Chapter 9: Kinship
Chapter 9: Kinship BIOL 515
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erica Leonard on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 515 at Kansas State University taught by Eva A Horne in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Ecology in Biology at Kansas State University.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Chapter 9 Kinship Coefficient of relatedness gt r measure of kinship o R alleles identical between 2 individuals which originated in same ancestor o R probability 2 individuals inherit particular allele from same ancestor o R sum 05L I Sum sum of probabilities from individuals getting identical alleles when they come from more than 1 source I 05 probability that an allele copy will be passed on during gamete formation meiosis I L generation link meiotic divisions between individuals gt Calculating r o Parentoffspring 05 0 Full sibs 05 o Grandparentgrandchild 025 0 Half sibs 025 o Cousins 0125 Recognizing kin gt Location direct aid to those found in places kin mostly likely location 0 Bank swallow deed those young in nest learn to recognize young when fledge o Spadefoot toad tadpoles avoids eating sibs by avoiding area where sibs congregatetaste gt Familiarity kin those individuals in close proximity not always real sibs gt Phenotype matching identify kin that have never met in a 3 step process 0 Cue of kinship something about individual that identifies it I Genetic basis major histocompatibility complex MHC I Part of immune system recognizes self and quotnon self Sea squirts settle in kin groups based on MHC alleles settle w non kin if MHC allele shared Paper wasps recognize kin based on scent of hydrocarbons in cuticle 0 Template basis to which cue is compared closeness of match correlated to relatedness I Knowledge of cue learned or genetic I Males prefer siblings 0 Response treat stranger like kin or not I Depends on context amp cost of making mistake Paper wasps attack nonkin only if near nest threatening eggs gt Recognition of alleles o Alleles must label bearer provide ability to perceive label cause appropriate behavior 0 Green bread effect any type of label controlled by alleles separate from learning I Worker bees with BB kill queen if she isn t BB Parental Care gt Mode of fertilization Gender giving care families w internal fert families w external fert Male 14 70 Female 86 30 gt Hypothesis 0 Certainty of paternity gamete order association gt Certainty of paternity parental care correlated w relatedness 0 Females are more certain of paternity potential in males no guarantee their sperm is used 0 Parental care can still be selected if more of male s own offspring survived gt Gamete order parent releasing gametes 1st can desertleave 0 Internal fertilization females cares after male donates sperm amp leaves 0 External fertilization males release sperm last amp female can leave 0 Simultaneously released both parental care gt Association whichever parent is closest cares for young 0 Internal fertilization female cares male isn t around once eggs are laid or born 0 External fertilization male cares fertilization occurs in his territory gt Biparental care 0 Cichlids high predation rates require both parents to care 0 Burying beetles if competitors pair does better if none lone female does better gt Role reversal 0 Giant water bugs male cares for eggs on his back female needs food to produce large brood 0 Northern jacana females selected to spend more time producing eggs amp defend territories amp keep harems of males gt Brood parasitism laying eggs in another nest o ntraspecific same species ducks swans geese I 1 female leaves eggs in another nest9young mix9cared for by foster parent 0 nterspecific different species I Adult parasite may kill host eggs before laying I Young parasite may kill siblings monopolize parental care 0 Host defense I Hide amp defend nest I Identify amp throw out parasite eggs I Some species adapt a trait mutation giving them kin recognition amp can recognize own offspring Parental Allocation of Resources gt Chances of being able to reproduction multiple times gt Likelihood of future reproduction 0 Short life invest heavily foraging more costly I Starlings short themselves rather than young 0 Long life invest less foraging more costly I Storm petrels short offspring rather than themselves chances of reproducing themselves are higher Who Gets Care gt Gender biased provisioning 0 Parents feed male or female offspring more depending on which requires more to be productive 0 Large sons 9 successful sons 9 more genes in next generation fed more than females Females are fed less 9 will be successful regardless of size 9 female diet depends on species 0 Daughters with better nutrition 9 successful daughters 9 more genes in next generation 0 I Matriphagy social spider colony of spiders make web together young feed w regurgitated fluids later eat mother Siblings Conflict gt Offspring often differ in competitive ability behavior differs between offspring gt If young are different sizes 9 largest bully youngest to get more food throw from nestkill o Siblicide I Often occurs when resources are low I Benefits parents by saving timeenergy Why produces more than feed gt Insurance in case some die gt Food supple is variable some years all offspring survive gt Meals for stronger offspring to increase survival 0 Spotted hyenas I Females are dominant inhert rank of mother I Siblicide if identical female twins are born
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