HIST 150 Study Guide for Quiz 2
HIST 150 Study Guide for Quiz 2 HIST 150
Popular in History in the Western World
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica_Kline on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 150 at Ball State University taught by Abel Alves in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see History in the Western World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Study Guide for Quiz 2 Covers Islam the Fall of the Caliphate and Early Middle Transitions I Basic background information a The Arabian Peninsula was not part of the Roman empire but they were close trade partners the City of Petra in Jordan was a big trading hub between Africa Arabia and Rome b The two main cities were Mecca and Yathrib Yathrib had the Kaaba a building built by Abraham and Ishmael supposedly around a rock that fell from heaven dedicated to all religions c Allah means the god he has 3 daughters Allat moon Manat morning star and AlUzza evening star II Important peoplethings a Abraham and Haggai had a son names Ishmael who was the ancestor of all Muslims like Isaac was the branch of Abraham that Christians came from b Muhammed 570632 CE was born to a poor family that was part of a rich clan 1 He had an arranged marriage to Khadij a a rich woman who ran a business and during their marriage she was his only wife 2 While he was off trading and doing business agent things he started hearing voices which was Gibreel Gabriel Allah s messenger telling him the full revelation of Abraham s God the Quran The Quran had passages about how Christians and Jews could still be able to get into heaven if they followed their religions because they misunderstood the teachings of their leaders 3 He never wrote anything because he was illiterate 4 Muhammed thought that the Kaaba should only be for Muslims not other religions there were other religions who were worshiping their gods there because it was a rock that fell from heaven but not really speci cally dedicated to one religion 5 After Khadija died he ran to Medina where he declared Jihad holy war on Mecca because they wanted to kill him and were rejecting Allah Jihad was a defensive battle Muslims were never allowed to go on the offensive or initiate a war because Allah loveth not aggressors Some of his close followers Abu Bakr Omar Ali and Ayesha came with him 6 He married many women of powerful fathers to keep peace with people He married Ayesha Abu Bakr s daughter who was his new favorite wife because she asked questions of Muhammed about Islam and veiled her face to keep her beauty from distracting people from Allah 7 He died just after Mecca was regained c Khadija was Muhammed s rst wife 1 She was the one who ran the business and owned the land 2 She encouraged him to listen to the voices that he was hearing and that he wasn t crazy 3 She taught the Quran and the other Islam teachings with her daughter Fatima 4 Before she died people had been threatening Muhammed s life so she plead with them to not kill him and gave them money after she died he had no protection so that is why he ran c The 5 Pillars of Islam are the ve basic teachings and requirements of Islam 1 There is no god but god and Muhammed is his prophet 2 Pray 5 times a day facing Medina from dawn to dusk 3 Giving charity and alms to the poor 4 Fast from dawn until dusk during Ramadan the 9th lunar month 5 If you re able to you ned to go to Mecca on pilgrimage during Ramadan d Hadith is sacred tradition I Khadija is called the savior of Islam because she encouraged Muhammed to listen to Gibreel 2 Praying towards Mecca Jihad and the 5 Pillars are part of Hadith III The Caliph is the leader of the Muslims like the Pope to Christians a The rst Caliph was Abu Bakr who was elected by Muhammed s inner circle 1 When people were claiming to be prophets of Allah he decided that Muhammed was the Seal of the Prophets saying that not only was he the greatest prophet but he was also the last one b Omar and Othman were the next two Caliphs 1 They conquered territory for Islam not Jihad totally political 2 Byzantine land was easy to take because they were not very many people 3 Any Christians and Jews were allowed to keep practicing their religions but they had to pay Muslim taX for the poor Muslims weren t allowed to force people to convert 4 Othman was assassinated because he wasn t Muslim enough by Kharisites who turned to Ali as their Caliph c Ali was Muhammed s soninlaw married Fatima his favorite daughter 1 He transformed Damascus into the main place where Muslims lived for economic purposes but Mecca was still the religious center 2 During this time there was a rebellion led by Ayesha Muhammed s favorite wife where it was ordered that she should be taken alive because she had been his wife 3 He was also assassinated d Muawiyah was the first dynasty to begin being Caliphs Umayyad was the first from Omar s family e There was a huge split during this time called the SunniShiite Split 1 The Sunnis were the majority in most places and thought that everything was ne as it was 2 The Shiites thought that the Caliph should be someone from the same bloodline as Muhammed they turned to Hussein son of Fatima and Ali as Caliph They were looking and hoping for the day of judgement to come Madhi would come to lead them to heaven f The next dynasty was the Abbasids l Abu l Abbas was the first he was from Muhammed s bloodline 2 During this dynasty Baghdad became the new hotspot for trading It was a port city that extended the Silk Road overseas and merchants brought back compasses from China astrolabes from Rome and the Indian number system which we call Arabic numerals Tea sugar cane and later coffee were traded throughout the Mediterranean area parts of Asia and parts of Europe g Other people and things 1 Al Khwarizmi was a mathematician who created algebra solving for X 2 Harunal Rashid was Caliph during Baghdad s most productive time 3 Su Islam was begun by a woman named Kaba al Adawiyya they believed that the spirit of the law wasn t as important a the letter of the law modesty and facial hair aren t as important she said that if you worship god only to escape hell or get to heaven it was bad but good if you did it just to please god 4 One major thing that tells us about pop culture is the book The Thousand and One Nights or Arabian Nights The story about Scheherazade was one of the king whose wife had an affair with one of the slaves which resulted in him believing all women were evil and killing a woman every night Scheherazade was wise enough not to be killed to change his opinion of women There was a story about Ali Baba a poor man who finds a cave with loot but men tried to kill him he was saved twice by a female slave Morgiana who he later married to his son The story of Sinbad was much like the Odyssey with the cyclops and wine and the lotus eaters but Sinbad was instead a wise merchant 5 Elite culture was more based on philosophy and medicine Doctors used alcohol to clean wounds and sterilise surgical tools they also were making some slow progress in performing Caesarean section surgeries Al J abhiz was a very early proevolutionary philosopher Ibn Sina was a Persian doctor and philosopher he said that the Quran should be taken allegorically and that there must have been a rst cause to creation that it didn t start itself Al Gazali wrote The Incoherence of the Philosophers stressing how he thought that the philosophers idea were created just to send you to hell Averros wrote The Incoherence of the Incoherence to refute Al Gazali he wrote that women could be rulers and that people should judge on people s souls not their gender IV There were four main things that led to the Fall of the Caliphate a Internal issues were splitting them apart 1 There was a man in Cordoba who claimed that he was Caliph because he was from the line of Caliphs which caused one split 2 There was another man a Turk in Cairo who also claimed to be the Caliph which caused another split b Another problem was the arrival of the Turks 1 The Turks were pastoral nomads some of which were converted by Su missionaries some were Mamelukes or bound warriors who were basically well treated slaves who fought for their masters 2 The Saljuks a branch of Turks was able to take over Asia Minor with the leadership of the Sultans which was something that the Caliphate never could do 3 Rumi was a poet who said that being drunk on wine was how it was to be connected to god he lived in a Christian monastery because he believed in mutual learning and was mourned by Christians Jews and Muslims c The Crusades were fought by Christians to take back Jerusalem 1 Europe was in the system of Feudalism at this point where there were many peasants who were just trying to survive by working for a count duke who gave them protection with his knights The hierarchy was Pope King Duke Count Knight peasant 2 In Constantinople the emperor argued that he was the head of the church rather than the bishops and patriarchs 3 The Western Church declares the Eastern Church heretics and the Eastern Church declares the Western Church heretics 4 The First Crusade was when Pope Urban II convinced Emperor AleXius Comneus of the Byzantine Empire to ght to get Jerusalem back for the Church he just wanted to eXpand his empire though soldiers were offered indulgences if they fought and land if they won once they got to Jerusalem it was just a huge slaughter of anyone whom the soldiers wanted to kill 5 Saladin the commander of the Islam army took back Jerusalem without the slaughter some that fought against him were the knights templar a group of priest warriors 6 The Third Crusade was fought by Richard the Lion Hearted English king Fredrick Barbarossa Roman Emperor and Philip Augustus French king under threat of excommunication from the Pope Fredrick was the head of the three but died on the way to Jerusalem Philip goes home because there is no leader and they both want to lead since they39re both kings Richard stays until he works out a peace treaty with Saladin that allows Christians to worship at the holy sites in Jerusalem 7 During the Fourth Crusade the Republic of Venice had good ports and was good at glass making convinced the crusaders that it was easier to ght heretics than Muslims so they went to Constantinople to convert them to Western Christianity which was a success they also wanted the Greek re which was sulfur based silk fur and the trade routes d The Mongols were a tribe from Mongolia who were pastoral nomads who lived in circular tents on carts that they could live in while they were moving 1 Women were allowed to speak in council but weren t allowed to vote tend herds and could hunt and battle as archers 2 Temusin was abused by everyone for his grandfather s ideas so he ran away when he was old enough to people who agreed with his grandfather and he ruled them and took over many tribes this was Genghis Khan Genghis Khan was able to unite the tribes once he took over them all and he was then named Kurilta or supreme leader he was also SUPER brutal on and off the battle eld He entered China and was able to control North China which allowed him to take over and protect merchants on the silk road which made them happy He was very open minded to religions and many religious ideas were brought into his tent 3 Genghis s third son Ogedei was made the next Khan 4 Batu Khan was able to take Russia with his army the Golden Horde and especially their main trading city Kiev 5 Hulegu Khan sacked Baghdad destroys most of the population and executes the Caliph but he was stopped before he could reach Egypt and Jerusalem by Baibars the Mameluke a Turk who had many of the same battle eld techniques 6 Kublai Khan grandson of Genghis was able to take South China by using gunpowder on the battle eld his main advisor was his wife 7 The rst real competition the Mongols had was from the Ottoman Turks who had been using gunpowder had an elite military by starting out their soldiers as babies taken from or given away by their families which allowed Mehmet the Conqueror to conquer Constantinople with canons Early Modern Transitions 1 Mini Ice Age the Temperature dropped on average in the Northern Hemisphere about 1 degree Celsius a This caused the Thames River to freeze over b There was less wheat that was able to grow which resulted in less bread women would riot and steal bread to feed their families c This even caused people to want to nd someone to blame for the bad harvest so they started accusing people 7 580 were women most poor of being witches II The Black Death killed 7 5100 million people in the span of two years a It was from bacterium called Yersinia pestis that was started in China and moved along the Silk Road on eas on black rats b Once people started thinking that diseases spread through the air they started cleaning up the streets which were places where rats and their eas lived c The massive amount of deaths caused there to be less workers but nearly the same amount of demand for goods 1 Workers could demand higher pay which resulted in better wages and kings demanding taxes which allowed kings to then afford armies rendering the counts dukes and knights fairly useless III The Ottomans had a large empire as far north as Austria and Germany a They were in uenced a lot by Sufi Muslims so they had a high religious tolerance b Renaissance ItalyVenice bought from and sold to the Turks IV China began the Ming dynasty under the second peasant ruler with the highest standard of living at the time a He commissioned a man named Zheng He a Muslim to go on seven voyages to explore 1 He was a court eunuch who were in opposition with the Confucianists in the court 2 He was able to eliminate pirates in the South China Sea 3 He visited Africa and brought back giraffes zebras and other foreign animals but the voyages got too eXpensive so he stopped 4 He also went to Mecca on one of his voyages since he was able to do so V Portugal then was about the same size that it is today with about 1 million people a The Iberian Peninsula used to be completely Muslim until Christians from the Northern mountains decided to reconquer the land for more space for their elds for livestock the Reconquista l The Christian kingdoms were separate while there was a small kingdom that was mainly Muslin in the very South part of the Peninsula the kingdoms were tolerant of Islam and Judaism there was no Spain yet but Portugal was already a part of the Western coast of the Peninsula 2 The Black Death resulted in the Christians blaming the Muslims for hiring Jews and lepers to poison Christian s wells so they began forcing Muslims and Jews to convert to Christianity 3 The original Christians began blaming the converts for any problem that came up b Henry the Navigator was a prince who wanted to tart a new type of crusade by shutting down the Muslims ability to trade by sailing directly to Africa and eventually to India and Asia 1 The Portuguese crown held all rights to selling pepper so they would sell it to merchants who would then sell to others at whatever price they wanted these merchants were given protection from pirates by riding in the ships provided by the government which had canons built into them and sails that were a combination of Muslim and Greek sails to make more powerful ships VI Africa which had a mainly an agricultural base of yams black eyed peas and rice was the main place where Portugal traded for quite awhile they were also in the iron age but did not use guns but they got to India and China eventually a The hierarchy in Africa was very similar to the hierarchy in Europe with a king then warrior high class then merchants then peasants only the high class warriors and kings had horses since they were expensive and died easily there b The main kingdom in NorthWestem Africa was Benin which was basically presentday Nigeria king was called Oba King Ewuare had the ethnicity Edo an ethnic group that conquered the Yoruba and Fon ethnic groups c Slaves were taken from Africa when Portuguese found islands near the coast of Africa where they needed man power to work in the sugar cane elds that they planted there sugar cane was very eXpensive and was fairly rare in Europe and later for workers in their elds in Brazil d Benin fell to the Yoruba kingdom of Oyo then they were conquered by Dahomey which was known as the Prussia of West Africa who had full use of horses guns and cannons although they typically had to steal or buy them from Europe e The Kongo presentday Congo had kings called manikongo which means the blacksmith of the Kongo 1 King Afonso I was baptised and went to church but also worshipped his old gods 2 The Portuguese were more willing to ght alongside him with guns and canons because he had been baptised 3 The kingdom fell apart when the Portuguese started civil wars to get more slaves and caused division within the royals f Nzinga Mbande was a woman who ruled a kingdom when her son was too young to do so himself 1 The kingdom was still mainly patriarchal but women worked in elds 2 She built a resistance to the Portuguese in a city called Matamba and even thought it was taken by the Portuguese she eventually took it back 3 The Portuguese mainly stayed in their port city of Launda 4 She had female bodyguards who dressed as men and her multiple husbands dressed as women which was used as a tactic to freak out the Portuguese 5 Her kingdom ell apart after her death g Moveable type was beginning to be used more and more frequently 1 Koreans were the first to use moveable type 2 The Chinese used wooden blocks to make typed books 3 In Gutenburg they used a metal press to make printed books for scholars they did not wear out as easily as the wooden blocks used at rst by the Chinese 4 Other reasons books were printed was for dictionaries and for merchants to use for translation and grammar for trading with people from other kingdoms there were also horror stories such as Dracula who was considered monstrous and crazy even for the standards of the day
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