PSYCH 3313 Final Exam Study Guide
PSYCH 3313 Final Exam Study Guide PSYCH 3313
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Beech on Monday January 19, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 3313 at Ohio State University taught by Kathryn Lenz in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 314 views.
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Date Created: 01/19/15
Final exam study guide There will be 30 questions on the nal that are comprehensive That means only a few per chapter that has already been covered in a midterm and I will be testing you on the big picture most foundational information Prioritize the topics listed here in your studying There will be 20 questions on the material from Ch 14 and 16 that study guide is posted separately on Carmen Chapter 1 MRI Structural high spatial low temporal Used to get a good picture or map of the brain to see any abnormalities in structure fMRl functional magnetic resonance High spatial resolution Low temporal Measures blood ow Compare scans during different tasks to see any differences in brain activation EEG low spatial high temporal speed Used in sleep studies to measure electrical waves in the brain brain activity Functional MEG high temporal low spatial similar to EEG PET use radioactive substance that lights up in more active sites more blood ow High spatial low temporal Measures function Chapter 2 o What is the autonomic system What are the 2 divisions and their functions The autonomic system part of PNS regulates body function and it controls and senses organs and glands The two divisions of the autonomic system are the sympathetic and parasympathetic Sympathetic is quotfight or ightquot and parasympathetic is quotrest and digest Know the basic function of the following anatomical structures and systems in the brain Meninges 3 layers protect the brain dura matter arachnoid matter and pia matter CSFcerebral spinal uid Flows through ventricles subarachnoid space and spinal cord Cusions protects and nutriates brain Ventricles4 ventricles Filled with CSF white matterconnective tissue in the brain corpus collosum made of white matter it s the connector between the L and R hemispheres thalamus Many inputs and outputs to control activation of other brain regions turning on or off Switchboard of the brain FIRST stop for sensory info coming in Acts to relay and process sensory info 90 input comes from cortex Hypothalamus controls autonomic NS Important for survival controls food intake water reproductive sleep cycles and emotionalstress responses hippocampus highly involved in memory STM to LTM Amygdala highly involved in the fear response aggression fear social behavior Important for making associations between diff stimuli pine treeremind of xmas involved in suppressing unwanted motor activity Know the location of the lobes of the cerebral cortex and their main func ons Frontal higher cognitive functionreasoning Planning attention decision making Broca s area and language parietal somatosensory cortex Specialized for skin and senses that inform about body position and movement spatial perception temporal Primary auditory area Additional language area occipital vision processing Know how the spinal cord is organized Dorsal horn Receives sensory information Ventral horn Sends out motor information Chapter 3 Know the main parts of a neuron and their function Dendrites receives signal from other neurons axon where the signal travels downthrough Can have diff lengths nodes of Ranvier the signal jumps from node to node myelin what covers the axon Causes fast signal transmission axon terminal contains mitochondria and synaptic vesicles containing the NT to be transmitted into the synaptic cleft the direction information ows through a neuron ows from dendrites down axon to terminal output zone then from presynaptic membrane to synaptic cleft to postsynaptic membrane of the receiving neuron Know the 4 types of glia and their main functions Astrocytes structural and nutritional support for neurons schwann cells PNS oligodendrocytesCNS myelin of neuron microglia regulate synapses Digest debree and digest molecules associated w cell damage Regulate cell birth What is the sodium potassium pump and what does it do Allows for Na to ow from the outside of the cell into the cell and pumps K from the inside to the outside of the cell against its concentration gradient When a neuron is at rest which ions are concentrated outside the cell and which are concentrated inside At rest there is a high concentration of sodium Na and Cl outside of the cell and a high concentration of potassium K inside the cell What is the difference between depolarization and hyperpolarization Depolarization cell is more positive less polar Cell becomes closer to ring an AP Abrupt depolarization of membrane potential hits 35mV to re AP Hyperpolarization Occurs when too much K leaves the cell Cell becomes more negative than 70mV Cell is very far away from ring AP Which voltagegated ion channels open to cause an action potential When ligandgated Na channels open they depolarize the cell to threshold Which ions are responsible for the rising and falling phases of the action potential Na ions How does the action potential get converted from an electrical signal to a chemical signal at the synapse Calcium ion channels open allowing Ca2 into the cell Calcium causes synaptic vesicles to release from microtubules into synapse carrying NTs which then bind w receptors on postsynaptic side some on presynaptic also Chapter 4 Know the main neurotransmitters and the behaviorsfunctions they are important for Acetylcholine Important for attention learning and memory funcUon Dopamine involved in the reward pathway addiction Also in motor movements Too much Parkinsons w too much unwanted movement Too little Huntingtons loss of movement Norepinephrine Arousal mood Involved in sympathetic NS Serotonin Can be excitatory or inhibitory Sleep arousal appetite and key in controlling mood and disorders of mood Anxiety and depression Serotonin reuptake inhibitors antidepressants increase serotonin levels at synapse Glutamate quotgas pedalquot primary excitatory NT in CNS AMPA gates Na and NMDA lock and key gates both Ca2 and Na GABA breaks primary inhibitory NT in CNS What is the difference between an ionotropic and a metabotropic receptor onotropic Faster NT ion binds channel opens and NT passes through Metabotropic Slower NT binds to receptor which releases g protein which binds to ion channel and opens it allowing NT to ow through Know the differences between agonists and antagonists Agonists Any drug that mimics or enhances the effect of a NT Antagonists are drugs that inhibit block or decrease the effects of a NT Know the neurotransmitter system the main drugs of abuse act on and whether they are agonists or antagonists ALL ACT ON THE REWARD PATHWAY OF THE MESOLIMBIC SYSTEM VENTRAL TEGMENTAL l NUCLEUS ACUMBENS DOPAMINE AGONISTS Alcohol Depressant Reduce CNS activity sedative GABA receptor agonist NMDA receptor antagonist Cocaine Stimulant Increases CNS activity Dopamine agonist blocks dopamine reuptake MethStimulant Heroin Opiate Endorphin receptor agonists pain relief Ecstasy Psychadelic Serotonin agonist Glutamate receptor antagonist Chapter 5 Know the main sources of genetic diversity crossing over and independent assortment Retrotransposons jumping genes RNA that moves and inserts randomly What layer of the zygote becomes the nervous system Ectoderm becomes nervous system skin hair Mesoderm becomes connective tissue blood muscle immune system Endoderm becomes internal organs What is the neural tube what does the tissue form and what does the hollow tube form The tube forms the ventricular system of the brain and central canal of the spinal cord The surrounding tissue becomes the brain Know the order of the main steps in development 1 proliferation neural cells are produced from mitosis of progenitor cells in the ventricular zone in the neural tube Some remain and keep dividing 2 migration most cells migrate away from ventricular zone 3 differentiation neural tube differentiates into rostralcaudal spinal cord hindbrain midbrain forebrain and dorsalventral dorsal lsensory ventral motor neurons 4 circuit formation axons grow toward target cells and form synapses ie synaptogenesis 5 apoptosis programmed cell death 6 synaptic pruningre nement synapses have period of overproduction then period of pruning Grey matter lost but white matter continues to increase Synapses rearrange quotuse it or lose itquot o What is a critical period a key period of time in which certain processes have to develop normally there cannot be something inhibiting it ie there is a critical period for language vision imprinting on mother etc o What does 39nature vs nurture refer to What are some examples of gene x environment interactions Refers to argument for environmental surroundings in uencing development or genetics being the main in uence on development Example of gene and environment interactions where BOTH effect organism development is Depression Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism genetic combined with early life trauma environmental creates high risk for depression Chapter 7 0 Know how information ows from the sensory receptors up to the cerebral cortex in broad terms peripheryspinal cordthalamuscortex and that information from the left side of the body is processed by the right cortex etc contralateral side Sensory info moves through dorsal column 0 Know the difference between the sensory axons speed and myelination Alpha bers largest myelination Muscle fibers AB Beta bersmyelinated Fast transmission Mechanoreceptors Delta bers medium myelination Pain and temperature C bers small not myelinated slow Pain and temperature 0 Which part of cortex processes most Touch information VP nucleus ventral posterior of thalamus MOST primary somatosensory cortex Pain information lntralaminar nuclei of thalamus MOST anterior cingulate cortex 0 Which brain regions and neurotransmitters are involved in the descending inhibition of pain in response to excitementarousal painrelieving drugs or placebo ForebrainleAG lRaphae nuclei l dorsal horn the periaquductal gray stops pain sensation before it reaches cortex to be processed PAG also activates serotonin release down spinal cord endorphins opiates and their opiate receptors activate in response to excitement drugs or placebo Chapter 8 o What is the neuromuscular junction Junction of Alpha motor neurons and muscles bers that contain ACh receptors Nerve bers release ACh into NM junction Ea AP causes contraction of muscle ber What neurotransmitter is used there Acetylcholine What kinds of movement do the lateral voluntary movement of hands and feet and ventromedial originates in the brainstem and controls automatic movement of neck and torso motor pathways going from brain to spinal cord control 1 In which brain region does the decision to initiate movement begin Premotor area PMA 2 In which brain regions is the movement planned Supplementary motor area SMA and PMA from input from basal ganglia thalamus and cerebellum 3 What is the nal output region of the cortex that projects to the spinal cord to cause the movement Primary motor cortex sends signals via LATERAL PATHWAY What is the main pathological nding in the brains of Parkinson s disease patients Due to degeneration of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra What are the symptoms loss of motor controlmovement less movements pausesand treatments dopamine agonists Chapter 10 What are hormones How do they differ from neurotransmitters Can reach far tissues and multiple tissues as opposed to just transmission from neuron to neuron Hormone release Hypothalamusljreleasing hormonesanterior pituitary l tropic hormones into bloodstream l regulate peripheral endocrine glands testes ovary etc Hypothalamus produces releasing hormones hormones which main purpose is to control the release of other hormones Anterior Pituitary releases tropic hormones Posterior Pituitary OXYTOCIN AND VASOPRESSIN What are organizational and activational effects of hormones How are they different and when in life do they occur Which type of effect has a sensitive or critical period Organizational effect xx xy Has a sensitivecritical period because it determined in differentiation Hormonal effect on the differentiationdevelopment of sex organs brain and behavior in early development ie how the organism is ORGANIZED SEXUALLY for life Activational effect effect of a hormone in a fully developed organism beginning at puberty testosterone progesterone and estradiol The hormone testosterone type of androgen is responsible for sexual desire motivation to seek and have sex for M and F vasopressin and oxytocin are responsible for social monogamy activate reward system Chapter 11 What is the brain region that acts as our endogenous biological clock Where is it located The suprachiasmatic nucleus SCN in the hypothalamus What hormone is important for keeping the circadian rhythm entrained to external light cues When is this hormone at high levels and when is it low Melatonin released y the pineal gland in response to signals from the SCN Tells us when it is dark Inhibited by light activated by darkness Entrains physiological systems to the correct circadian rhythm for environmental cues Desynchronous activity fast awake Synchronous activity slow asleep REM sleep stage is called paradoxical sleep because it is associated with EEG activity that resembles wakefulness active EEG with smallamplitude high frequency Main reasons we sleep restrecovery memorieslearning processingproblem solving synaptic plasticity and turn STM to LTM Balance of NREM and REM cycles KEY for these What brain regions and neurotransmitters promote wakefulness Reticular formation Locus coeruleusreleases norepinephrine Anterior raphe nuclei releases serotonin Hypothalamus releases orexin Which brain region leads to muscle paralysis during REM sleep Rostral pontine reticular formation Chapter 12 What is the difference between nonassociative learning and associative learning Associative learning operant and classical conditioning lnvolves connection between two elements or events Nonassociative learning Change in the magnitude of response to environmental stimuli Habituation decrease in strength or occurance of behavior after repeated exposure to stimulus Sensitization experience of one startlinglargenovel stimulus that heightens response to subsequent similar stimuli What is the difference between declarative explicit and nondeclarative implicit procedural memory What brain regions are involved in these different types of memory Declarative explicit memories that can be verbalized facts and events medial temporal lobe of diencephalon Nondeclaritive implicit procedural memories for skills habits and emotions amygdaa and striatum What is LTP Stable increase in the response of postsynaptic neurons to repeated strong stimulation occurs at glutamate synapses How does the response of the postsynaptic cell to the same amount of presynaptic stimulation change following LTP bigger or smaller Stronger response overtime to the same stimulus Lots of EPSP response Cooccurs wlearning and memory structures Develops rapidly long lasting What is the role of the NMDA receptor in the induction of LTP LTP requires both AM PA and NMDA receptors at glutamate synapses Which ion is most important for LTP to occur Ca2 calcium ion enters NMDA receptor causes AP and long lasting changes induce more synapses form new memories What are the 3 main changes that occur in the synapse after this ion repeatedly enters the postsynaptic cell LTP leads to increased synaptic activity gene expression and growth of new spines LTP only occurs at glutamate synapses Calcium comes in through NMDAtype glutamate receptors Through the process of LTP a synapse gets strongerthat means when glutamate is released from the presynaptic terminal after LTP has been induced the postsynaptic side will respond with BIGGER depolarization LTP can even lead to new glutamate synapses being grown o What is the difference between retrograde amnesiainability to retrieve LTM and anterograde amnesiainability to create new memories Does hippocampal damage lead to one or both of these both 0 What brain region is most important for consolidating shortterm memories into longterm memories Hippocampus and other regions Where are memories stored in the brain once consolidated Widely distributed throughout the brain but MAINLY hippocampus Chapter 13 o What functions are specialized more to one side of the brain than the other Language localized to left hemisphere Left logical sequential verbal Right emotional intuitive o What is the possible purpose of lateralization May allow organism to pay attention to two things at once What do savants tell us about the role of lateralization Lateralization means either the left or right hemisphere specializing in a particular function so LOCALIZATION of function to one side or the other Lateralization means that functions are specialized to one or the other side of the brain The idea is that it might help us juggle diverse cognitive tasks simultaneously multitask Savants have heightened lateralization which may lead to excelling in a particular domain but de cits in other domains if a certain part of the brain is damaged 0 What are the main brain regions involved in language Broca s area speech response is generated Wernicke s area word comprehension Primary auditory cortex think about what to saywernickesbroca sljmotor cortex actual speech production 0 What is aphasia Brain damage that results in totalpartial loss of ability to either produce or comprehend spoken language Wernicke s aphasia quotword saladquot Able to produce uent words but not coherent sentencesmeaning Unaware they make no sense Broca s aphasia speech is slow and effortful Comprehension intact can t speak CHAPTER 14 STUDY GUIDE What is the difference between the arousal level of an emotion and the valence of an emotion Arousal level how excited you are physically High or low Valance levelpositivenegative goodbad feeling which predicts performance more than arousal Which brain pathwaysbrain regions control voluntary and spontaneous facial expressions Voluntary motor cortex input Spontaneous involuntary subcortical basal ganglia What is the difference between volitional facial paralysis loss of voluntary facial expression and emotional facial paralysis loss of involuntary spontaneous facial expression Are emotions mostly learned based on culture or are they universal Emotions are inatenot learned but as soon as they re generated they are highly in uenced by socialenvironmental factors What evidence supports this How are conscious emotions to stimuli controlled by physiological arousal autonomic nervous system activation Emotional stimulusbody responsearousal icognitive assessmentcontextconscious emotion Which brain system is important for emotional processing Which brain regions are most crucial Activation of the autonomic NS amygdala cingulate cortex and cerebral cortex What type of emotions are experienced when the amygdala is activated Fear anxiety Without a healthy amygdala what types of emotions do people not experience Fear decreased reactivity and detection for emotion What brain region is necessary for fear learning to occur amygdala In which subregion of this structure does LTP occur to associate fearful stimuli to nonnoxious contextual stimuli In lateral amygdala What type of learning is this associative or nonassociative associative Is the anterior cingulate cortex involved in emotion What is it s role and when is it activated Role in emotion Gateway between limbic structures and prefrontal cortex Active when we express any kind of emotion Damage associated w emotional disorders Which hemisphere of the brain is emotion lateralized to L hemisphere damagedepression R hemisphere damagecheerful 50 left hemisphere produces positive emotions Emotion is expressed on the face most in individual s RIGHT SIDE so look left at others What is stress Is it always bad no What are the two main bodily systems that control the stress response Which two main classes of hormones are released in response to activating the two stress systems Sympathetic NS adrenal medulla releases epinephrine adrenaline and norepinephrine more highslows NOT chroniccontinuous Hypothalamic Pituitary Axis reeases cortisol long term energy for CHRONIC STRESS can be continuously activated Sensory infoljamygdalaljlhypothalamusrelease CRHAnterior Pituitary releases ACTHljadrenal glands release cortisolcortisol goes to brain release of NTshippocampus inhibits too much CRH HypothalamusCRHreleasingAnterior PituitaryACTHtropicadrenal glandcortisol What are the main hormones in the HPA axis Which is the releasing hormone Tropic hormone CRH releasing hormone ACTH tropic hormone How does negative feedback on the HPA axis work Which hormone is responsible Which brain regions does it act in We turn off the stress response by NEGATIVE FEEDBACK hippocampus binds to cortisol and inhibits CRH release chronic stress inhibits this How does chronic stress alter the hippocampus What problems do these changes in the hippocampus lead to Cortisol increases the amount of calcium entering hippocampal neurons too muchneurotoxic HIPPOCAMPUS NEURONS DIE decreased negative feedback cant turn off stress response memory impairment depression INCREASE IN AMYGDALA NEURONS high anxiety fear What does diathesisstress refer to In relation to psychological and brain health what are some examples of diathesis Stress Diathesisgenes Stressearly life trauma environment Correlationpsychological health disorders ACE measures both diathesis and stress levels of psychiatric risk HIGHLY CORRELATED Are there critical periods for HPA axis development Which brain regions are most sensitive to early life stress How are epigenetics involved in shaping the developing HPA axis Yes there is critical periods Less stress early on better stress response later and vice versa Stressljdecreased gucocorticoid receptor expressionljlless negative feedbackmore stress response CHAPTER 16 What are the main symptoms of depression Is there a role for genetics in depression What is the role of genetic polymorphisms such as the serotonin transporter or the BDNF gene Serotonin transporter gene short allelehigher risk of MDD there are many SNP s associated with MDD Which brain regions show changes in size and activity during depressive episodes Decrease in Hippocampus volume Increase in Amygdala volume and activity Decreased ACC activation How does sleep change in depression Do antidepressants alter sleep problems in depression Antidepressants lessen REM sleep What is the monoamine theory of depression Which neurotransmitters are involved How do antidepressants change monoamine action in the brain Monoamines include serotonin norepinephrine epinephrine and dopamine antidepressants all increase monoamine activity MAOl s block monoamines from being destroyed in synapse Trycicic block reuptake Do depressed people have changes in stress hormones or HPA negative feedback in the brain Depressed decreased ability for negative feedback cortisol suppression What are the hypothesized roles of neurogenesis and BDNF in depression What about in ammation in the brain Antidepressants stimuate neurogenesis in the hippocampus 46 weeks increase BDNFgrowth factor Depressionincreased brain in ammationdecreased serotonin What is bipolar disorder What mood changes are seen in bipolar What is mania ls bipolar disorder highly or lowly heritable Highly heritable What is the rst line treatment for bipolar Lithium enhance norepinephrine reuptake What psychiatric disorders are considered anxiety disorders What is the difference between obsessions and compulsions in 0CD What changes in brain activity are seen in OCD in orbitofrontal cortex and basal gangHa Increased basal ganglia activity Decreased activity in orbitofrontal cortex quotgear shiftingquot What is PTSD How is the hippocampus different in individuals with PTSD What about the amygdala is it more or less active in response to fear Hippocampussmallerno control to tell what memories to focus on Amygdalabiggerlarger fear response aso decreased inhibition of amygdaa inability to forget fear memory Anxiety drugs such as benzodiazepines Valium act on which neurotransmitter system in the brain CNS depressants Beta blockers Glutamate antagonists What are the 3 main classes of symptoms in schizophrenia and what are examples of each Positive symptoms hallucinations Negative symptoms social withdrawal Cognitive symptoms poor executive functioning ls schizophrenia heritable yes What early life and adolescent environmental factors increase risk for developing the disorder Neurodevelopmental prenatally damaged sperm virus exposure MARIJUANA stress How are cerebral ventricles different in schizophrenics What about the hippocampus Enlarged ventricles small hippocampusdisorganized neurons low frontal lobe activity less lateralization What happens to gray matter during adolescence in schizophrenics versus control individuals Less gray matter What is the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia What about the glutamate hypothesis Excess dopaminepositive symptoms Reduced glutamate acti vi ty posi ti ve ptoms
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