ANSC 22100 Exam 2 Study Guide
ANSC 22100 Exam 2 Study Guide ANSC 221: Animal health and Nutrition
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gayatri on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANSC 221: Animal health and Nutrition at Purdue University taught by Forsyth in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 357 views. For similar materials see ANSC 221: Animal health and Nutrition in Animal Science and Zoology at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
ANSC 22100 Exam 2 Study Guide Digestion Fat digestion done by lipase from pancreas and bile from liver rst in the stomach and later in small intestine 0 Process fat is emulsi ed put into water phase by bile and then digested by lipase a pancreatic enzyme into fatty acids and glycerol 0 It is later stored in the liver or used for energy Protein digesting enzymes cannot digest the cells that make them because they are produced in their inactive form and are activated later for use eg Pepsin is activated from its inactive form Pepsinogen by HCl and they are enzyme speci c Digestion of carbohydrates in ruminants vs nonruminants o In ruminants the bacteria in the rumen digest carbohydrates including cellulose in the reticulorumen and make VFA s which absorbed across the rumen or the small intestine and metabolized o In nonruminants carbohydrates mainly starch are digested by pancreatic amylase in the small intestine and are converted to monosaccharides and absorbed into the bloodstream Digestion of proteins in ruminants vs nonruminants o In ruminants bacteria in the rumen remodel proteins manufacture essential amino acids and utilize NPN o In nonruminants protein digestion begins when pepsin is secreted and then activated in the stomach but is completed in the small intenstine by other digestive enzymes as well Events of protein and nonprotein nitrogen digestion in the ruminant animal 0 Undegradable Intake Protein UIP and Degradable Intake Protein DIP are ingested by the animal 9 rumen o DIP is broken down 9 ketoacids and ammonia o Bacteria build bacterial CP by using energy from nitrogen energy from VFAs carbon from ketoacids which then 9 abomasum 9small intestine along with UIP 0 Normal digestion occurs as in the nonruminant NPN is useless to nonruminants because it exists in a form that they cannot utilize since they do not have microorganisms in their bodies like ruminants do to convert it Value of a feedstuff is determined through 0 Nutritional methods lysine protein energy proximate analysis which is done in a speci c process depending on one of the following categories I Water I Crude Protein I Ether Extract I Crude Fiber I Ash I Nitrogen Free Extract 0 Commercial methods test weight foreign material color moisture Value of protein in a feedstuff is analyzed by the Kjeldahl method to calculate nitrogen and crude protein amounts Process 0 An original sample of feed is weighed 0 It is placed in a ask and boiled with sulfuric acid 0 It is cooled diluted with NaOH distilled and titrated o The amount of Nitrogen found is multiplied by 625 to get Crude Protein 0 CP CP value foundOriginal sample weight x 100 Value of energy in a feedstuff is determined thru TDN or calories What is meant by 0 protein digestibility protein in feed protein in feces o nitrogen balance nitrogen in feed nitrogen in feces nitrogen in urine o nitrogen retention nitrogen in feed nitrogen in feces nitrogen in urine nitrogen in feed X 100 o biological value measure of retention of the digestible part of the protein how well digestible protein will be utilized depends on amino acid balance I apparent BV nitrogen in feed nitrogen in feces nitrogen in urine nitrogen in feed nitrogen in feces X 100 0 true nitrogen digestibility nitrogen in feed nitrogen in feces metabolic fecal nitrogen nitrogen in feed X 100 0 true BV nitrogen in feed nitrogen in feces metabolic fecal nitrogen nitrogen in urine endogenous urinary nitrogennitrogen in feed nitrogen in feces metabolic fecal nitrogen X 100 Losses of nitrogen that occur from the body in feces and in urine Digestibility of nitrogen and the digestibility of protein is the same thing because N is used to calculate protein which is 16 N o 625 X N Crude Protien Endogenous material excreted that was already present in the body and did not come from the feed that was just consumed Endogenous secretion amount can be determined by feeding a labeled isotope before the feed is fed and its value is analyzed Energy Energy Systems 0 TDN o Calories TDN Total digestible nutrients an energy index of a carbohydrate equivalent basis calculated from proximate analysis 0 Calculation I CP X Digestibility X I EE X 225 X Digestibility X I CF X Digestibility X I NFE X Digestibility X I SUM of all X s TDN 0 Lowest possible value 0 if none of the feedstuff is digestible 0 Highest possible value 225 if all of the feedstuff is fat ether extract at 100 digestible Gross energy all of the energy in a feed digestible energy energy that is absorbed whatever does not end up in feces metabolizable energy energy that is left after accounting for energy in feces urine and gas net energy energy that is left after accounting for losses to feces urine gas and heat increment Heat increment energy lost in fermentation and metabolic processes Fat is of more value in the summer when it is hot because 0 Lower heat increment less heat produced to metabolize it 0 Higher feed efficiency Two feeds have the same TDN and DE values but are of different energy use to the animal 0 Can be caused by different heat increments or urinary E A feed is of little protein value even though its biological value is high 0 Caused by poor digestibility A feed is of little protein value even though its digestibility is high 0 Caused by poor biological value Biological value depends on the essential amino acid balance NPN NonProtein Nitrogen n Sourcesexamples I Urea I Biuret 39 NH3 I Single cell protein I Nucleic Acids 39 N03 N02 tOXlC 0 Used as a feedstuff to add nitrogen to ruminant animal diets for bacteria so they can manufacture protein from it Evaluation of the protein in a feed for cattle is done based on Crude Protein 0 This is because they can utilize NPN Evaluation of the protein in a feed for hogs is done based on Protein Value 0 This is because it incorporates biological value AA balance which nonruminants need since they cannot use NPN Feed Identification Only grain to naturally contain carotene corn Grain used mainly to make bread wheat Grain that is used most to make beer barley Grain that is low in energy and preferred for horses oats Grain that often contains tannin grain sorghum milo Grains that weigh 56 lbs per bushel corn and grain sorghum Grains that weigh 60 lbs per bushel rapeseed wheat axseed Grain that weighs 32 lbs per bushel oats Protein supplements produced from the meat packing industry meat meal Mineral supplement is produced from the meat packing industry bone meal Protein supplement produced from the Pacific Ocean fish meal Feed that is produced from byproducts or waste products from chickens feather meal Feed that is often fed to mink fish meal Feeds that are made from dairy products 0 Whole milk 0 Dried skim milk 0 Dried buttermilk 0 Dried whey Protein supplement made from coconuts copra Protein supplements often used for bird feed saf ower Maj or Grains 0 Corn 0 Grain Sorghum Milo 0 Wheat 0 Rice 0 Rye o Emmer o Barley o Spelt o Oats o Triticale Byproduct feeds from grain processing 0 Corn Bran Corn Germ meal Hominy feed Corn Gluten meal Corn Gluten feed Wheat bran 0 Wheat middlings Byproducts from making beer OOOOO Brewer s grains Spent hops Brewer s dried yeast 0 Malt sprouts Byproducts from making whiskey o Distiller s grains 0 Distiller s condensed or dried solubles o Distiller s dry yeast Byproducts of corn by the wet milling process 0 Corn Gluten Meal I From manufacture of corn starch and syrup I High CP 41 or 60 I Palatability problems in cows limit 15 or 5 timesday I Protein is degraded slowly in rumen I Used in chicken feed makes yolks yellow I Also used in dog food 0 Corn Gluten Feed 000 I Bulky I CP 18 I CF 83 I Up to 50 of grain mix 12 timesday for cattle Byproducts of corn by the dry milling process 0 Corn Bran 0 Corn Germ Meal Feed made from the outer covering of the wheat seed wheat bran o Bulky palatable laxative Feed made from a combination of the outer covering and other particles of the wheat seed wheat middlings 0 Low Ca High P o Comparable to oats o 91 energy of corn Main feed byproduct from sugar manufacture molasses 0 From sugarcane sugar beets citrus fruits wood Sticky sweet avorful Palatable laxative Cuts dust ME 1085 as is 1300 DM basis High in K OOOOO Grains Maj or cereal grains 0 Corn highest in energy I CP 75 to 9 I Lysine 28 o Barley I CF 16 o Milo I TDN 75 78 I Lysine 21 25 o Oats lowest in energy I TDN 70 I CF 11 I CP 11 16 if dehulled I Lysine 3 4 I TDN 84 if dehulled 0 Wheat I CP 8 14 I Lysine 28 Why do we feed corn to livestock 9 provides Energy Opaque2 corn a type of com a mutation which led to it having a high lysine content 0 Discovered by ET Mertz OE Nelson amp LS Bates o It didn t have too big of an impact on livestock feeding because lysine content varied only provided twice as much and was still not enough 0 Corn had to be analyzed not very efficient or worthwhile 0 Could have a huge impact on human feeding if there was a way to provide it in substantial amounts to those whose diets are limited to corn in poor countries Tannin found in grain sorghum binds and precipitates protein a bird resistant 0 Makes grain astringent 0 Can be processed to remove can add methionine to poultry diets to counter effects Ergot found in rye causes dry gangrene and has psychoactive effects Gossypol a toxic substance found in cottonseed meal has symptoms like pneumonia and affects mostly swine and poultry can be overcome by ferrous sulfate trypsin inhibitor found in soybean meal inhibits trypsin which is an enzyme involved in breakdown of many different proteins a atoxin found in peanut meal Feeding problems or toxicities are associated with the following feeds 0 Soybean meal trypsin inhibitor Cottonseed gossypol Rye ergot least palatable Grain sorghum tannins Wheat should not be ground finely bc not palatable Oats low yield not as productive low energy Barley low energy Peanut meal a atoxin 0 Blood meal mad cow disease in ruminants Grain quality refers to energy level protein lysine level other nutrients levels Mycotoxins toxins produced by fungi metabolic products or byproducts of fungi molds Which mycotoxins are 0 Carcinogenic A atoxin o Kills horses Fumonison 0 Causes feed refusal in pigs Deoxynivalenol o Estrogenic so causes reproductive upset Zearalenon Methods of processing corn 0 Dry Milling 0 Wet Milling Maj or byproducts of corn milling 0 Corn Gluten meal Corn Gluten feed Corn bran Germ meal Hominy feed What animals are they usually fed to and why 0000000 00000 Maj or byproducts of wheat milling Wheat bran Wheat middlings standard our Wheat millrun Shorts brown graywhite Red dog Wheat germ Byproducts of the brewing industry 0 Brewer s Grains wet or dry O 0000 O Leftovers from barley Especially good for dairy cattle CP 24 CF 15 TDN 70 Ca 6 P l o Spent Hops Vegetative plants added for avor Filtered out and fed to cattle o Brewer s dried yeast CP 4045 Ash 5 10 Good source of vitamins o Malt sprouts Byproducts of the distilling industry 0 Distiller s grains wet dry CP 25 CF 8 TDN 82 Leftover product after alcohol is removed form fermented grain o Distiller s condensed or dried solubles Main byproduct of alcohol production for gasoline replacement If fed need to be mindful of Protein and Phosphorus can be present in excess 0 Distiller s dried yeast Protein supplements that are good substitutes for soybean meal 0 Canola o Cottonseed meal Oilseed meals that are protein supplements o Linseed meal Byproduct of ax linseed oil CP 34 38 CF 9 Lysine 11 Ca 42 fair P 87 high Palatable slightly laxative Glossy haircoats mucins Mostly fed to ruminants limit 25 30 o Sun ower Most common is black oil sun ower seed Byproduct of oil extraction CP 32 47 I CF 10 24 I Lysine 14 2 I Mostly fed to ruminants o Saf ower I Used in birdseed mix I Control against blackbirds I Byproduct of oil extraction I High in polyunsaturated fatty acids I Less palatable than other meals I Dehulled version is best for livestock I CP 19 42 I CF 15 3 0 I Lysine 07 13 o Rapeseed I High in oil protein I Remains from hull and oil removal I CP 36 40 I CF 14 I Lysine 17 23 I Danger from Erucic cid and Myrosinase enzyme Improved version 9 canola 0 Peanut meal I Fat extracted peanut kernels I Vary in composition 0 CP 40 48 CF 13 Lysine 15 17 I Danger from a atoxin I Fed mostly to ruminants if fed to swinepoultry limit 5 10 Soybean meal SBM is heatedtoasted in processing due to the presence of trypsin inhibitor 0 Trypsin inhibitor is present in the raw bean which inhibits protein digestion and can be removed by heating the bean 0 But overheating can lead to denaturation of protein and destruction of urease Difference between 44 and 485 SBM Crude Protein content is accounted for by hulling o 44 CP for hulled beans 0 485 CP for dehulled beans Livestock the following is usually fed to 0 corn gluten meal chickens for yellow yolk dogs for high CP content 0 corn gluten feed cows because protein is degraded fairly rapidly in rumen o wheat middlings 25 grain mix or 7xday for cows because of its protein and phosphorus o wheat bran horses and cattle bc bulky high protein Corn gluten meal is fed to chickens to bring out a yellow color in egg yolk Oat groats dehulled oats Ergot a fungal disease of rye ergotamine is produced 0 Causes dry gangrene o Psychoactive like LSD Canola improved version of rapeseed after removal of harmful substances such as erucic acid and myrosinax enyme 0 Advantages high in Omega 3 and 6 reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease 0 Disadvantages high in calories contains trans fats less protein than soy Protein supplement highest in lysine soybean meal Use of urea in feed a source of nitrogen for rumen protein synthesis Value of molasses relative to corn 0 ME for molasses is 1085 compared to 1560 for corn 0 Molasses has 35 CP compared to 75 9 for corn Molasses comes from sugar production of sugarcane sugar beets citrus fruits and wood Parts of the digestive system Mouth rst part of the body involved in digestion consists of o lips very important to horses bc they have a split upper lips least important to humans chickens o teeth used to grind food into small particles I Mastication done by carnivores who use their teeth to tear up and crush grind food I Dogs teeth work similar to carnivores I Pigs have cusps for crushing food I Herbivores do not have upper teeth in the front so they grasp food and grind it with their molars o tongue used to swallow food 0 salivary glands produce water amylase and mucin esophagus begins at the back of the throat coordinated contractions and relaxations of esophagus peristalsis stomach function is food digestion and storage 0 Simple structure in monogastric animals nonruminants four regions I Esophageal I Cardiac I Fundic I Pyloric o Fourchambered complex in ruminants I rumen big fermentation vat I reticulum hardware stomach I omasum place of many plies keeps big things in absorbs water I abomasum true stomach glandular produces acid and enzymes like a normal nonruminant stomach proventriculus stomach in poultry follows the crop in the digestive pathway small intestine location of food digestion connects to stomach and large intestine has three parts 0 duodenum mixes food from stomach with enzymes and bile o jejunum absorbs nutrients from food through the inside walls has a large surface area 0 ileum absorbs bile acids and B12 pyloric valve also called sphincter a ring of smooth muscle that lets food pass from stomach 9 duodenum Large intestine consists of the following parts 0 cecum a pouch that connects at the junction of the small and large intestine absorbs uids and salts leftover after digestion and mixes its contents with mucus o colon the longest part of the large intestine absorbs electrolytes and water and prepares feces along with containing bacteria that help the body absorb nutrients from digested material 0 rectum final section of the large intestine anus last part of digestive tract feces exit the body here cloaca similar to anus a cavity at the end of digestive tract to release excretory and genital products seen in poultry crop a pouch that is a part of the esophagus in poultry used to store food cecae present at beginning of the rectum help birds break down cellulose liver a gland produces bile lters and processes blood metabolizes nutrients detoxifles harmful substances gall bladder resides beneath the liver bile is stored here after secretion bile duct conveys bile from liver and gall bladder to duodenum pancreas gland behind stomach secretes digestive enzymes into duodenum pancreatic duct joins bile duct before they both go into duodenum Secretionsenzymes Salivary amylase made in the mouth breaks down food when it is chewed bicarbonate made in the mouth of ruminants buffers gastric juices and activates digestive enzymes by raising the pH HCl activates pepsinogen in the stomach mucin made in mouth lubricates and protects all internal surfaces rennin found in nonruminant stomach and abomasum of calves coagulates milk enzymatically pepsinogen found in stomach digests proteins pepsin secreted in stomach digests proteins activated into this form by HCl gastric lipase secreted in stomach digests fats intrinsic factor secreted in stomach absorbs B12 and other large molecules carboxypeptidase a pancreatic enzyme digests proteins trypsin a pancreatic enzyme digests proteins chymotrypsin a pancreatic enzyme digests proteins pancreatic lipase a pancreatic enzyme digests fats pancreatic amylase a pancreatic enzyme digests carbohydrates bicarbonate a pancreatic enzyme digests proteins aminopeptidase in small intestine digests polypeptides and fragments of proteins sucrase in small intestine digests sucrose maltase in small intestine digests maltose lactase in small intestine digests lactose nucleotidases catalyze the hydrolysis of a nucleotide into a nucleoside and a phosphate nucleosidases catalyze hydrolysis of nucleosides and release the base gastrin gastric hormone which stimulates release of acids for digestion secretin hormone from the duodenum in small intestine stimulates secretion of pancreatic bicarbonate cholecystikinin hormone from the duodenum in small intestine stimulates pancreatic enzyme secretion and gall bladder contraction GIP gastric inhibitory polypeptide hormone from the duodenum in small intestine inhibits secretion of gastrin Enterocrinin hormone in small intestine that stimulates digestive glands
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