Chapters 4,7,8 Review
Chapters 4,7,8 Review PSYC 102
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jakaya Harris on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 102 at Northern Illinois University taught by Meghan Kanya in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 10/27/15
Psychology exam review I Chapter 4 Development across the lifespan A Prenatal development 38 weeks fu term Before 38 weekspremature birth Germinal period 0 First two weeks Zygote travels down fallopian tubes implants in the uterine wall Embryotic period o 38 weeks 0 Cell division 0 End of week 8 eyes nose lips teeth arms legs heart brain ssue Fetal period 0 Week 9 birth Cartilage starts turning to bone 0 Rapid growth B Brain Development 0 Genes dictate overall brain architecture but experience lls in the details 0 Development in the frontal lobes occur within the 36 months fetal pe od C Physical development 0 All ve senses are present at birth touch smell taste hearing vision blurry D Piaget39s core concepts for intellectual De nitions Schemas are framework for organizing and interpreting information Assimilation is interpreting new experiences in terms of current understanding 0 Accommodation is adjusting current schemas to include new information Stages 1 Sensorimotor birth 2years a Object performance is when things continue to exist even when they are not visible 2 Preoperational 2 7 years a Children have preliminary understanding of the physical world 3 Concrete operational 712 years a Consociation the notion that properties such as mass volume and number remain the same despite change in forms of objects 4 Formal operational 12 years a People can solve nonphysical problems think logically about abstract concepts E Social development Harlow39s mothers experiment 1971 This experiment consisted of two mothers one made of barbwire with a feeding bottle and a wooden one with terry cloth but no bottle The study showed the monkey preferred the warm mother and would cling to it and feed from the bottle F Parenting styles 1 Authoritarian a Parents that impose rules and expect obedience 2 Permissive a Submit to their children39s desire b Few demands 3 Authoritative a Both demanding and responsible ll Chapter 7 Learning A Pavlov and classical conditioning He studied the digestion system He found that dogs salivate from eating food was triggered by neutral stimuli seeing the food dish and seeing or hearing the person who brought the food Unconditioned stimulus is stimuli that triggers a natural response Ex dog food Unconditioned response is a naturally occurring response to US Ex SaHvaUng Neutral stimulus is stimulus that has not been paired with an Us and elicits no response EX bell Conditioned stimulus is when a neutral stimulus is paired with an US and triggers a Conditioned Response Conditioned response is a learned response to a previously neutral stimuli B Extinction Unlearning the association between the Us and Cs eliminating it Involves new learning of a different association that suppresses the original UsCs association C Generalization vs Discrimination Generalization is the tendency to have conditions response triggered by related stimuli Discrimination is the learned ability to only respond to a speci c stimuli preventing generalization i Ex Little Albert Experiment D Operant conditioning Psychology exam review A behavior is followed by feedback from the environment Resu s Page 2 of 4 Repetition of behaviors are followed by pleasurable results Unpleasant discipline is given to avoid behaviors SHAPING reward behavior that approaches the desired behavior Schedules of F Fixed G Variable Reinforcement Reinforces after an unpredictable number of responses Ratio number I Reinforces after a set of J number of responses Reinforces after an unpredictable amount of time Reinforces after a set M amount of time has elapsed Interval time L Mirror Neurons Neurons that re when performing certain activities or observing others perform those actions 0 Enable imitation and empathy Chapter 8 Memory A Psychology exam review Information processing model Encoding getting information into our brains Storage is retaining information Retrieval getting information back out Sensory memory a Iconic memory a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli b Echoic memory a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli Capac y a Can retain 7 bits of information i Chunking and mnemonics acronyms Storage Frontal lobes a Left side recall passwords working memories b Right side visual scene Hippocampus a Left side remembering verbal information b Right side visual designs and locations Context Dependent Memory a Putting yourself in the context of where you experienced something can prime memory retrieval Amnesia a Anterograde amnesia is the inability to form new memories b Retrograde amnesia is the inability to retrieve information from one39s past Reasons Interference Page 3 of 4 o Proactive disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information o Retroactive disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information Repression a defense mechanism Psychology exam review Page 4 of 4
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