Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide ESC_PS 2010
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Francesca Notetaker on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ESC_PS 2010 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dr. Whitney in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see INQUIRY INTO LEARNING 1 in Education and Teacher Studies at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Complex Cognitive Process 0 Metacognition O Cognition about cognition or thinking about thinking 0 Involves declarative procedural and selfregulatory knowledge 0 Individual differences in metacognition may result from different places of development maturation or biological differences among learners I Study SkillsStrategies 0 Learning strategies are a kind of procedural knowledge 0 Use of strategies re ects metacognition knowledge 0 Learning strategies help students I Become cognitively engaged I Invest effort I Think and process deeply I Monitor their own learning 0 3 skills used to regulated thinking and learning I Planning I Monitoring I Evaluating 0 Principles for helping students develop learning strategies I Expose them to several different strategies I Teach them when where and why to use various strategies I Develop motivation to use the strategies by showing them how learning can be improved I Provide direct instruction in content knowledge needed to use the strategies 0 Transfer 0 Occurs when a rule fact or skill learned in one situation is applied in another situation 0 Plying to new problems the principles learned in other often dissimilar situations 0 Information can be transferred across a variety of contexts I One subject to another I One physical location to another I One function to another 0 Automatic Transfer I Spontaneous application of welllearned knowledge and skill 0 Mindful Intentional Transfer I Involves re ection and conscious application of abstract knowledge to new situations 0 Creativity 0 Involves independently restructuring problems to see things in new imaginative ways 0 Difficult to measure I Divergent thinking O The ability to propose many different ideas or answers 0 Leads to originality uency and exibility 0 Sources of Creativity l Domainrelevant skills 0 Talents and competencies that are valuable for working in a speci c domain I Creativity relevant processes 0 Include work habits and personality traits I Intrinsic task motivation 0 Deep curiosity and fascination with the task Learning Sciences and Constructivism Constructivism 0 View that emphasizes active role of learner in building understanding making sense of information 0 Cooperative Learning Groups CLG 0 Elaboration interpretation explanation argumentation are integral learning is supported by other individuals 0 Positive interdependence members attain their goals only if others in group attain their goals 0 Promote interaction encourage and facilitate each other s efforts 0 Individual accountability must demonstrate learning on their own 0 Collaborative and social skills giving constructive feedback reaching consensus involving every member 0 Group processing monitor relationships to work effectively and learn group dynamics 0 Student roles within CLG 0 Use of roles should support learning roles should rotate 0 Assigned roles may help students cooperate and learn 0 Roles range from monitoring participation to helping with academic content 0 Theoretical background of constructivism o Constructivist theory changes the focus of teaching 0 Puts students own efforts to understand at the center 0 Teachers design studentcentered instruction 0 Learning Sciences Social Learning General Theory Reciprocal Causation 0 System at work in social cognitive theory 0 An explanation of behavior emphasizing effects of individual and environment on each other 0 Dynamic and constant interplay of 3 kinds of in uences Personal beliefs cognitive abilities motivation knowledge Socialenvironmental resources consequences of actions models physical setting Behavioral individual actions choices verbal statements Vicarious Reinforcement o Reinforcement to persist in the behavior Direct reinforcement such as compliment reward Vicarious reinforcement of seeing others reinforced for the behavior Selfreinforcement of controlling your own reinforcers o Intrinsic feeling good about your achievement 0 Extrinsic rewarding yourself for meeting a goal Selfefficacy 0 Sense of competence toward a particular task Our beliefs about our personal competence in a given area Essential for positive students outcomes across content areas from grade to grade High selfefficacy linked to greater effort persistence resilience in face of challenging tasks Selfregulation 0 Process of activation and sustaining our thoughts behaviors emotions in order to reach our goals 0 Selfregulated learners have Academic learning skills Selfawareness Selfcontrol Motivation for learning 0 Set goals mobilize effortsresources needed to reach goals Mental Health 0 General de nitionproblems vs disorders 0 Mental illness Brainneurological diseases Beliefs behaviors values attitudes 0 Problems vs Disorders Mental health problems are seen as less severe than disorders but are distressing enough that the child or family seeks help Mental disorders are severs enough that they result in a diagnosis Mental health problems can lead to mental disorders 0 Development and Mental Health 0 Biological Development Cognitive Development SocialEm Development 0 Red ags by age 0 Ages 01 Developmental Goal to develop basic trust Normal Child cries in rage until needs are met Red Flags excessive crying sleep disturbance feeding disorders extreme stranger anxiety won t cuddle no eye contact no smiling muscular rigidity 0 Ages 13 Developmental Goal to develop autonomy Normal constant exploration negativity clinging to object thumb sucking hittingbiting curiosity about own body parts regressing to infantile behavior Red Flags signi cant sleep problems eating problems failure of language development continual thumb sucking inability to separate from mother without extreme anxiety severe and frequent temper tantrums inability to potty train 0 Ages 45 Developmental Goal to develop initiative Normal imaginary companions aggression with siblingspeers rivalry with parent of same sex exploring own body bathroom talk Red Flags night terrors sleep walking re setting unusual cruelty to animals severe aggressiveness or hyperactivity inability to play with peers appropriately excessive fears school refusal 0 Ages 612 Developmental Goal to develop industry Normal fears tantrums inappropriate languagejokes exploring own body poor hygiene nail biting ghting with opposite sex peers Red Flags school underachievement inability to concentrate inappropriate sexual activity lying andor stealing eatingsleeping too much or too little preoccupation with fantasy frequent nightmares or night terrors enuresis learning problems excessive expression of guilt vocal or physical tics excessive worry ritualistic behaviors predelinquent behaviors no demonstration of conscience 0 Ages 1318 Developmental Goal to develop identity Normal moodiness less affection for parents greatly in uenced by peers preoccupation with sex exploration of body experimentation with cigarettes or alcohol extremely selfinvolved selfconscious involvement with cliques Red Flags regular use of drugsalcohol sexual promiscuity lying stealing destructive behavior delinquent behavior poor school behavior selfmutilation suicidal ideas or attempts withdrawal from usual activities marked change in peer relationships persistent low energy and fatigue persistent negative mood and attitude frequent temper outbursts extreme fear of leaving home 0 Burnout de nition of signs strategies to prevent 0 Burnout result of negative responses to chronic stress often due to one s job Exhaus on 0 Mental physical and emotional Depersonalization 0 Negative cynical and callous attitudes toward students parents or colleagues Reduced sense of personal accomplishment Associated with fatigue insomnia unhealthy weight changes depression anxiety alcohol or substance abuse negative spillover into your relationships or home life 0 Coping strategies Two broad ways to reduce stress 0 Eliminate source of stress 0 Eliminate feelings of stress 0 Strategies Change the teacher s environment Create support networks Provide direct administrative assistance Decrease workload Change administrative behavior Change schoo policies and procedures Transfer schoolswithin teaching eld 0 Avoid unnecessary stress Learn to say no Avoid others who cause stress when possible Get organized Mandated Reporting 0 Responsibilities 0 You the teacher are a mandated reporter of Child Abuse and Neglect under the law in Missouri and most other states o All schools have policies concerning the procedures for reporting abuse and neglect 0 Legally the person who hears of or sees signs of abuse andor neglect must report 0 The original reporter must be sure the report is made 0 Reports made are not anonymous but are con dential Types physical sexual emotional neglect Safe Schools Act 0 You must report the following to your school principle Any instance of an assault Any time you nd a pupil in possession of a weapon I Any time you nd a pupil in possession of a controlled substance
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