EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE
EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE JOUR 2500
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cheyanne Skaggs on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to JOUR 2500 at Ohio University taught by Carson Wagner in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Strategic Communication in Journalism Core at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Introduction to Strategic Communication J 2500 Carson Wagner Week 7 1 Consumer Choice 11 Consumer Methods 111 Consumer Choice pt 2 1 Consumer Choice 1 Consumer Choice the ability of a consumer to make a decision about a product or service based on heuristics and effort Most often consumers use heuristics to determine what brands they consider what information gets used about a product and how that information is used Consumer Set a group of products recent enough in a consumer s mind or internalized enough to be considered when choosing a brand EX Naming the first brands that come to mind when choosing a brand of potato chips Lays Ruf es Utz etc There are often 12 or more brands to choose from universally within that product but only 9 in the consumer s consideration set miller s magic number 7 2 and only one brand to which that costumer is loyal if they are loyal to a product at all So Consideration Sets are Dynamic We need to have 3 Brand Awareness in order for the consumer to consider a brand at all he she must know of its existence This is usually solved by advertising a product and using effective ads with either salient or vivid devices that get the consumer s attention Memory in this class memory is studied as a mechanism in which we derive thoughts and feelings about a product and gather information internally We gather information about brands by associative networks and retrieve that information in order to form new ideas of come to certain conclusions But when it comes to a brand we want to consider a How often we think of a given brand or product or how frequently b How elaborately we think of a given brand or product in other words putting more effort into thinking effortfully c How recently we ve thought of that particular brand or product For this I use the acronym FER frequency recentness elaboration and FER determines which brands are on our minds BUT does not determine how the information we ve gathered during the process is used Another way in which memory is effected in advertising is through 5 PartList Cuing a strategy to utilize the interference process in memory when a strategic communicator presents only a portion of the products in a category to consumers they don39t recall the omitted items as easily We can also think of this in the same terms as piecemeal data since we are disclosing some products and not others This reduces that s consumer s consideration set which increases the likelihood of heshe choosing our product EX Brand X is as cheap as McDonald s tastes better than Wendy s and gives you bigger portion sizes than Burger King PartList Cuing works because 1 We search our memory and retrieve the same product repeatedly 2 The strong association of few brands leads to multiple retrievals and the list serves to strengthen the association 3 We stop searching our memory because we assume we ve exhausted all the possibilities 5 Affect Attraction a marketing strategy in which a company adds its inferior product to a category intentionally to increase the appeal and therefore the sales of other product This new product highlights that particular line and makes the pricequality relationship more apparent Consumer Effects 1 Attraction Effect a method of marketing in which a firm adds a brand s inferior product to a category or purchase to increase the appeal of other products This works and makes the middle ground product look more practical because we can only make meaning in comparison to other things The new product highlights the product line and price quality relationship InClass Example There are two bread makers One has all the functions you need while the other has these functions as well as other high tech features Since you don t need the unnecessary bells and whistles there is no inferior product because the pricevalue relationship in this instance suggests that the functional one is the better buy because you only need a functional bread maker This leads to 2 The Compromise Effect the tendency of consumers to pick the middle brands as opposed to the extremes Manufacturers know this so they purposefully product more middle of the ground brands 3 Tradeoff Contrast Effect the value of a products tend to be clearer with the more effort we put into our search and decision making process how much we may elaborately think We tend to come to a decision more coherently in this instance since it is effortfully made 111 Consumer Choice pt 2 Attitude and Attribute Based Heuristics 1 Choice Heuristics heuristics are mental shortcuts or rules of thumb Choice heuristics therefore are heuristics as they pertain to consumer choice There are two main types a Attitudebased Heuristics a consumers overall impressions of a product whether it be thoughts and feelings or logical conclusions Attitudes may or may not be based on relevant information because they are made in memory Attitudes can differ from global to personal but in uence our decisions by making us lean toward the most available brand for which we have the most favorable memory b Attributebased Heuristics there are two types of attribute heuristics or specifics Betweenaltemative Heuristics when we differentiate between many brands one attribute at a time The best given attribute is the most important Withinaltemative Heuristics when we look at just one brand but many attributes at one time 2 Conjunctive Heuristic when we set a minimum standard for a product by assigning the most important attributes and the first product to then meet those standards is chosen 3 Disjunctive Heuristic there is a higher cutoff of attributes and the first product to meet the standard on one very important attribute is chosen Take away because of factors like availability time effort etc only 13 of the time when we make a decision do we make it with effort Introduction to Strategic Communication Carson Wagner Week 8 1 Review of Psychological Processes 11 MessageLearning Approach to Persuasion 111 Source Factors IV Protection Motivation Theory 1 Review of Psychological Processes In this class we learn about the psychological processes that in uence a person s willingness to buy a product In particular we talk about arousal memory heuristics and to come in this chapter message learning When it comes to Psychological buying processes a lot of the time we look at 1 Heuristics v Effort for a consumer to make a decision both motivation and opportunity need to be high Motivation is the level of willingness one puts toward purchasing a product Opportunity is the sum of resources one has available at each phase of purchase for example physical and mental resources Ex Physical resources the amount of time a high school senior has to select a prom dress from January until early April Ex Mental resourcesalthough that high school senior has a three month period to select a dress she may not be able to devote that much attention to picking a product as she is also looking at different colleges having a fight with her boyfriend and has a limited cognitive capacity when it comes to learning about new prom dress deals or absorbing information Since it is rare in our fastpaced society to have optimal physical and mental resources at our disposal we may end up to our dismay making decisions that are not entirely informed or effortful This leads us to the idea of 2 Automaticity the ability to do things without occupying the mind with lowlevel details required allowing it to become an automatic response pattern or habit It is usually the result of learning repetition and practice Now that we have a basic understanding of psychological mechanisms and buying processes we as strategic communicators must understand a way in which to persuade buyers To persuade we use methods like 11 Message Learning Approach To Persuasion 3 MessageLearning Approach An approach to persuasion involving four independent variables source message recipient and medium The device used to remember the messagelearning approach is who says what to whom through which channel This theory also applies memory arousal comprehension and judgement A factor that prevents messagelearning is 4 Exposure Control the ability of a consumer to control hisher exposure toward a message Ex Consumers often avoid unwanted messages by fastforwarding or muting commercials when they record things on cable via DVR So Overcoming Exposure Control is the first step in the message learning approach Advertisers overcome this by creating ads that are salient and vivid and get consumers attention anyway A great way to do this is by creating funny ads because they often succeed at being salient and vivid while entertaining us In addition to having those attributes funny ads are often seen as more human Ex Even though the Skittles commercials are weird they succeed as being salient to all people some of the time and vivid to some people all of the time because of their nonsensical content Also because they succeed in being weird we can t help but laugh at them and they appeal to us for that reason When a message is received it is also important to the consumer who sends the message in other words the source of the message 111 Source Factors 1 Source Factors the factors that in uence source importance are the originators of the message the expertise the originator or the receiver has about the subject the credibility of that message the attractiveness of the message and our familiarity with it But what is particularly important when it comes to source factors is 2 Credibility the quality of being trusted and believed in or the quality of being convincing or believable Which depends on 3 Reputation the beliefs or opinions that are generally held about someone or something in this case usually a person or corporation 4 Vested Interest a personal stake or involvement in an undertaking or state of affairs especially one with an expectation of financial gain EX Reputation Simon Cowell has a reputation of being a hardass So we know that before someone gets to Hollywood they have to go through him and his brutal honesty EX Vested Interest If Coke says something good about Pepsi we are likely to believe that message is true since it is against Coke s vested interest to do so When somebody goes against hisher vested interest it is usually part of a ploy called a 5 Two sided message when some information that a company divulges is against its vested interest or so it would seem when actually only part of the message is so in order to increase the source s credibility Ex Using Stylish Girl beauty products won t clear your skin change your figure or make you movie star beautiful but it will enhance your natural beauty The two sided message approach is more effective if someone s attitude beforehand was either unfavorable or neutral If a person s attitude beforehand was positive it is possible that a two sided message would create a negative reaction Other message factors include 0 Whether a message is simple or complex 0 Whether something appeals rationally or emotionally 0 Whether a message is factual or anecdotal 0 Whether a message is onesided or twosided In this context when the complexity of a message goes up comprehension goes down So as strategic communicators we want our messages to be less complex In other words the correlation between complexity and comprehension is negative IV Protection Motivation Theory 1 Protection Motivation Theory MessageLearning Approach The protection motivation theory is a theory alongside the MessageLearning Approach to persuasion The theory helps better explain fear appeals in that there are three key variables when using a fear appeals that strategic communicators must consider in order to make a message effective These are 3 Danger Likelihood the likelihood that the consumer if he or she were to continue the undesired behavior would be in actual harm Ex If you keep drinking Four Loco and eating Hot Pockets you have a 98 chance of developing colon cancer and growing a second head b Coping Effectiveness Relaying the message that if you stop the problem behavior you can decrease your danger likelihood EX If you stop drinking Four Loco and eating Hot Pockets now you can decrease your risk of colon cancer by 80 and your head will only be somewhat disfigured c Self Efficacy Giving the consumer a way to cease the undesired behavior and making it seem as though quitting the habit is easier than heshe originally thought EX Tired of going to Four Loco Hot Pocket specific rehabs Just try this gum and your cravings for the two products will virtually vanish But if a strategic communicator wants to use a MessageLearning Approach such as a fear appeal heshe must also account for recipient factors most often these are a need for cognition a need for cognition is a need that a person has to devote time to think about something thoroughly Therefore someone with a high need for cognition has to think a lot about a product or an add whereas someone with a low need for cognition does not have the psychological need to think quite as much about it b selfesteem selfesteem in this instance is how much a person thinks about oneself This plays a role in protection motivation theory in that if someone thinks highly of themselves one may be more susceptible to fear approaches in order to preserve themselves c selfmonitoring if a person does a lot of selfmonitoring they are constantly aware of their surroundings and are concerned with monitoring themselves in other words they are concerned with whether or not they stick out in any given situation 1 prior knowledge a person s attitude and knowledge that is present in memory whilst receiving messages that Another way in which strategic communicators appeal is through personality V Personality and Persuasion Theory 1 Combinatory Principle the principal in which reception or the receiving of a message and yielding or the point at which we agree with a message oppose one another given any personality factor Ex Sandy the Squirrel has high intelligence and can therefore receive more messages But since Sandy is so intelligent it is difficult to get her to yield to a message because she will likely prepare a counterargument On the other hand Patrick Star has low intelligence because he this he is less likely to actually receive many messages But when Patrick is capable of understanding he is likely to yield simply because he understands BUT these examples are extremes As much as we d hate to admit as a general population we tend to be average on most spectrums and personality factors Therefore a majority of us as persuadable when it comes to ads On the other hand we as Strategic Communicators will be slightly more aware when studying psychological mechanisms of persuasion such as 2 The SituationalWeighting Principle a principal from a strategic communicator s point of view in we are aware that receptions and yielding are not always equally important since most of us are average and it is impossible to determine which of us fall on either end of the spectrum Because of this we are likely to come to a conclusion that presenting simpler messages are more effective When receiving a message another important factor is 3 Medium Factors the through which channel part of the messageleaming approach The medium is important when considering a message because different kinds of messages are more effective when presented in different mediums Ex Complex messages such as how to build a model rocket do best in written form But simple messages such as how to create a smoky eye do best in video or visual form Introduction to Strategic Communication J 2500 Carson Wagner Week 9 1 Cognitive Approaches to Persuasion II Adaptation and Social Judgment Theories III Cognitive Approaches to Persuasion Pt 2 1 Cognitive Approaches to Persuasion l Adaptation Level Theory the theory that states that it is the human tendency to judge various stimuli and situations relative to those we have previously experienced So we first adapt to certain level of stimuli to which we compare other things in order to make a judgment Ex Cheap accessories at the register at Forever 21 seem even cheaper because we have adapted to the higher cost of clothes EX Beyonc makes the average women look much less attractive II 5 Social Judgment Theory a theory that states that consumers use contrast and assimilation using a method of ordered alternatives in which they view things from a very positive to very negative latitude of acceptance This ranges from a latitude of acceptance rejection or noncommitment contrary to what we d think the latitude of non commitment is most persuasive Cognitive Approaches to Persuasion Pt 2 Attribution Theory when a person attributes faults of a product to oneself ex Willey Coyote Selfperception theory a theory that posits that people determine their attitudes and preferences by interpreting the meaning of their own behavior Kelly s Covariation Model is an attribution theory in which people make causal inferences to explain why other people and ourselves behave in a certain way It is concerned with both social perception and selfperception Determination Causes determination in buying a product based on 3 key characteristics a Distinctiveness how different a product is from different products b Consistency is it the same exact product every time Does it work every time c Consensus what is the general opinion of the product Is it popular if so for what reasons 6 Discounting Principle refers to a rule of attribution which states that the perceived role of a cause will be discounted or reduced if other plausible causes are also present So as those reasons increase the perceived role of any one decreases EX If your Keurig coffee maker malfunctions and you contact costumer service you are likely to hear that yours has a rare defect so that you don t attribute your Keurig s shitiness to the entire Keurig product line 7 Overjusti cation Effect Many purchase reasons such as coupons or pricing undermine the significance of a single reason Price promotions can make us less aware of actually quality of a brand EX I over justify buying Great Value brand cheese because I have coupons for it and it s always cheap But because of that I overlook the fact that Great Value cheese tastes horrible compared to Kraft cheese I am blinded by the fact I have this coupon and I also have no brand loyalty because once I have a coupon for Helluva Good Cheese I will buy that brand instead of Great Value Cheese 8 Augmentation Principle the principle that states that even though there may be strong situational constraints that should be preventative the possibility of overcoming those constraints still exists The cause must be very powerful in order to overcome those constraints So we should assign greater weight to a particular cause of behavior if there are other causes present that normally would produce the opposite outcome EX Your Mom says with a certain level of confidence that she could probably win Top Chef because you always like her casseroles BUT making a casserole that her family enjoys is NOT comparable to winning a competition against professional chefs BUT your Mom also has the ability to make others like her food more because she s actually a witch and casts spells upon people to enjoy her food SO your Mom s ability to cast spells augments her ability to overcome the situational constraints of competing against professional chefs This leads us to one of the main ideas of the Augmentation Principle which is that unexpected information is highly informative In Class we used Luke Skywalker being able to blow up the death start because of the force to illustrate the Augmentation Principle with the force being that unexpected information Introduction to Strategic Communication J 2500 Carson Wagner Week 10 I Affective Approaches to Persuasion II Balancing Theory 1 Affective Approaches to Persuasion 1 Classic Conditioning Classic conditioning is a term we get from Pavlov s theory of conditioning by familiar association In Pavlov s experiment he used a conditional stimulus a bell to create an artificial association his dogs associated the bell with food to then create a conditioned response the dogs salivation EX If every time you use the phrase You do you girl I smack you in the neck with a metal ruler you might eventually associate using that phrase with the neck pain you receive So even if we weren t hanging out and you decided to use that annoying phrase you might still be expecting a smack in the neck because I ve conditioned you to have this response Conditioning with Ads Ex Chiobani Greek yogurt films a commercial in which two young kids are eating yogurt conditioned stimulusproduct and while they are eating this yogurt the two play a game that many of us have played by balancing a spoon on one s nose and having a friend try to break your focus childhood memoriesartificial association and so we feel nostalgic conditioned responsenostalgia and therefore associate childhood nostalgia with Chiobani Greek yogurt However we do NOT want a commercial in which the nostalgia comes first and the product comes after because it does NOT condition us when presented in that order Another way in which we can persuade someone affectively is through 2 Excitation Transfer Theory when consumers are aroused by a stimuli initially and that excitation is then able to transfer to a second stimuli As consumers we like to look for a single source to attribute our arousal to something to and if we associate one stimulus with another we are likely to attribute that arousal to the second stimuli because we have transferred it Ex After riding a rollercoaster the prospect of buying a picture of you and your friend going down the hill to commemorate the event seems more exciting to you because your endorphins is spiking after riding the thrilling coaster SO you transfer the feelings you had while riding the coaster to the feelings you may have about purchasing memorabilia Then later on down the line when you have that picture you see it as more thrilling or important than perhaps it actually is because you ve subconsciously attributed that roller coaster stimulus to the memorabilia This also gets into the theory of Web Excitation Transfer similar to excitation transfer theory web excitation transfer happens when we attribute how fast a webpage loads to our feelings about it Contrary to what one might think a slowly downloading website with faster animation can intensify website arousal and excitation because we associate our feelings of suspense with the loading graphic Mandler s Theory of Emotion Discrepancy and interruption of ongoing plans and actions signals important changes in the environment and is the most important cause of the arousal This arousal prepares the organism physiologically to respond to the evoking events such as advertisements Mandler s Discrepancies Unexpected products produce arousal just as unexpected information is highly informative BUT arousal by itself is neither positivenegative Only smallmedium discrepanciespositive arousal LARGE discrepancies yield NEGATIVE arousal Ex Large Discrepancy Green and purple ketchup 5 Cognitive Dissonance refers to a situation involving con icting attitudes beliefs or behaviors This produces a feeling of discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance etc This creates inconsistencies BUT people dislike inconsistency and prefer consistency And so often when we experience cognitive dissonance we tend to want to create consistencies by trying to balance our feelings about a product 11 Balancing Theory 1 Balancing Theory the theory that explains our solution to having cognitive dissonance about a product brand or person The theory explains our relationships with these products brands and people as a triad with three variables person other stimulus If we were to use balancing theory in which the personyou the otherseal hunting and stimulus American Eagle Jeans it would create an unbalanced triad For example you like American Eagle jeans because they are well made and they also fit you well unlike other jeans because you have a weird butt shape so you have a positive relationship with that brand or stimulus BUT you just found out from watching the news that the designer of American Eagle s jeans goes out every full moon to hunt baby seals with rusty gardening tools in order to sacrifice those seals to the jean gods You re not a fan of murdering baby seals SO You have a negative opinion of the designer or the other variable which creates an imbalanced triad which we can do one of three things with You can either decide to balance that triad by differentiation or separating the designer of American Eagle jeans with the American Eagle brand OR By refusing to buy American Eagle jeans because of that association and make the triad balanced and negative OR By denial in which you still buy American Eagle jeans because you are convinced that the designer of American Eagle jeans isn t really crazy and is only sacrificing baby seals to the jeans god because he exclusively eats only Hot Pockets drinks only Four Loco and has a cocaine addiction So you deny that the variable was the designer s fault and instead assign another fault unhealthy lifestyle and drug addiction to that particular situation We often solve these problems by using attitude functions to create or resolve dissonance in order to get a desired outcome EXAM 2 PRACTICE TEST Cheyanne Skaggs StudySoupcom 1 A razor company adds a razor with only one shitty blade to its product line in order to highlight the features of its other razors that have more than one blade and actually work The company is aware that consumers will make this comparison and choose the latter but they purposefully introduced the crappy razors into the market This is an example of a Availability Heuristic b Comparative Analysis c The Compromise Effect d Attraction Effect 2 The same razor company sells ultrahitech razors with many blades and moisturizing strips as well as middle of the ground razors with three blades and a movable head The tendency of consumers to pick middle brands such as the razor with three blades instead of the high or low extremes is an example of a Choice Heuristic b Tradeoff Contrast Effect 3 a c The Compromise Effect d Attraction Effect What is the device that strategic communicators use to refer to the MessageLeaming Approach to Persuasion Who says what and why through which channel b Who says what to whom through which channel c Mm whatcha saaaaay d Who says what in which manner to which channel 4 7 a If the CEO of Burger King tells me that McDonalds uses human fat to cook its French fries in the message would be a Credible b Not credible c Plausible d A source message factor If I don t think I can quit smoking simply because it s too hard and I don t believe that patches or gum will work for me I don t have very high a Self esteem b Selfefficacy c Selfbelief d Credibility Since Silly Sam has low intelligence he is more likely to receive messages T or F What are the three Determination Causes in Cognitive Approaches to Persuasion Selfefficacy Coping Effectiveness and Danger Likelihood b Need for recognition selfesteem and selfmonitoring c 8 10 Distinctiveness Consistency Consensus The fact that Clark Kent can overcome the constraints of beating up tornados to save the world because he has super powers is an example of the a Coping Effectiveness Principle b Discounting Principle c Augmentation Principle d Superman Principle Slow loading websites can lead to greater arousal Tor F Only large discrepancies create positive arousal T or F 11 A theory that states consumers use contrast and assimilation through an order of alternatives in which they view things on a very positive to a very negative latitude of acceptance a Acceptance Theory b Balancing Theory c Adaptation Level Theory d Social Judgment Theory 12 Within the context of this class what is a group of products recent enough in a consumer s mind to be considered when choosing a brand a Consumer Set b Evoked Set c Universal Set d Brand Awareness Set 13 When we set a minimum standard for a product by assigning the most important attributes and the first product to then meet those standards is chosen we are using a Disjunctive Heuristic b Conjunctive Heuristic c Between Alternatives Heuristic 1 Within Alternatives Heuristic 14 When we look at just one brand but many attributes at one time we are using a Within Alternatives Heuristic b Between Alternatives Heuristic c Disjunctive Heuristic d Conjunctive Heuristic 15 Why are twosided messages usually more credible a Because of the attractiveness of the message and our familiarity to it b Because they are unethical c Because it goes against a company s vested interested d Because it is within a company s vested interest 16 Which is an example of a consumer using exposer control a Never watching TV again b Fastforwarding commercials c Watching super bowl commercials d Both a and b e All of the above 17 What is a message characterized as if it appeals to all people most of the time a Salient b Vivid c Ambivalent d Mysterious 18 A principal from a strategic communicator s point of view in we are aware that receptions and yielding are not always equally important since most of us are average and it is impossible to determine which of us fall on either end of the spectrum a Combinatory Principle b SituationalWeighting Principle c Discount Principle 19 The bell used in Pavlov s experiment was an a Conditional stimulus b Conditioned stimulus c Artificial Association 20 When we use differentiation in Balancing Theory we a Separate the other variables from the brand itself b Separate ourselves from the message c Create consistencies by thinking of the brand negatively because of the other variable p x gt9 Answers 1 D 2 C 3 B 4 B 5 B 6 F 7 C 8 C 9 T 10F 11D 12A 13B 14A 15C 16E l7A 18B A A N 0
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