Study Guide for Test 1
Study Guide for Test 1 CMM 103
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Ross on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CMM 103 at Marshall University taught by Dr. Jill Underhill in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals Of Speech Communication in Communication at Marshall University.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
CMM 103 Public Speaking Unit 1 Study Guide Fall 2014 Chapter 1 Critical Thinking Facts Opinions Strategic planning Public Speaking and Communications The audience39s view The speaker39s view The interplay between the two Rhetorical Situation 10The audience 11The occasion 12Ceremonia 13Deiberative 14Forensics 15Exigence 16The speaker 17The speech 18JnvenUon 19Arrangement 20Stye 21Deivery 22Memory 23Extemporaneous presentation 24Manuscript presentation 25Diversity of audience 26Responsibiity of statements 27Consequences of your speech Chapter 2 28Know and be able to identify purpose and thesis 29dentify Ethos 30Know the roles and purposes of all three parts of speech 31dentify the different types of speech memorized impromptu extemporaneous speech Chapter 3 32Characteristics of effective delivery 337 dimensions of vocal quality 34Vocaized pauses 35The body as an audience resource 36Eements of the body in delivery 37Types of practice Chapter 4 38Know the difference between hearing and listening 39Know why listening is important and explain each reason 40Know why listening is dif cult and be able to distinguish between each factor 41Checking for accuracy 42Giving and getting feedback QWFQP PWN 43Evauating messages 44Strategies for Careful Listening pgs 45Define Mapping and know the importance of the four steps 46Listening Critically 47Know the six characteristics of critical thinkers 48Know the difference between facts opinions and assumptions 49Know the fours skills of critical thinking 50Know the four questions a critical thinker would use to test a speaker39s idea 51Evaluating Speeches Critically 52Know the two concepts used to evaluate the quality of a speech Be able to identify their importance 53Know the difference between the expediency standard and the artistic standard Chapter 5 54Demographics 55Heterogeneity 56Audience culture 57Audience psychology 58Vountary vs captive audience 59Self interests 60Persona interests 61Ausions 62Selective attention 63Formal vs informal methods Chapter 6 64dentify the constraints that may arise when developing a strategic plan 65Appropriateness of scope 66Brainstorming 67Purposes of a speech 68The steps of strategic planning 69Purpose Statements General vs Speci c 70Analyzing the thesis statement 1 The ability to form and defend your own judgments rather than blindly accepting or instantly rejecting what you hear or read Understanding and analyzing various points of view and recognizing whether it is a fact or opinion 2 Statements that in theory can be verified by someone other than the speaker Subjective judgments based on experience or expertise not capable of being verified by someone else Process of identifying your goals and then determining how best to achieve them A speaker transmits a message orally to an audience Interacting in order to build connections where by they understand each other and recognize common interests Framework of prior knowledge beliefs and values each listener comes to the speech with by which they decode or interpret the speech with The speakers analysis of the audience to try to match their expectations appropriately and modifying how key points are organized and phrased and acknowledging the audience s concerns lnterplay between speaker and audience a Feedback responses from the audience to the speaker often in the form of nonverbal cues b How well ideas match the audience and how you improve the fit as you speak A situation in which people s understanding can be changed through messages How the message affects people ie shaping values bringing people togetherapart celebrating events creating a sense of identity changing beliefs leading people to take or not take action 10 Who the speech is specifically presented to Creates a rhetorical situation by affecting the speaker s choice of what to emphasize organization what level of knowledge to assume and what the specific purpose may be 11 Place or event where the speech is given 12 Speaking that focuses on the present and is usually concerned with praise ex Graduation 13 Speaking that focuses on the future and is usually concerned with what should be done ex Sales reports oral reports 14 Speaking that focuses on the past usually concerned with justice ex Courts of law 15 A problem that cannot be avoided but can be solved or at least managed by the development of an appropriate message all speeches should have this 16 A speaker delivers the speech A different speaker can deliver the same speech and evoke different reactions through imagery voice and ethos 17 The message which itself shapes the situation The audience s understanding of the situation can be improved by a speech that is organized effectively has interesting examples memorable phrases and is presented enthusiastically 18Generation of materials for a speech Identifying what could go into a speech then conducting research for what ideas are supportable then selecting most effective materials for purpose and audience 19The structuring of materials within the main ideas the organization of main ideas within the body of the speech and the overall structure of the introduction body and conclusion 20The distinctive character that may make a speech memorable or recognizable 21 Presentation of the speech to an audience lnvolves actually sharing the message with the audience with effective gestures facials physical movements and visual aids 22 Mental recall of key ideas and basic structure of the speech 23 Mode of delivery in which the speech is planned and structured carefully but an actual specific text is not writtenmemorized in advance 24 Mode of delivery in which the speaker reads aloud the prepared text of a speech 25 Knowing not all audience members share your perspective Diverse cultural backgrounds affect listeners attitudes and experiences a Ethocentrism usually unconscious tendency to imagine one s views are typical of everyone else s demeans listeners who have a different cultural background b Respecting cultural diversity means being aware of ones assumptions and resisting the temptation to assume that everyone else will share them 26Taking responsibility for the accuracy and integrity of your statements and don t plagiarize 27 Recognizing that your speech has consequences as your ethical responsibility You cannot be indifferent to how your speech may affect others even if you do not know what those effects may be Someone could repeat what you ve said or change his or her opinion because of what you said so it is important for it to be true 28 The goal of the speech the response sought from listeners 29 30 31 32 33 34 The main idea of the speech usually stated in one or two sentences The speaker s character as perceived by the audience ex The speaker may be nervous funny trustworthy slick unsure etc The beginning of the speech designed to get the audience s attention to state the thesis and to preview the development of the speech The largest portion of the speech includes the development of supporting materials to prove the thesis and any subsidiary claims The ending of a speech draws together the main ideas and provides a note of finality Speaker pays close attention to a prepared text and commits it to memory Speaker has done little or no specific preparation for the speech and usually only given a few minutes to come up with what they are going to say A mode of presentation in which the main ideas and structure have been worked out in advance but specific wording has not been developed Effective delivery is natural and uncontrived Effective delivery helps the audience to listen understand remember and act on the speech Effective delivery builds a sense of community between the speaker and the audience Volume Loudness Pitch Placement on the musical scale Rate Speed number of words per minute Pauses Silences for emphasis or transition Articulation amp Enunciation Clarity and distinctness of individual sounds or words Pronunciation The accepted way to sound a given word lnflection The sound pattern for a sentence as a whole Pauses filled with sound such as uh or umm 35 36 37 38 39 40 Used to enhance the message The body and its movements influence audience s first impression of the speaker and whether they will take the speaker seriously or be interested and focused on the message Physical Appearance how you walk in to the speech appropriate clothing and being well groomed Movement how and where you position your body while speaking Gesture movement of hands and arms during the speech for emphasis Facial Expression makes appropriate expressions and try to make eye contact with everyone Develop presentation outline Mentally rehearse the speech Practice the speech orally Stimulate the speech setting A sensory process in which sound waves are transmitted to the brain and someone becomes conscious of sound A mental operation involving processing sound waves interpreting their meaning and storing their meaning in memory We need to check for accuracy To avoid faulty listening we often check that we have heard and understood correctly We need to give and get feedback Feedback is the verbal and nonverbal audience response to a speech usually taken seriously by a speaker and incorporated into the speech whenever possible Feedback enables the speaker to modify their message and improves the likelihood of achieving their purpose Careful listening makes feedback possible and after the speech helps listeners remember and think about the speaker s ideas We need to evaluate messages Evaluate messages to see how the speaker s beliefs compare with yours to be aware of their influence and to determine if they are being unethical or sloppy insensitive or misinformed Listener Distractions get distracted and think faster than you can listen not fully engaging your brain and letting your mind wander Limited Attention Span the length of time the audience will attend to a message without distraction is short Shorter messages are easier to concentrate on Jumping to Conclusions assuming that you know what the speaker is going to say Situational Distractions distractions in the specific speaking situation that makes listening difficult Events that can t be controlled electric flickering door slamming audience member arriving late 41 To avoid faulty listening we often check that we have heard and understood correctly 42 Giving feedback to the speaker helps them to modify their speech and it also helps you remember the speech and its main ideas 43 Evaluate messages to see how the speaker s beliefs compare with yours to be aware of their influence and to determine if they are being unethical or sloppy insensitive or misinformed 44 Mapping and note taking 45 Diagramming the relationship between the thesis of a speech and its main ideas so the listener can reconstruct the speech Involves 4 basic steps a Identifying the thesis Identifying not only the general topic of a speech but also its thesis and whether or not it s stated explicitly Generally stated in one or two sentences If the thesis is explicitly stated in the introduction you can easily follow along and see how the claim is developed and supported in the body of the speech Identifying the Main Ideas that Develop the Thesisclaims that support the thesis and are somehow related Assess For Adequacy Evaluation step that assesses if the main ideas have been advanced solidly Deciding Whether the Main Ideas Support the Thesis Second evaluation step that moves beyond judging the main ideas in their own right to judging how they relate to the thesis Even if the ideas are true they may not support the thesis 46 Listening that enables you to offer both an accurate rendering of the speech and an interpretation and assessment of it 47 Reluctant to accept assertions on faith Distinguish facts from opinions Seek to uncover assumptions Open to new ideas Relate new ideas to what they already know Apply reason and common sense to new ideas 48 Statements that can be independently verified by others they are either true or false Judgments that cannot be independently verified and that are not clearly true or false Unstated takenforgranted beliefs in a particular situation 494 Skills of Critical Thinking a Questioning and challenging both your ideas and the ideas of others so that you will neither accept or dismiss an idea without thoughtful reflection b Recognizing Differences between ideas between facts and opinions between explicit claims and unstated assumptions and between easily explained events anomalies or puzzles c Forming opinions and supporting claims so that you can state and evaluate ideas d Putting ideas into a broader context by seeing how they relate to what you already know and by understanding what they imply about other things you might assert or believe 50Are the main ideas identifiable Are the links among the ideas reasonable Are the ideas supported where necessary How does accepting or rejecting the thesis affect my other beliefs 51 Centered on 3 questions Did the speech demonstrate the principles amp and techniques of public speaking What was strong and what was weak about the speech How might the speaker improve the speech 52 2 Concepts to Evaluate the quality of a Speech a The Rhetorical SituationRealizing it is not fair to evaluate a speech without considering the situation in which the speaker prepared and delivered it b The Speaker s Purpose Evaluate a speech in light of its stated purpose Condemning a speech for not accomplishing what the speaker never intended is not rational or fair 53 Evaluation of a speech according to the effects it produced Evaluation of a speech according to its ethical execution of principles of public speaking without regard to its actual effects 54Characteristics of the audience as a whole Major demographic categories include size heterogeneity age range 55Variety or diversity among audience members dissimilarity 56 How listeners approach your speech in terms of their interests beliefs and values prior understanding and common knowledge 57 Listeners are selective about what they attend to and perceive 58 People who have chosen to hear a speech more likely to be interested and receptive than people who have been coerced into attending People who are required or coerced into hearing a speech may have resentment toward being there which causes them to undercut the speaker s ethos 59 Personal gain or loss resulting from an action or policy Most listeners resist that challenge their self interest 60What an individual regards as interesting or important 61 Brief references to something with which the audience is assumed to be familiar 62Conscious or unconscious choice about whether or not to focus intently on a speech absorb and process its contents and take it seriously 63 Questions asked to potential audience members in form of focus groups or surveys to feel out the audience Problematic because these can be time consuming and impractical Ways to learn about your audience without formally analyzing them like knowing the audience demographics or talking to the host or moderator before speaking 64 Factors that limit your options that may arise from audiences in general your specific audience your ethos as a speaker the nature of your topic and the rhetorical situation 65 Cover a topic to an appropriate degree within the time available 66 A mental freeassociation exercise in which one identifies without evaluation the first thoughts that come to mind when one is presented with a given term or category 67lnforming providing listeners with new informationideas Entertaining stimulating common bonds among the speaker and listener Persuading the speaker influencing the listeners attitudes and behaviors 68 Identify the purpose of the speech outcome the speaker wishes to achieve Identify the Constraints factors beyond your control that limit your options Identify the Opportunities assets that you bring to the situation and from the choices that you are able to make Choosing Best Means to Achieve Purpose how will you structure your speech what supporting materials will you use how will you present the speech what wording will you use Perform the Speech and then Evaluate the Results 69 Statement of the overall goal of the speech ex providing new information or perspective agenda setting creating a positive or negative feeling weakening a commitment conversion or inducing a specific action The particular outcome sought from the audience a more specific purpose than the general purpose statement ex To inform listeners of widespread cheating on campus 70 Identify the lssues which is a question raised by the thesis statement that must be addressed in order for the thesis itself to be addressed effectively This will enable you to determine what the speech must cover helps you direct your research and it may lead you to modify your thesis
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