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Unit 3 Test Review

by: Abbi Stark

Unit 3 Test Review 4131W

Abbi Stark
U of M
History of Graphic Design
Barbara Martinson

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This is a study guide for Unit 3 test
History of Graphic Design
Barbara Martinson
Study Guide
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Abbi Stark on Tuesday October 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 4131W at University of Minnesota taught by Barbara Martinson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see History of Graphic Design in Graphic Design at University of Minnesota.

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Date Created: 10/27/15
Quiz Review Week 6 Quiz Roycroft Shops An American group that strived to bring beauty into the lives of ordinary people Century Guild goal to elevate design arts to rightful place beside painting and sculpture Guild of Handicraft began as apprentice based training program evolved into cooperative design guild The Grammar of Ornament This publication by Owen Jones introduced British citizens to the patterns and imagery of the Far East and designers used these images in developing highly ornate objects and printed work Chromolithography the process of printing color pictures and lettering from a series of stone or zinc printing plates Each color requires a separate stone or plate and a separate run through the press William Addison Dwiggins WAD developed Caledonia first to use term graphic designer Albert Bruce Rogers book works and typography allude to Morris s Kelmscott Press and type designs by Jenson Frederic Goudy this type of designer was known for traditional designs based on Venetian and French Renaissance type Morris Benton studied human perception and reading comprehension in his development of the Century Schoolbook typeface 1803 First paper production machine 1880 Halftone screen printing 1886 Merganthaler s Linotype machine 1814 First steampowered press William Morris I began printing books with the hope of producing some which would have a definite claim to beauty while at the same time they should be easy to read and should not dazzle the eye or trouble the intellect of the reader by eccentricity of form in the letters Niepce Heliogravure Talbot Calotype Daguerre Daguerrotype William Morris designed three typefaces for the Kelmscott Press Two were based on incunabula but Golden was based on Nicolas Jensen39s Venetian roman faces John Ruskin an English social critic pointed to the medieval Gothic cathedral as an example of the union of art and labor two which industrialized society should aspire The practical reason many woodtype posters included mixed styles of fonts was the limited number of characters in each font Week 7 Quiz Art Nouveau pioneer Alphonse Mucha first became famous for his posters and advertisements for actress Sarah Bernhardt Katsushika Hokusai This designer came to be the most renowned and recognized practitioner of ukiyoe Ethel Reed The first American woman to achieve national prominence as a graphic designer and illustrator Edward Penfield Harper s February Many art nouveau designs exhibit the following characteristics use of silhouette curving whiplash lines inspiration from natural world areas of flat color As the nineteenth century drew to a close and the twentieth century began designers across the disciplines of architectural fashion graphic and product design searched for new forms of expression Technological and industrial advances fed these concerns The artists and designers discussed in Chapter 12 moved away from the floral and curvilinear elements of art nouveau toward a more geometric style of composition The Wiener Werkstatte was an outgrowth of Sezessionstil and sought a close union of the fine and applied arts in the design of lamps fabrics books greeting cards and other printed matter as an alternative to poorly designed massproduced articles and trite historicism Early modernist styles were popular for artistic prints and was often used in advertising In 1916 calligrapher Edward Johnston designed an exclusive patented typeface for the world s first underground electric railway system which had opened in London in 1890 quotRailway Typequot is a sansserif typeface whose strokes have consistent weight however the letters have the basic proportions of classical Roman inscriptions The typeface later became known as the designer39s last name or quotUndergroundquot The Glasgow School circle of influentialmodern artists and designers who began to coalesce Glasgow Scotland The German artist architect and designer Peter Behrens played a major role in charting a course for graphic design and product design in the first decade of the twentieth century He sought typographic reform and was an early advocate of sansserif typography In 1900 he set the twentyfivepage booklet quotCelebration of Life and Art A Consideration of the Theater as the Highest Symbol of Culturequot in sansserif type this booklet may represent the first use of sans serif type as body text in a published work The most beautiful of the turnofthecentury journals was the Vienna Secession s elegant Ver Sacrum published from 1898 until 1903 A continuously changing editorial staff design responsibility handled by a rotating committee of artists and unpaid contributions of art and design were all focused on experimentation and graphic excellence The publication was more of a design laboratory than a magazine and enabled designers to experiment with innovative graphics as they explored the merger of text illustration and ornament into a lively unity Study Guide Chapter 9 Industrial Revolution 0 first in England 1 7601840 0 radical process of social and economic change Mechanization 0 application of decoration 0 more economical and efficient Proliferation of type Fat face types and ornamented fonts 0 major category of type design innovated by Cotterell s pupil and successor Robert Thorne Wood type Q Darius Wels 0 exp eriment with handcarved wooden types 0 182 7 lateral router enabled economical mass manufacture of wood types for display printing 0 dur able light 12 expensive Typographic poster houses 0 poster houses specializing in letterpress display material 0 basic organizing principle was lock all elements tightly on the press enforced a horizontal and vertical stress on design 0 wood and metal types used together freely Entertainment posters O trav eling circuses O vau deville troupes O clot hing stores O ne w railroads Steam powered presses Q Friedrich Koenig German printer arrived in London 1804 steam powered printing press 0 400 sheets per hour 0 han 0 press connected to steam engine 0 inki ng by type rollers William Cowper 0 William Cowper 1815 patent for printing press using curved stereotyped plates wrapped around a cylinder 0 24 OO impressions per hour 0 12 00 sheets on both sides 0 Copper O mov ement of tympan and frisket automated John Walter ll Times in London asked Koenig t cylinder presses 0 build 2 double steam powered O 110 O impressions an hour on sheets of paper 90 cm long 56 cm wide 0 Con tinent Nov 29 1814 The Times is already printed by steam 0 new spapers can reach subscribers hours earlier Ambrose Applegath four cylinder steam powered press 0 our ved stereotyped plates papier mache molds O 40 00 sheets per hour both sides Linotype Otto Merganthaler Q Perfected his Linotype machine 1886 Camera obscu O chamber 0 box with ra latin for dark darkened room or a small opening or lens in one side Light rays passing through this aperture are projected onto the opposite side and form a picture of the bright objects outside Heliogravure 0 sun engraving Joseph Niepce Q Frenchman who first produced photographic image 0 Bit umen of Judea asphalt hardens when exposed to light Pewter plates Daguerrotype accuracy of images Louis Daguerre Q Theatrical performerpainter Q Helped invent diorama 0 friends with Niepce Talbotypes Q Herschel s name for Talbot s invention from the Greek photos graphos light drawing William Henry Fox Talbot Q pioneered process that formed basis for photography and photographic printing plates Photogram the Pencil of Nature Q photogenic drawings 0 images made without a camera 0 photograms Kodak George Eastman 0 American dry plate manufacturer 0 introduced Kodak camera Dead at Antietam 0 Photos taken by Alexander Gardner James Gibson Photography reportage 0 photography becoming increasingly Mathew Brady 0 New York Pass Brady A Lincoln important reproduction tool 0 Alexander Gardner 0 TimothyH O Sullivan 0 document American Civil war 0 Whatsits Q unexplored western territories Sequence photography Edward Muybridge The Horse in Motion Q Photographed Yosemite Alaska Central America 0 photography becoming increasingly important reproduction tool Victorian Graphics Gothic AWN Pugin 0 Popular Graphics of the Victorian Era 0 Victoria queen of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 1837 Owen Jones The Grammar of Ornament 0 English 0 This publication designer author and by Owen Jones authority on color introduced British citizens Studied Islamic t0 the patterns and imagery of the Far East and designers used these images in developing highlyornate objects and printed work design 0 Introduced Moorish ornament to Wester design 0 Plans Elevations Sections Details of Alhambra Lithography Aloys Senefelder Q Lithos Q lithography stone graphen invented by Bavarian l O to write author Chromolithography Q spearheaded color lithography German printers Godefroy Engelmann Q The Boston School of Chromolithography 0 Richard M Hoe American inventor and mechanical genius perfected rotary lithographic press lightning press L Prang Q meticulously drawn naturalistic images 0 father of the American Christmas Card Children s Books Ralph Caldecott 0 developed passion for drawing humorous drawing style Kate Greenaway O expressions of childhood experience Trade Cards Magazines Harpers Weekly Thomas Nast Charles Dana Gibson Victorian typography Ornamental complexity Chapter 10 Fine Book revival William Pickering bookshop Elements of Euclid 0 old and rare volumes 0 began a publishing program 0 played important role in separation of graphic design from printing production English Arts and Crafts John Ruskin Q writer and artist inspired by philosophy of this movement 0 social order that Europe must regain for her children 0 belief that beautiful things were valuable and useful precisely because they were beautiful Aesthetic philosophies William Morris 0 Edward Burne Jones 0 became artists instead of clergymen 0 Philip Webb painting Red House furniture L Shaped tapestries designed 0 Morris Marshall Faulkner and Company Kelmscott Press Works of Chaucer Century Guild 0 Arthur H Mackmurdo 0 established Century Guild Selwyn lmage Herbert Home to render all branches of art the sphere no longer of the tradesman but of the Hobby Horse 0 Sir Emery Walker artist 0 links between Arts and Crafts movement and the floral stylization of art nouveau Walter Crane Q The Kelmscott Press Bases of Design Doves Press T J CobdenSanderson amp Emery Walker Q Doves Press Hammersmith 0 attack the problem of pure Typography O the whole duty of type is to communicate to the imagination without loss by the way Doves Press Bible Private Press Movement Charles Ashbee Q architect graphic designer jeweler silversmith O sought to restore holistic experience of apprenticeship Q hire key personnel from Kelmscott press Rudolf Koch 0 most important German type designer in the Arts and Crafts movement 0 Catholic 0 regarded alphabet as supreme spiritual achievement of Neuland humanity 0 build on calligraphic style 0 Neauland face Frederic Goudy 0 based his faces on Venetian and French Renaissance type designs The Caxton Book Bruce Rogers 0 most important American book designer of the early twentieth century 0 joined Riverside Press 0 fonts inspired by Jenson The Centaur Chapter 11 Art Nouveau Q approaches to space color drawing conventions and subject matter that were radically unlike Western traditions 0 an international decorative style that thrived 1890 1 910 0 architecture furniture and product design fashion and graphics posters packages advertisements teapots dishes spoons chairs door frames staircases factories subway entrances houses 0 identifying visual Samuel Bing 0 term from Paris Samuel Bing gallery Salon de I Art Nouveau quality is organic plantlike line UkiyOe pictures of the floating world 0 art movement of Japan s Tokugawa Q fearful of impact of Christian Missionaries Q shogun military governor with more power than emperor Q excluded foreigners national seclusion 0 Dutch and Chinese traders sailing to the Nagasaki seaport During this period of national isolation Japanese art acquired a singular national character with few external in uences Japan Utamoro O portraying beautiful women supreme poet of Japanese print 0 warm yellow and tan backgrounds lighter toned skin 0 jailed for three days depicting wifeconcubines of toyotomi hideyoshi died at 53 Katsushika Hokusai 0 most renowned and prolific ukiyoe artist 35thousand 0 book store 0 19 first published Ando Hiroshige 0 last great master of Japanese woodcut Japanese woodblock prints Q Okumura Masanobu finest artists to move from hand coloring single color woodcuts to two color printing 0 Suzuki Harunobu introduced full color prints from numerous blocks each printed in a different color Early French Art Nouveau Q booming poster industry 0 Arts and Crafts movement creating new respect for applied arts Jules Cheret Q father of modern poster 0 poster commission for a family of clowns Posters 0 La biche au bois first monochromatic design poster from Cheret s shop 0 evolved away from Victorian complexity 0 black line with primary colors 0 washes of color 0 father of women s liberation new role model for women in late victorian era Eugene Grasset Title pages and posters 0 first illustratordesigner to reveal Cheret in public popularity 0 medieval art mis with asian art furniture stained glass textures books 0 Histoire des quatre fils Aymon Q Willowy maidens 0 France English Art Nouveau Aubrey Beardskey Studio art periodical Q primarily Q enfant terrible of concerned with graphic art nouveau design and illustration 0 striking pen line rather than architectural Vibrant blaCk and White and product designs work shockingly exoti O gothic art imagery 39 39 39 39 O cultfigure Victorian aintin O Eibertygand 0 black spot black form Com an store p y 0 art director of yellow book 0 invalid for last two years Walter Crane 0 English artist and book illustrator He is considered to be the most influential and among the most prolific children s book creator of his generation French Art Nouveau Henri ToulouseLautrec posters 0 George Auriol Q Theophile Q Henri de Toulouse Lautrec Alexandre Steinlen La belle epoquea le style moderne Q The Belle Epoque or La Belle Epoque French for quotBeautiful Eraquot Q a period of Western Eurooean historv Q It is conventionally dated from the end of the Franco Prussian War in 1871 to the outbreak ofWorld War lin 1914 Q Occurring during the era of the French Third Republic beginning 1870 it was a period characterized by optimism regional peace economic prosperity and technological scientific and cultural innovations 0 Paris the arts ounshed 0 Many masterpieces of literature music theater and visual art gained recognition 0 The Belle Epoque was named in retrospect when it began to be considered a quotgolden agequot in contrast to the horrors of World War I Theophile Alexandre Steinlen O broke new ground in poster design Alphonse Mucha 0 le style moderne Q 211 0 women project archetypal sense of unreality Gismonda and other posters Q Gismonda O Combinaisons ornementales 0 first became famous for his posters and advertisements for actress Sarah Bernhardt American Art Nouveau Louis Rhead Q illustrator Grasset 0 posters magazine covers Harper s covers 0 Edward Penfield Will Bradley 0 major practitioner of art nouveau inspired graphic design and illustration 0 chapbook Magazine covers Ethel Reed 0 first American woman to achieve national prominence as a graphic designer and illustrator 0 poster designer Posters Edward Penfield 0 art director of for Harper and Brothers publications Posters and magazine covers Netherlands and Belgium O Cercle Des XX Group of Twenty Q progressive art 0 Gauguin Van Gogh Henri Van de Velde Q Architect painter designer educator 0 painting 0 innovator of art nouveau Q interesting in furthering arts and crafts O didn t like machines 0 primacy of individual artistic expression Germany Jugendstil 0 youth style Peter Behrens Q Designers in Germany scotland and austria moved from floral to geometric objective 0 geometric ordering of space 0 german artist architect designer chart course for design 0 first industrial designer Q typography was important 0 The Berhold Foundry Q Akzidenz Grotesk 0 Standard in us Identity systems AEG Q Sachlichkeit term used to characterize the attitude of public life in Weimar Germany as well as the art literature music and architecture created to adapt to it Q pragmatic emphasis on technology manufacturing processes and function 0 logo typeface consistent layout of elements standardized formats 0 consistent use of graphic device gave AEG graphics a unified image Otto Eckmann 0 German painter and graphic artist 0 prominent member of the quotfloralquot branch of Jugendstil 0 created the Eckmann typeface which was based on Japanese calligraphy Pan Jugend Q jugend magazine 0 each week cover designer dif masthead Italy G Mataloni 228 Chapter 12 Frank Lloyd Wright O the Glasgow School 0 rectilinear 0 philosophy 0 entity 0 true purpose 0 space is essen al Glasgow School O circle of influentialmodern artists and designers who began to coalesce Glasgow Scotland Charles Rennie Mackintosh Herbert McNair Margaret and Frances Macdonald Posters Q The House Beautiful 0 The Studio Jessie King 0 Scottish illustrator known for her beautiful illustrated children39s books Vienna Secession sezessionstil Q younger members resigned Q Secession artists preferred vigorous linear art and line drawing Kolomon Moser Q Austrian artist who exerted considerable influence on twentieth century graphic art and one of the foremost artists of the Vienna Secession movement and a co founder of Wiener Werkstatte Gustav Klimt Q Austrian symbolist painter and one of the most prominent members of the Vienna Secession movement Klimt is noted for his paintings murals Secession Exhibition Poster Ver Sacrum 0 meaning quotSacred Springquot in Latin was the official magazine of the Vienna Secession Published from 1898 to 1903 it featured drawings and designs in the Jugendstil style along with literary contributions from distinguished writers from across Europe sketches and other objets d39art Alfred Roller 0 significant innovations in graphic design with masterly control of complex line tone and form Joseph Olbrich Q Austrian architect and cofounder of the Vienna Secession Joseph Hoffmann Q Austrian architect and designer of consumer goods London Underground Edward Johnston 0 designed an exclusive patented typeface for the world s first underground electric railway system which had opened in London in 1890 Railway Type 0 quotRailway Typequot is a sansserif typeface whose strokes have consistent weight however the letters have the basic proportions of classical Roman inscriptions The typeface later became known as the designer39s last name or quotUndergroundquot Concepts Letters as abstract visual forms Exploitation of workers in mass production factories Finely made objects Socialism Artists cooperatives Portrayal of everyday life Abstraction Decoration


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