee Castillon

Exam 2 Study Materials PSYC379

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > PSYC379 > Exam 2 Study Materials
Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61
Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology
Eric B Shiraev

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About this Document

Hey guys! I have here the study guide I created based on Dr. Shiraev's study guide on Blackboard, as well as practice questions that we went over in class and that were posted on his website. Hope ...
Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology
Eric B Shiraev
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC379 at George Mason University taught by Eric B Shiraev in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 1291 views. For similar materials see Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 10/27/15
Chapter 4 thresholds crosscultural similarities and individual differences absolute threshold smallest detectable level of a stimulus research reveals significant crosscultural similarities difference threshold smallest detectable difference between two levels of a stimulus research reveals significant crosscultural similarities Our experience with the environment shapes our perception by creating perceptual expectations These expectations known as a perceptual set make particular interpretations likely to occur and increase both the speed and efficiency of the perceptual process Perceptual sets common in people of a particular culture and most relevant to their experience are not necessarily developed in individuals from other cultures The Carpentered World Hypothesis people who are raised in an environment shaped by carpenters most of us live in rectangular houses with rectangular furniture and similar street patterns tend to interpret non rectangular figures as representations of rectangular figures seen in perspective fielddependent perception ability of an individual to rely more on external visual cues and to be primarily socially oriented perception of time p100101 different ways of arranging time in a definite order known as calendars Gregorian most countries counts years since birth of Jesus lslamic first year is when Mohammed moved from Mecca to Medina North Korean calendar starts with birthday of Kim llsung in 1912 Taiwanese calendar starts with founding of Republic of China in 1912 Akbar 1991 Africans do not view time as a commodity Time accelerates faster as we grow older apparently perception of the beautiful p101103 Aesthetic experience A term used to identify the feeling of pleasure evoked by stimuli that are perceived as beautiful attractive and rewarding The term also refers to displeasure evoked by stimuli that are perceived as ugly unattractive and unrewarding depth perception organization of sensations in 3D even though the image on the eye s retina is 2D There is evidence that scanning patterns are subject to some cultural variations The most significant finding is that the direction we examine pictures m to mm m m to E g m top to bottom is linked to our readinci habits For example it is likely that people in England Argentina or Canada who read from left to right also have a left right scanning pattern Arab and Hebrew readers who read from right to left should demonstrate a right left scanning pattern and Japanese readers who read from top to bottom should have a top bottom pattern of picture scanning However there are exceptions to this rule Consciousness state of being aware of oneself attentive reflective to self Awareness I exist I am Identity I am different from you Consistency I remain the same when I wake up tomorrow Altered State of Consciousness ASC The general name for phenomena that are different than normal waking flow of consciousness and include mystic experiences meditation hypnosis trance and possession trance sleeplike state marked by altered sensitivity to stimuli loss or gain of knowledge and conversion or automatic motor activity sleep can be induced by external sources such as singing dancing praying and direct suggestion from another person may reduce suffering include anxiety sadness or pain may provide a sense of protection wisdom and greatness some mental and behavioral states are called possession trance They are feared and avoided hypnosis meditation is a quiet and relaxed state of tranquility in which a person achieves an integration of thoughts perceptions and attitudes Usually this state is attained with the cooperation of a special principle or belief People who meditate often describe their experience as leading to liberation from the self or an expansion of conscious awareness coma and near death experiences Four scientific views of NDE Neurochemical reactions within the brain in a state of crisis Neurochemical reactions similar to the effects of drugs A coping psychological mechanism Neural oscillation rhythmic or repetitive neural activity in the central nervous system universal NDE elements seeing a light at the end of the tunnel the golden light seeing a religious figure God Buddha Brahma Vishnu Shiva Ganesha or Krishna forest flying kaleidoscope seeing life early childhood experiences Dr Michael Persinger ASC are associated with electrical processes within the temporal lobe anticipation of death and destruction compensation as fantasy and imagination some people s brains have a higher than average temporal lobe sensitivity consciousness correlate with important life events ASC correlate with cultural beliefs emotional sensitivity heightened sense of selfuniqueness heightened sense of a missionpurpose significant dreams unusual tactile visual or auditory sensations gt ASC religious individuals understand their ASC as their religious experiences nonreligious ppl understand ASC from scientific POV Carl Jung was probably the most influential student and later critic of Freud s views Contradicting Freud Jung proposed that dreams do not necessarily reflect unrealized wishes but rather mythological stories and images from the experiences of our ancestors There must be an impersonal layer in human psyche different from the individual unconscious which Jung called the collective unconscious It is inherited and shared with other members of the species The content of the collective unconscious consists of archetypes or images of the primordial elemental ancient character positive vs negative spiritualism positive beliefs helps you in life negative spiritualism harm you in life Chapter 5 Biological factors of intelligence p 120121 states that genetics plays an important role in determining an individual s intelligence A psychometric view of intelligence assumption that our intelligence can receive a numerical value The low effort syndrome p 136 low level of motivation on intelligence tests based on the belief that the tests are biased and test results are unimportant for success in life The Army Testing Project 19181919 After the United States entered World War in 1917 the APA established a special committee of prominent psychologists including Edward Thorndike John Watson G Stanley Hall and Robert Yerkes to discuss American psychologists contribution to the national war effort Robert Yerkes took charge of a specially organized group of 40 psychologists to create a test to evaluate mental skills of servicemen On the basis of this test s measurements the psychologists wanted to create categories or ranks of recruits according to their mental abilities Based on these categories the scientists wanted to select and recommend the most capable individuals to serve in more advanced positions of responsibility and for future promotion The Army Alpha for literates and the Army Beta tests for illiterates The Ellis Island testing lectures Congress explicitly referred to imbeciles and the feebleminded as people who should be excluded from admission to the United States Special immigration stations were created to register the arriving immigrants and check their health One such station was Ellis Island near New York City What were the results of the testing As an example in 1913 on the basis of test results more than 500 people were deported from the United States as mentally defective This represented a threefold increase over the number of people excluded in the 5 previous years without testing Did the Romans smile Chapter 6 It may well be that the Romans did not smile as we do to indicate greeting or willingness to serve But the smile of amusement pleasure or approval is probably as Roman as gladiators and stuffed dormice Basic emotions joy sadness fear disgust anger and surprise Three classical theories of emotion William James 1884 emotion is embedded into bodily experience physical experience leads the person to feel aroused and stimulates the subjective experience of anxiety joy and so forth CannonBard theory various life situations such as a hairy spider crawling on your shoulder can simultaneously elicit both an emotional experience such as disgust or fear and bodily responses such as increased BP or sweaty palms 1960s theory there are two crucial elements of emotional experience physiological arousal and the cognitive interpretation of this arousal in every emotion we first experience a state of physiological arousal Then we try to explain to ourselves what the arousal means If the situation suggests that we should experience pleasure we call itjoy If somebody threatens us we call this experience fear The evolutionary view of emotions People can tell other people s emotions Even though we do not speak someone s language we can often understand whether this person is happy or sad If you understand what other people feel by judging their emotional expressions and if they can judge your emotions correctly that means human feelings are universal Preceding events and emotions p 152 Display rules patterns of emotional expression considered appropriate within a particular culture age or social group Feeling rules particular cultural rules about how to feel in particular situations Culture and facial expression of emotions The cultural significance of disgust p 149 Disgust as an emotion is associated with cultural requirements to reject certain foods or avoid particular situations related to eating Once accepted these requirements are supported by a powerful emotion and thus become less subject to temptation or modification The classic crosscultural study of disgust emphasized that people develop expectations about how children should react to particular foods and food consumption For example most of us are not continuously concerned about the regular food we chew however most of us would feel disgust and refuse to eat the food that we had spit out a second ago Most of us wouldn t mind sucking our own blood from a cut finger but a majority would be repulsed by the idea of ingesting our own blood after it had been accumulated onto a spoon with centuries passing disgust as an emotion was changing its foodrelated func on It has become in many ways a social emotion a signal and regulator of behavioral appropriateness associated with the perception of food contamination Embarrassment and shame p154 Consistent with other other studies Chinese students were found to experience higher levels of anxiety in mathematics compared to students from Germany They were also found to experience more enjoyment pride and shame and less anger than German students Europeans experienced guilt as an anticipated moral transgression guilt indicates that a person violated an internal standard of ethical behavior even though there s no public notice of such violation ln firstgeneration AsianAmericans the typical guiltrelated situations is based on the feelings of failed or unfulfilled duty EuropeanAmericans view of shame it is shameful that other people discover your inappropriate actions AsianAmericans view of shame regret for letting some important people down Incorporating cultural beliefs in therapeutic practices a case of anxiety in theology anxiety has been associated with the concepts of conscience guilt and original sin in evolutionary theory anxiety is usually explained as part of the fight or flight reflex that gets triggered in the presence of danger ln cultural theory anxiety is interpreted as a reaction to the stress and uncertainty of modern life Freudian school anxiety is rooted in deepseated unconscious conflicts Existentialism explains anxiety as the realization of the shortness and the absurdity of our lives The biomedical approach attributes anxiety to the brain s neurophysiology The Winterborn and the Summerborn general emotional tendencies lectures fall and springborns occasion and at times frequent transitions bt sad and cheerful moods The number of people with cyclothymic temperament characterized by rapid frequent swings bt sad and cheerful was significantly higher in those born in the summer Hyperthermia tendency to be excessively positive is significantly higher among those born in the spring and summer those born in fall were less likely to be depressed while those born in winter were less likely to be irritable Chapter 4 practice questions 1 Professor Persinger maintains that certain practices involving ritualistic trance affect b an individual s hormonal system c immune system and resistance to stress d an individual s reaction time e an individual s time perception People in Polyphasic cultures tend to value dreams and treat them as a b fairy tales c mental disorders d severe mental problems e signs of demonic possession Which of the following statements most accurately reflects the languagerelated theories of color perception a people are generally color blind but the language is used to identify brightness c language has nothing to do with the way people see colors d when a person learns a foreign language this individual is confused about colors e exposure to colors blue and red reduces a person s accent Under the influence of the Protestant Christian tradition developed first in Western Europe and later spread around the globe Altered States of Consciousness were considered mostly as a normal common phenomena b result of difficult educational environment c religious experiences d human emotions Our experience with the environment for example living in a mountainous area shapes our perception by creating perceptual expectations which are usually called a sensational paths c conscious ways d experience ways e familiaremotions Studies have shown that statistically people who grew up in hunter and gatherer cultures have rate of color blindness among their members than societies practicing agriculture a higher b the same d significantly higher 10 11 12 Some studies of sensory preferences propose a hypothesis that certain ethnic groups do well on some sensory tasks for example vision but do not do well on others for example hearing but in the end sensory and other cognitive skills are evenly balanced What is this hypothesis called a the inequality hypothesis b the power hypothesis d the justice hypothesis e the consciousness hypothesis There is research evidence that scanning patterns scanning a picture or text for example are caused by cultural factors The most significant cultural factor is a perception of time b the person s religion c access to water d access to sand e When a person reports that his or her body is invaded or captured by a spirit or several spirits this altered state of consciousness is typically called a visionary trance b nonspecific spiritrelated coma c spiritual awakening e SevendaysinTibet experience Some intriguing perceptual differences were found in comparative studies of Western and East Asian subjects East Asians tend to be more holistic and Westerners tend to be more a creative b impatient d forgiving e aggressive is a quiet and relaxed state of tranquility in which a person achieves an integration of emotions attitudes and thoughts a Hypnosis b Aesthetic experience c Trance e Sleep The organization of sensations in three dimensions even though the image on the eye s retina is twodimensional is referred to as a b difference threshold c sensory adaptation d revealing experience e sensory threshold 13 Numerous experiments have demonstrated that people generally have more difficulty judging pictures of faces of other ethnic groups compared to faces of their own group I F 14 Research suggests that residents of large metropolitan cities in general tend to be more susceptible to neardeath and other out of body experiences T ll 15 The compensation hypothesis involving sensory differences between African and European cultures has not been supported by compelling empirical data T ll 16 The text distinguishes between two types of trances visionary and possession 17 Why do most Americans draw circles in a counterclockwise direction Because most Americans learn to read and write from left to right Chapter 5 1 What is the psychological term for originality or the ability to produce valued outcomes in a novel way b Creativity c Informal intelligence d Empirical reasoning e Field independent style 2 What is the psychological term for experience and cognitive operations drawn from everyday activities a Formal intelligence b Sorting and classification d Lifestyle learning e Creativity 3 Which of the following most accurately explains the relationship between intelligence and intelligent behavior a Intelligence is always practical while intelligent behavior is not b Intelligence is measured by tests Intelligent behavior is impossible to measure c Intelligent behavior is a term used to describe success on intelligence tests e There is no difference between intelligence and intelligent behavior 4 Which of the following groups have the greatest chance of having similar IQ scores identical twins raised apart or two biologically unrelated individuals raised together a Two biologically unrelated individuals raised together c Both groups will have equal chance to have similar scores d Both groups will have zero chance to have similar scores e The probability is impossible to predict 5 Regardless of his or her ethnic group an individual who scores high on an IQ tests will likely have in college a poor low grades c a mixture of high and low grades d poor grades in social studies and high grades in math and science e the grades are impossible to predict 6 While boys were more likely than girls to score in the top 5 percent on science and math tests they were also more likely to score near the bottom of the scale on tests of reading comprehension memory and perceptual speed I F 7 Studies of Korean and Vietnamese children adopted into White homes in the United States show that they tend to grow to have IQs 10 or more points higher than their adoptive national norms I F 8 itudies show no correlation between people s total years of education and IQ scores T 9 During the 1990s what happened to the gap in IQ scores between US urban and rural populations Gap decreased 10 While reading the morning paper you come across an article speculating that intelligence scores worldwide have declined Would you as a scientist agree with this journalistic opinion Disagree because test scores worldwide would go up Chapter 6 1 In the United States early attempts to measure IQs began more than one hundred years ago These studies examined primarily b prisoners sentenced for violent crimes c government bureaucrats d construction workers salespersons and farmers e the elderly from Italian and Irish neighborhoods 2 are particular cultural rules about how to feel in particular situations a evaluation of emotions b anger management instructions c display rules d arousal rules 3 Which of the following terms refers to the process of identification description and explanation of an emotional expression a Stress reduction c Emotion recognition d Feeling rules e Intellectual challenge 4 What is the term for an individual assessment of emotions according to certain criteria or principles b Stress reduction c Feeling rules d Arousal e Display rules 5 Basic human emotional expressions are across cultures a profoundly different c inconsistent d impossible to measure e very disruptive and interfere with people s thinking 6 Crossculturally studies of the process of identification description and explanation of facial emotional expressions show a profound differences b inconsistencies in the way people understand emotional expressions of anger andjoy c inconsistencies in the way people understand emotional expressions of sadness e that people had very little understanding of emotions 7 In the Buddhist tradition accepted in Chinese language the basic seven emotions are described as happiness anger sorrow joy love hate and desire One emotion commonly appearing in all Western classifications does not appear in this lineup Which one a Jealousy c Frustration d Inspiration e Depression 8 Despite similarities in emotional experiences across cultures there is no one single universal description of basic emotions I F 9 The recognition rate of facial expression on photographs was higher when subjects had little previous contact with other cultures T I 10 Research shows that a change in voluntary facial expression causes changes in galvanic skin response used in socalled lie detectors I F 11 A study of samples in 32 countries showed that individualism was positively correlated with higher expressivity of emotions especially happiness and surprise Individualism was negatively correlated with expression ofit is typically discouraged sadness 12 Recent studies of emotion recognition showed that subjects in China compared to other national groups had more problems with recognition of one emotion on photographed faces Which one Disgust lnclass review Altered State of Consciousness often associated with religious experiences have been for many years excluded from scientific psychological research because of the attempts of researchers to distance psychology from religion A fashion a trend and a faith spiritualism claims that the living can correspond with the deceased through special channels of communication The following class examples about Red Riding Hood Jonah Yunus Pinocchio and the Pirates of the Caribbean demonstrated an important point from Jung s theory the commonality of human archetypes


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